Human plasma was fractionated by ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-cellulose chromatography, and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration to determine which method would give the greatest number of clearly separable kallikrein inhibitory peaks. With G-200 gel filtration three peaks could be separated which were demonstrated to contain α2-macroglobulin, C1̄ inactivator, and α1-antitrypsin. No other kallikrein inhibitors could be identified. The fractions containing C1̄ inactivator and α2-macroglobulin appeared to be more effective against kallikrein than that containing α1-antitrypsin. A patient with hereditary angioneurotic edema was shown to have an abnormal C1̄ inactivator protein capable of interfering with kallikrein's biologic, but not its esterolytic activity. Heat-treated human plasma, a commonly used source of kininogen for experiments with kallikrein, was shown to have kallikrein inhibitory activity.
David J. McConnell
Previous observations in normal subjects have suggested that when 5-g glucose pulses (P) were given in the following sequence: before (P1) and 45 min after beginning a 300 mg/min glucose infusion (P2); during the 20th hr (P3) and 1 hr after the infusion was stopped (P4); the insulin responses were consistent with a simple two-pool model. One pool is a readily available small storage pool which is refilled by a second, larger, more slowly responding pool that controls basal and steady-state insulin output. The identical protocol was employed to evaluate the insulin responses in 13 nonobese diabetic subjects.
Roger L. Lerner, Daniel Porte Jr.
The effects of clofibrate administration were studied in rats made hyperlipidemic by the feeding of diets high in sucrose. Within 12 hr of administration of clofibrate, there was a marked decrease in the concentration of serum high density lipoproteins but no change in the concentrations of the low and very low density lipoproteins. Between 2-4 days of treatment, the concentration of the very low density lipoproteins decreased whereas that of the low density lipoproteins was unchanged. In addition, the composition of the very low density lipoproteins was altered by clofibrate administration with a decrease in triglyceride and an increase in phospholipid content.
Pesach Segal, Paul S. Roheim, Howard A. Eder
The response of trained, conscious dogs to an acute water load was studied before adrenalectomy and under five conditions of hormonal replacement and sodium intake after adrenalectomy. Before adrenalectomy, with the dogs drinking isotonic saline, the minimal urinary osmolality (Uosm) was 47±7 (SEM) mOsm and free-water clearance (CH2O) was 8.6±1 ml/min. These values were not different after adrenalectomy with or without deoxycorticosterone (DOCA) if the animals continued to drink saline and receive dexamethasone. Moreover, after adrenalectomy in the presence of saline drinking both dexamethasone and DOCA could be withdrawn for up to 4 days without impairment of diluting ability (Uosm, 54±7 mOsm and CH2O, 7.3±1 ml/min). In contrast, when the dogs drank tap water (Na intake 30 mEq/day), water loading in the absence of dexamethasone and DOCA was associated with a significantly higher Uosm (127±28 mOsm) and lower CH2O (2.7±0.3 ml/min). Replacing DOCA alone in the presence of this limited Na intake returned diluting ability to normal (Uosm 31±7 mOsm, CH2O 7.7±0.5 ml/min). Glomerular filtration rate for each animal was the same under each condition except for a significant diminution which occurred when dexamethasone and DOCA were withdrawn while the animals were on a 30 mEq sodium intake. In contrast to previous conclusions, the present results indicate that in the absence of adrenal hormones normal renal diluting ability may occur, indicating both maximal suppression of vasopressin release and maximal distal tubular impermeability to water. In the present study the diluting defect observed after adrenalectomy related to negative sodium balance and could be overcome by either replacement with DOCA or a high intake of sodium alone.
R. C. Ufferman, R. W. Schrier
The pathogenesis of the male pseudohermaphroditism in the mouse with X-linked testicular feminization (Tfm) has been investigated by comparing testosterone formation, the effects of androgen administration, and the metabolism of testosterone-1,2-3H in normal mice and Tfm mice of varying ages. First, it was established that the adult Tfm animal, in contrast to the human with testicular feminization, has both a low serum testosterone and a low rate of testosterone formation as assessed in slices of testes utilizing a variety of precursors. However, the formation of testosterone from pregnenolone-7α-3H was shown to be normal in newborn Tfm testes, suggesting that a defect in testosterone synthesis may not be primary to this mutation. Second, to establish that the pseudohermaphroditic state is due to androgen resistance rather than to diminished androgen biosynthesis during fetal life, the effect of the administration of dihydrotestosterone to pregnant animals was studied in male, female, and Tfm offspring. Whereas normal and carrier female littermates demonstrated striking virilization of the internal genital tract after such treatment, there was no sign of virilization in the Tfm animals. This finding provides direct experimental evidence in support of the view that male pseudohermaphroditism in testicular feminization is the result of resistance to androgen action during androgen-mediated sexual differentiation in embryos. Third, the metabolism of testosterone-1,2-3H was investigated both in tissue slices and in functionally hepatectomized animals. Dihydrotestosterone formation in tissue slices of the fetal anlage of the male organs of accessory reproduction is normal in the Tfm animal, suggesting that the primary defect in this disorder involves an intracellular event subsequent to this step and that the deficient dihydrotestosterone formation observed in the adult genital tract of the Tfm mouse is secondary to the failure of differentiation in these tissues. Finally, deficient binding of testosterone in the nuclei of the submandibular gland of adult Tfm animals, a known testosterone target tissue, was demonstrated in functionally hepatectomized mice. This finding could either be a manifestation of the primary genetic defect in this disorder or might reflect another acquired abnormality due to incomplete differentiation of adrogen-sensitive cell lines.
Joseph L. Goldstein, Jean D. Wilson
In 29 women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, the proportion of total bone surface undergoing resorption or formation was evaluated by microradiography of iliac crest biopsy samples before and after short-term (2½-4 months) and long-term (26-42 months for estrogen and 9-15 months for anabolic hormone) treatment. After estrogen administration, values for bone-resorbing surfaces decreased, although less prominently after long-term than after short-term therapy. The magnitude of this decrease was positively correlated with the pretreatment value for bone-resorbing surfaces (P < 0.001). When the pretreatment value for bone-resorbing surfaces was used as a covariable, estrogen and anabolic hormone appeared to be equally effective. For bone-forming surfaces, short-term therapy with either hormone had no effect but long-term therapy significantly decreased the values. Serum immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (IPTH) increased significantly after estrogen therapy; the change in IPTH was inversely related to the change in serum calcium (P < 0.001, sign test). We conclude that the primary effect of sex hormones in postmenopausal osteoporosis is to decrease the increased level of bone resorption, perhaps by decreasing the responsiveness of bone to endogenous parathyroid hormone. However, this favorable effect, at least in part, is negated after long-term treatment by a secondary decrease in bone formation. Our data are consistent with the concept that the maximal benefit that can be derived from sex hormone therapy in postmenopausal osteoporosis is arrest or slowing of the progession of bone loss.
B. Lawrence Riggs, Jenifer Jowsey, Ralph S. Goldsmith, Patrick J. Kelly, David L. Hoffman, Claude D. Arnaud
The kinetics of plasma and adrenal cholesteral equilibration were analyzed in patients undergoing bilateral adrenalectomy for generalized mammary carcinoma. A biological model is proposed to help in the understanding of adrenal cholesterol physiology. It comprises two intracellular compartments: (1) A compartment of free adrenal cholesterol which is small (of the order of 17 mg) but turns over very fast; it is renewed approximately 8 times per day: 3 times by the inflow of free plasma cholesterol, and 5 times by the hydrolysis of esterified adrenal cholesterol, the contribution of adrenal cholesterol synthesis appearing to be relatively small. (2) A compartment of esterified adrenal cholesterol which is 20 times larger; it is constantly renewed by in situ esterification and hydrolysis with a daily fractional turnover rate of the order of 0.25. The direct and selective accumulation of plasma cholesteryl esters is practically absent. Only free adrenal cholesterol returns to plasma, mostly after conversion into steroid “hormones.”
Abraham Borkowski, Claude Delcroix, Sam Levin
The synthesis of adrenal cholesterol, its esterification and the synthesis of the glucocorticosteroid hormones were studied in vitro on human adrenal tissue.
Abraham Borkowski, Claude Delcroix, Sam Levin
Folate transport in phenylhydrazine-induced rabbit reticulocytes was studied with the non-metabolized folate-analog, methotrexate. The time-course of methotrexate uptake into a mixed population of reticulocytes and mature erythrocytes is a two-component process consisting of a small, but rapid, initial uptake phase followed by a much slower uptake component which remains essentially constant over the period of observation. The velocity of the latter uptake component is directly proportional to the per cent reticulocytes and appears to represent a unidirectional influx of methotrexate into these cells. Uptake of methotrexate into reticulocytes was found to have the following characteristics: (a) temperature sensitivity, Q10 of 4; (b) uptake velocity as a function of the extracellular methotrexate concentration approximated Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a maximum transport velocity of 48 pmoles/min per g dry wt; the extracellular methotrexate level at which the uptake velocity was one-half maximum was 1.4 μM; (c) 5-formyltetrahydrofolate markedly inhibited methotrexate uptake but pteroylglutamic acid inhibition was weak; (d) uptake was stimulated in cells preincubated with 5-formyltetrahydrofolate, indicative of hetero-exchange diffusion; (e) uptake was independent of extracellular sodium but was inhibited by anions including nitrate, phosphate, and glucose-6-phosphate; (f) uptake was enhanced by azide plus iodoacetate.
William F. Bobzien III, David Goldman
Studies of immunoglobulin synthesis, total body tumor cell number, and tumor kinetics were carried out in a series of patients with IgG multiple myeloma. The changes in tumor size associated with tumor growth or with regression were underestimated when the concentration of serum M-component was used as the sole index of tumor mass. Calculation of the total body M-component synthetic rate (corrected for concentration-dependent changes in IgG metabolism) and tumor cell number gave a more accurate and predictable estimate of changes in tumor size. Tumor growth and drug-induced tumor regression were found to follow Gompertzian kinetics, with progressive retardation of the rate of change of tumor size in both of these circumstances. This retardation effect, describable with a constant α, may be caused by a shift in the proportion of tumor cells in the proliferative cycle. Drug sensitivity of the tumor could be described quantitatively with a calculation of BO, the tumor's initial sensitivity to a given drug regimen. Of particular clinical significance, the magnitude of a given patient's tumor regression could be predicted from the ratio of BO to α. Mathematical proof was obtained that the retardation constant determined during tumor regression also applied to the earlier period of tumor growth, and this constant was used to reconstruct the preclinical history of disease. In the average patient, fewer than 5 yr elapse from the initial tumor cell doubling to its clinical presentation with from 1011 to more than 1012 myeloma cells in the body. The reduction in total body tumor mass in most patients responding to therapy ranges from less than one to almost two orders of magnitude. Application of predictive kinetic analysis to the design of sequential drug regimens may lead to further improvement in the treatment of multiple myeloma and other tumors with similar growth characteristics.
Peter W. Sullivan, Sydney E. Salmon
In a previous study we have found that acetylcholine, a renal vasodilator, inhibits fractional and absolute reabsorption of sodium in the proximal tubule of the dog. To delineate whether this effect on proximal tubular sodium reabsorption was related to alterations in renal hemodynamics or to a direct tubular action of the drug, free-flow micropuncture studies were performed in the dog in which the tubular fluid to plasma inulin ratio and nephron filtration rate were determined before and during the administration of a structurally different renal vasodilator, bradykinin. This agent increased sodium excretion from 12 to 96 μEq/min and decreased total kidney filtration fraction from 0.35 to 0.25. However, sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule of the superficial nephrons was unchanged during bradykinin administration.
Jay H. Stein, Rolando C. Congbalay, Dennis L. Karsh, Richard W. Osgood, Thomas F. Ferris
Metabolic balance studies were carried out in normal dogs to define the renal mechanisms responsible for the adaptation to, and recovery from, chronic hypocapnia. A chronic reduction in arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) of some 15 mm Hg was achieved by means of chronic exposure of the animals to 9% oxygen in an environmental chamber. The development of hypocapnia was associated with a marked suppression of net acid excretion which, together with a slight accumulation of organic acids, produced a reduction in plasma bicarbonate concentration (8 mEq/liter) that led to nearly full protection of extracellular pH (ΔH+ = - 2.5 nmoles/liter). When PaCO2 was returned to control levels, an augmentation of acid excretion restored plasma composition to normal after a brief period of “posthypocapneic metabolic acidosis.”
F. John Gennari, Marc B. Goldstein, William B. Schwartz
The peripheral plasma levels of aldosterone, renin activity (PRA), potassium, corticosterone, cortisol, and in some cases angiotensin II, were measured in normal subjects undergoing postural changes, acute diuretic-induced volume depletion, and alterations in dietary sodium. On a 10 mEq sodium/100 mEq potassium intake, subjects supine for 3 consecutive days had identical diurnal patterns of PRA, angiotensin II, aldosterone, cortisol, and corticosterone, with peaks at 8 a.m. and nadirs at 11 p.m. With an increase in sodium intake to 200 mEq, plasma levels of aldosterone and PRA fell to one-third their previous levels but the diurnal pattern in supine subjects was unchanged and again parallel to that of cortisol and corticosterone. There was no diurnal variation of plasma potassium on either sodium intake in the supine subjects. On a 10 mEq sodium/100 mEq potassium intake, supine 8 a.m. plasma aldosterone (55±7 ng/100 ml) and PRA (886±121 ng/100 ml per 3 hr) increased by 150-200% after subjects were upright for 3 hr. However, even though the patients maintained an upright activity pattern, there was a significant fall in plasma aldosterone to 33±5 ng/100 ml at 11 p.m. Potassium levels varied in a fashion parallel to aldosterone and PRA. Plasma cortisol and corticosterone had a diurnal pattern similar to that found in supine subjects. In response to acute diuretic-induced volume depletion, the nocturnal fall in aldosterone levels did not occur. The 11 p.m. value (102±20 ng/100 ml) and the 8 a.m. value postdiuresis (86±15 ng/100 ml) were both significantly greater than the prediuresis levels. PRA showed a similar altered pattern while potassium levels fell throughout the day. In some but not all studies, changes in plasma aldosterone coincided with changes in plasma cortisol, corticosterone, and/or potassium. However, in all studies, changes in plasma aldosterone were invariably associated with parallel changes in plasma renin activity and/or angiotensin II levels. These findings support the concept that PRA is the dominant factor in the control of aldosterone when volume and/or dietary sodium is altered in normal man.
Gordon H. Williams, John P. Cain, Robert G. Dluhy, Richard H. Underwood
Highly purified secretin, infused endoportally in five conscious mongrel dogs at a rate of 10 clinical units per min for 20 min, caused a prompt and statistically significant reduction in the pancreaticoduodenal vein level of pancreatic glucagon from a control average of 1130 pg/ml (SEM±312) to a nadir of 492 pg/ml (SEM±194) 15 min later (P < 0.01). During modest hyperglycemia of about 130 mg/100 ml, induced by glucose infusion, the infusion of secretin at the same rate elicited even more dramatic suppression of pancreaticoduodenal glucagon levels to virtually unmeasurable concentrations. At a lower rate of infusion (5 U priming injection followed by 1 U/min for 20 min) significant suppression of glucagon secretion during hyperglycemia was also observed. Stimulation of endogenous secretin release by the intraduodenal administration of 14 mEq of HCl in 10 dogs during intravenous glucose infusion was followed by a decline in pancreaticoduodenal vein glucagon from 130 pg/ml (SEM±34) to a nadir of 99 pg/ml (SEM±32) 5 min later (P < 0.05).
Fausto Santeusanio, Gerald R. Faloona, Roger H. Unger
Rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria occur commonly in men who sustain environmental heat injury during intensive physical training in hot climates. These also occur in patients with potassium depletion. Since physical training in hot climates may be accompanied by serious losses of body potassium, the possibility was considered that performance of strenuous exercise when potassium deficient might enhance susceptibility to rhabdomyolysis.
James P. Knochel, Edward M. Schlein
Studies were carried out to determine the chemical structures of thyroxine metabolites after total deiodination. Normal subjects were given thyroxine labeled with 14C on the nonphenolic ring and the alanine side chain, 8-11 μg/day for 10 days. By paper chromatography of fresh urine, six or more 14C-labeled compounds were separated. The 14C-labeled metabolites were concentrated by passing the urine through a nonionic polymeric adsorbent. Two major thyroxine metabolites were identified. The identification was made by three different methods: (a) chromatography, (b) synthesis of derivatives, and (c) recrystallization to constant specific activity. One 14C-labeled metabolite was identified as thyroacetic acid or 4-phenoxy-(4′-hydroxy) phenyl-acetic acid. Another one was identified as thyronine. Of the total urinary 14C radioactivity, 43.7% was recovered as thyroacetic acid and 19.8% was recovered as thyronine. Approximately one-fifth of each of these metabolites was present in the urine in bound form which released the free metabolites during acid hydrolysis. The average daily excretion of thyroacetic acid was 13.7% of the renal disposal rate of thyroxine, or approximately 7.5 μg/day. The average daily excretion of thyronine was 6.5% of the renal disposal rate of thyroxine or approximately 3.9 μg/day while the urinary iodide made up 64.7% of the renal disposal rate of thyroxine. Our findings provide the needed proof that the major metabolic pathways of thyroxine remove the iodine atoms by substituting hydrogen for iodine and leave the diphenyl ether nucleus intact.
Constance S. Pittman, Melvin W. Buck, Joseph B. Chambers Jr.
Since elevation of plasma concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA) increases myocardial oxygen consumption without influencing mechanical performance in normal hearts, it was the purpose of this study to determine whether FFA would modify mechanical performance at limited oxygen supply. Left coronary blood flow was reduced by gradual clamping of a shunt from the left carotid artery until moderate ventricular dilatation supervened. Left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), its maximal rate of rise (dP/dt) and stroke volume (SV) were unchanged or slightly reduced. The ischemia resulted in a decrease in myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) from 9.7±1.1 ml/min to 7.9±0.8 ml/min, and myocardial lactate uptake was reduced or reversed to excretion. Increasing the plasma concentrations of FFA from 359±47 μEq/1 to 3688±520 μEq/1 by intravenous infusion of a triglyceride emulsion and heparin resulted in further ventricular dilatation, accompanied by increased excretion of lactate. The ventricular decompensation and enhancement of anaerobic myocardial metabolism associated with increased uptake of FFA was not related to changes in coronary flow, MVO2, or LVSP. dP/dt and SV were virtually unchanged. Intravenous infusion of glucose/insulin, which lowered plasma concentrations of FFA, reversed ventricular dilatation and lactate excretion.
John K. Kjekshus, Ole D. Mjøs
The purpose of this study was to see whether the receptor for cardiac glycosides might be localized upon or within the plasma membrane of digitalis-sensitive cells. Ouabain and digoxin were joined covalently to several large protein molecules. These macromolecular conjugates are too large to enter intact cells; consequently, any pharmacologic or biochemical effects which they display should arise from interaction with a cell surface receptor. Conjugates were tested in several cardiac glycoside-sensitive systems: (a), contractility response of isolated cardiac muscle; (b), active 86Rb+ uptake by red cells; (c), enzymatic activity of isolated myocardial microsomal (Na+ + K+)-activated adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase); and (d), enzymatic activity of solubilized red cell (Na+ + K+)-activated ATPase. Results demonstrated that in all of these systems, the macromolecular-glycoside conjugates were 100- to 1000-fold less active than the free glycosides. Careful chromatographic examination of the various conjugates revealed that they contained a small but persistent free cardiac glycoside contaminant. The amount of this species ranged from 0.1 to 1.0% of the total macromolecule-bound glycoside, and its presence fully explains the levels of biologic activity observed with the conjugates.
Thomas W. Smith, Henry Wagner Jr., John E. Markis, Michael Young
Lysates prepared from the amebocytes of Limulus polyphemus, the horseshoe crab, are gelled by endotoxin. Studies were carried out to characterize the components of amebocyte lysate and to examine the kinetics of their reaction with endotoxin. Analysis of amebocyte lysate using sucrose density gradients showed two peaks at 46% and 86% gradient volumes. G50 and G75 Sephadex column chromatography resulted in three protein peaks. One fraction contained a clottable protein, which had a molecular weight of approximately 27,000, and was heat stable. Another fraction contained a high molecular weight, heat labile material, which was activated by endotoxin and reacted with the clottable protein to form a gel. The rate of the reaction between endotoxin and amebocyte lysate was dependent upon the concentration of endotoxin and the concentration of the fraction containing the high molecular weight material. The activity of this fraction was inhibited by diisopropyl fluorophosphate, parachloromercuribenzoate, and para-chloromercuriphenyl sulfonate, suggesting that enzymatic activity depended upon serine hydroxyl and sulfhydryl groups. The reaction between endotoxin and the fractions of lysate was temperature and pH dependent. The data suggest that endotoxin activates an enzyme which then gels the clottable protein contained in amebocyte lysate.
Neal S. Young, Jack Levin, Robert A. Prendergast
The properties of partially purified tyrosine hydroxylase from six pheochromocytomas were compared with partially purified normal human and bovine adrenal medulla enzyme. Substrate and inhibition kinetics, cofactor requirements, and intracellular localization of the enzyme from normal and tumor chromaffin tissue of humans were similar, as was the amount of enzyme activity per gram of tissue. Contrary to previous reports, the sensitivity to catecholamine inhibition of the pheochromocytoma enzyme from the six tumors studied was similar to that of both human and bovine adrenal medulla tyrosine hydroxylase. These results suggest that the excessive synthesis and secretion of catecholamines in some pheochromocytomas is not the result of a reduced sensitivity of tyrosine hydroxylase to catecholamine inhibition.
J. C. Waymire, N. Weiner, F. H. Schneider, M. Goldstein, L. S. Freedman
The Lesch-Nyhan syndrome is characterized clinically by choreoathetosis, spasticity, selfmutilation, and mental and growth retardation. Biochemically, there is a striking reduction of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) activity in affected individuals. We have examined erythrocytes from 14 patients with the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome for the presence of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase activity and enzyme protein. In contrast to the usual finding of no detectable hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase activity, we have found low levels (0.002-0.79 nmoles/mg protein per hr) of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase activity in erythrocyte lysates from five of these patients. In three of the five patients, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase activity appeared to be substantially more labile in vivo than normal using erythrocytes which had been separated according to their density (age).
William J. Arnold, Jean C. Meade, William N. Kelley
This study has demonstrated that collagen particles, after exposure to platelet-poor human plasma and subsequent washing, generate a kinin-like agent when incubated with prekinin substrate. The binding of kinin-generating activity to collagen in the plasma collagen incubation mixture occurs rapidly, whereas the loss of this activity in the incubation mixture occurs relatively slowly. The Hageman factor appeared to be necessary for the surface-bound kinin-generating activity, as this activity was absent in collagen exposed to Hageman factor-deficient plasma. These studies have partially characterized the plasma-derived enzymatic activity bound to collagen. Incubation of collagen with plasma caused a concentration-dependent reduction in the kinin-producing activity which was generated by the addition of ellagic acid, a known activator of plasma kallikrein. The kinin-inducing activity bound to collagen is inhibited by soybean trypsin inhibitor, Trasylol, serum C1̄ inactivator and the plasma α2-macroglobulin, but not by lima bean trypsin inhibitor. An eluate prepared from plasma-treated collagen, when compared with purified plasma kallikrein, shared a similar inhibitor profile. Selective chemical blockage of the free carboxyl groups on the collagen molecule, or heat denaturation, inactivated the ability of the collagen to generate kinin-like activity after incubation with plasma. Removal of the collagen telopeptides or blockage of the free amino groups failed to affect the collagen-plasma interaction. The binding of partially purified plasma kallikrein to collagen was found to have similar structural and chemical requirements. These data indicate that there is a structural and chemical specificity for the activation and binding of plasma kallikrein-like activity by collagen. These studies suggest that a plasma kallikrein may function as a surface-bound enzyme system.
Peter C. Harpel
Allopurinol therapy in man interferes with pyrimidine biosynthesis de novo by inhibition of one or both of the two enzymes, orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT) and orotidylic decarboxylase (ODC), responsible for the conversion of orotic acid to uridine-5′-monophosphate. Inhibition of this pathway in vivo is followed in 1-3 wk by an increase in the activity of both of these enzymes in erythrocytes and of ODC in circulating leukocytes. This drug-mediated increase in enzyme activity in erythrocytes could not be attributed to enzyme stabilization or induction in vivo but appeared to be due to enzyme “activation.” “Activation” of the OPRT enzyme was directly demonstrated in erythrocytes studied in vitro after incubation with oxipurinol, and to a lesser extent, with allopurinol. No evidence for “activation” of the ODC enzyme was demonstrated in vitro. This response to allopurinol therapy provides an excellent model for examining the mechanism of increased enzyme activity in response to drug administration.
Thomas D. Beardmore, Jay S. Cashman, William N. Kelley
In vitro erythrocyte membrane internalization, resulting in the formation of membrane-lined vacuoles, can be quantified by a radioisotopic method. A complex of 37Co-labeled vitamin B12 and its plasma protein binders is first adsorbed to the cell surface, and after vacuoles are formed, the noninternalized label is removed by washing and trypsin treatment. The residual radioactivity represents trapped label and can be used to measure the extent of membrane internalization.
Isaac Ben-Bassat, Klaus G. Bensch, Stanley L. Schrier
Cultured skin fibroblasts from a 3 yr old girl with severe, diffuse neurologic disease and persistant lactic acidosis, oxidized radioactive citrate, palmitate, and pyruvate at less than one-third the rate of control cells. Her fibroblasts oxidized isocitrate and glutamate at rates comparable with controls. In disrupted cells from this patient, the activity of aconitate hydratase appeared normal. The binding of citrate to aconitate hydratase and the activities of the NAD- and NADP-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases were also normal, while the activity of citrate synthase was slightly below control values. A significant defect was, however, apparent in the activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex although not in the thiamine-dependent first enzyme of that complex. This patient appears to have a partial genetic defect affecting the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
J. P. Blass, J. D. Schulman, D. S. Young, E. Hom
The effect of acute changes in the delivery rate of glutamine to the kidney on urinary ammonium excretion was studied in man. Healthy subjects and patients with intrinsic renal disease were studied under three different acid-base conditions: unaltered acid-base balance; NH4Cl-induced acidosis; and NaHCO3-induced alkalosis. Anhydrous L-glutamine was administered orally in a single dose of 260 mmoles during each of these three acid-base states. We found that endogenous venous plasma glutamine concentration fell during acidosis and rose during alkalosis in both healthy subjects and patients with renal disease. In healthy subjects, orally administered glutamine raised plasma glutamine concentration markedly over a 2-3 hr period. This was accompanied by an increase in urinary ammonium excretion and a rise in urine pH under normal acid-base conditions and during metabolic acidosis. No increase in ammonium excretion occurred when glutamine was administered during metabolic alkalosis in spite of an equivalent rise in plasma glutamine concentration. In patients with renal disease, endogenous venous plasma glutamine concentration was lower than in healthy subjects, perhaps as a result of mild metabolic acidosis. Acute oral glutamine loading failed to increase urinary ammonium excretion significantly during either unaltered acid-base conditions or after NH4Cl-induced acidosis, even though plasma glutamine rose as high as in healthy subjects. We conclude from these observations that glutamine delivery to the kidney is a rate-limiting factor for ammonium excretion in healthy subjects, both before and after cellular enzyme adaptation induced by metabolic acidosis. In contrast, in patients with renal disease, glutamine delivery is not rate-limiting for ammonium excretion. Presumably other factors, such as surviving renal mass and the activity of intracellular enzymes necessary for ammonia synthesis limit ammonium excretion in these patients.
Tomas Welbourne, Michael Weber, Norman Bank
The present study was undertaken to examine whether the beta adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, increases plasma renin activity (PRA) by activation of intrarenal or extrarenal pathways. The effects of intravenous (i.v.) and renal arterial infusion of isoproterenol on PRA and renin secretion rate (RSR) were compared in anesthetized dogs. In 12 studies in 9 dogs i.v. infusion of isoproterenol (0.009-0.018 μg/kg per min) was associated with an increase in PRA from 14.7 to 35.7 ng/ml per 3 hr (P < 0.001). PRA decreased to 19.4 ng/ml per 3 hr (P < 0.001) after cessation of the infusion. In innervated kidneys RSR increased from 1640 to 5062 U/min (P < 0.02) and decreased to 2132 U/min after cessation of the infusion (P < 0.05). In denervated kidneys the control RSR was significantly lower (455 U/min) but still increased during i.v. infusion of isoproterenol to 2762 U/min (P < 0.001) and decreased to 935 U/min (P < 0.001) after the infusion was stopped. These changes in PRA and RSR were associated with an increase in cardiac output averaging 49% and a large decrease in total peripheral resistance. These effects of i.v. isoproterenol to increase RSR were not mediated by changes in renal perfusion pressure since this was held constant by adjusting a suprarenal aortic clamp. In addition, there were no changes in glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, or electrolyte excretion in either denervated or innervated kidneys during i.v. infusion of isoproterenol, and the concentration of potassium in plasma was unchanged. Prior hypophysectomy abolished the antidiuretic effect of i.v. isoproterenol but did not prevent the effect on RSR. In contrast, renal arterial infusion of isoproterenol at the same dose had no apparent effect on PRA and RSR in seven studies in five dogs and also did not produce changes in cardiac output, peripheral resistance or renal hemodynamics. These results do not provide evidence for a role of intrarenal beta adrenergic receptors in the control of renin release and indicate that the effect of beta adrenergic stimulation with isoproterenol to increase the release of renin is mediated by an extrarenal mechanism. Since the effect of i.v. isoproterenol occurred in the absence of changes in plasma potassium concentration, renal perfusion pressure, glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, and electrolyte excretion and was not abolished by renal denervation, the possibility must be considered that the effect on renin secretion is mediated by circulatory factors. The changes in systemic hemodynamics which occurred with i.v. but not renal arterial infusion of isoproterenol may be involved in the initiation of such a pathway.
Ian A. Reid, Robert W. Schrier, Laurence E. Earley
Splanchnic and leg exchange of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and individual plasma amino acids was studied in diabetics 24 hr after withdrawal of insulin and in healthy controls. Measurements were made in the basal postabsorptive state and during the administration of glucose at a rate of 2 mg/kg per min for 45 min.
John Wahren, Philip Felig, Erol Cerasi, Rolf Luft
In order to clarify the mechanisms of thiazide diuretic-induced hypocalciuria, the effect of a thiazide was studied for 7 days in seven patients with hypoparathyroidism on Vitamin D and one on calcium infusion, and seven euparathyroid patients with hypercalciuria. In the control group, calcium excretion (mg/24 hr) fell by 44% from 415 to 232 within 4 days and remained at this level. Plasma total calcium corrected for total protein did not change. In the hypoparathyroid group, calcium excretion fell by 11% from 351 to 311 and then returned to the base line level. Plasma total calcium (mg/100 ml) increased from 10.09 to 10.88, 11.29 and 10.77 at the end of the 2nd, 4th, and 7th day of thiazide administration. In the patient having i.v. calcium and no Vitamin D, neither plasma nor urinary calcium changed significantly. In both groups sodium excretion increased on the first 2 days and fell to or below base line level thereafter. Urinary phosphate, magnesium, and potassium increased, plasma phosphate rose, and magnesium and potassium fell. It is concluded that: (a) The hypocalciuric effect of thiazides requires the presence of parathyroid hormone and is not solely a result of sodium depletion. (b) The hypercalcemic effect of thiazides in hypoparathyroidism is due to increased release of calcium from bone and requires the presence of a pharmacologic dose of Vitamin D. (c) Thiazides enhane the action of parathyroid hormone on bone and kidney; Vitamin D can replace parathyroid hormone in this interaction in bone but not in kidney.
A. M. Parfitt
Cholyl-2,4-3H-glycine-1-14C was administered orally to eight healthy subjects with indwelling nasoduodenal tubes. The distribution of radioactivity among bile acids and the specific activity of cholylglycine were determined in bile collected at intervals for 7 days. 3H and 14C were measured in stool. 14C in breath was calculated from interval 14CO2 specific activity determinations.
Gershon W. Hepner, Alan F. Hofmann, Paul J. Thomas
Chenodeoxycholyl-2,4-3H-glycine-1-14C and deoxycholyl-2,4-3H-glycine-1-14C were synthesized and administered orally to 10 healthy subjects. Distribution of radioactivity among bile acids and specific activity of steroid and amino acid moieties were determined in bile samples. 3H and 14C were measured in feces. 14C in breath was calculated from interval 14CO2 specific activity determinations.
Gershon W. Hepner, Alan F. Hofmann, Paul J. Thomas
In patients with heterozygous β-thalassemia, the β/α synthetic ratio in marrow erythroid cells incubated in vitro is 1, whereas in reticulocytes the ratio is 0.5. These ratios reflect the equal synthesis of the two chains on the polyribosomes of the bone marrow and unequal synthesis on the polyribosomes of the peripheral blood reticulocytes. α- and β-chain synthesis is also equal in marrow cells in vivo. Equal synthesis is probably due both to a decrease in α-chain synthesis and an increase in β-chain synthesis in bone marrow erythroid cells and may contribute to the absence of overt hemolysis due to excess α-globin chain accumulation in heterozygous β-thalassemia.
Yuet Wai Kan, David G. Nathan, Harvey F. Lodish
Rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes ingesting paraffin oil particles stabilized with albumin, converted more lysolecithin-32P (added to the medium as an albumin complex) to cellular lecithin than did control cells.
P. Elsbach, P. Patriarca, P. Pettis, T. P. Stossel, R. J. Mason, M. Vaughan
The uptake of free and bound 57CoB12, principally to transcobalamin II (TC II), was studied in isolated, perfused liver and kidney of the dog. (1) There was good uptake of canine TC II-B12 by both organs. (2) In the liver TC II enhanced uptake over that of free B-12. (3) Renal uptake of free B-12 was greater than that of TC II-B12. Free B-12 was neither lost in the urine nor returned to the circulation. (4) On a per gram tissue basis, renal uptake of TC II-B12 was greater than hepatic. (5) There was renal release or production of TC II (6) Some TC II but more of a larger molecular size binder came from the liver. (7) Passing free B-12 through the kidney enhanced its uptake by the liver. (8) Passing free B-12 through the liver depressed its uptake by the kidney. (9) It is postulated that the distribution of B-12 can be modified by (a) different responses of tissue to TC II-B12, (b) synthesis of TC II by an organ, and (c) the effects of B-12 passing through one organ to another.
Mary E. Rappazzo, Charles A. Hall
The activity of dihydrotachysterol and cholecalciferol was determined in nephrectomized or sham-operated vitamin D-depleted rats using in vitro transport of calcium and phosphate by everted intestinal preparations as the index of physiologic response. The activity of dihydrotachysterol was not reduced by absence of the kidneys whereas that of cholecalciferol was markedly inhibited so that at least a 10-fold greater dose of the latter was necessary to produce an equivalent effect in the nephrectomized rat as in the control. Dihydrotachysterol is therefore equipotent with cholecalciferol in the anephric rat although much less active in the intact animal.
Harold E. Harrison, Helen C. Harrison
Cholesteryl ester storage disease has been shown to involve severe deficiency of acid cholesteryl ester hydrolase and triglyceride lipase activity in liver, spleen, and lymph node. The cholesteryl ester hydrolase was also deficient in aorta. Tissue storage of both cholesteryl esters and triglycerides is generalized. Both the lipid and enzymatic changes are very similar to those in Wolman's disease.
Howard R. Sloan, Donald S. Fredrickson
Cytochalasin B, a metabolic product of several fungi, enhances up to 10-fold the sensitivity and reactivity of human leukocytes to antigen E or anti-IgE-mediated histamine release. The effect of cytochalasin B is a result of its action on the second, antigen-independent, stage of histamine release. These data suggest that normally, antigen-triggered histamine release is modulated by a cytochalasin-sensitive barrier (CSB). This CSB modulation of histamine release can be separated from the modulating effect of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP).
Harvey R. Colten, Kenneth H. Gabbay