Since the effectiveness of androgen deprivation for treatment of advanced prostate cancer was first demonstrated, prevention strategies and medical therapies for prostate cancer have been based on understanding the biologic underpinnings of the disease. Prostate cancer treatment is one of the best examples of a systematic therapeutic approach to target not only the cancer cells themselves, but the microenvironment in which they are proliferating. As the population ages and prostate cancer prevalence increases, challenges remain in the diagnosis of clinically relevant prostate cancer as well as the management of the metastatic and androgen-independent metastatic disease states.
Russel S. Taichman, Robert D. Loberg, Rohit Mehra, Kenneth J. Pienta
Substantial evidence shows that neoplastic and nonneoplastic tissue growth is dependent on angiogenesis. Neovascularization and adipogenesis are temporally and spatially coupled processes during prenatal life and they continue to reciprocally interact via paracrine signaling systems throughout adult life. Activated adipocytes produce multiple angiogenic factors including leptin, angiopoietins, HGF, GM-CSF, VEGF, FGF-2, and TGF-β, which either alone or collectively stimulate neovascularization during fat mass expansion. Thus antiangiogenic agents provide a novel therapeutic option for prevention and treatment of human obesity and its related disorders.
MicroRNAs act as negative regulators of gene expression by inhibiting the translation or promoting the degradation of target mRNAs. Recent studies have revealed key roles of microRNAs as regulators of the growth, development, function, and stress responsiveness of the heart, providing glimpses of undiscovered regulatory mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of heart disease.
Eva van Rooij, Eric N. Olson
S-nitrosothiol signaling reactions are argued to play key modulatory roles in mediating the actions of NOS in health and disease. A report by Palmer et al. in this issue of the JCI provides new insight into the in vivo biology of S-nitrosothiols (see the related article beginning on page 2592). The authors examine the chronic effects of exogenous nitrosothiol therapy and demonstrate that the commonly used antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) induces pulmonary arterial hypertension in mice. Importantly, the authors argue that the vascular pathology they observe in the lungs of these animals is functionally and morphologically equivalent to that observed in chronic hypoxia. These findings raise the concern that chronic NAC therapy may induce similar vascular pathology in patients.
Philip A. Marsden
Since the first diabetic was treated with insulin in 1922, millions of patients have relied on frequent insulin injections and glucose monitoring to combat the disease and its complications. Improved immunosuppressive regimens in islet transplantation developed in the Edmonton protocol raised the hopes of diabetics worldwide for a complete cure and insulin independence. However, transplant success has proven to be short-lived and accompanied by significant side effects. Using a clever genetic model for conditional ablation of pancreatic β cells in vivo, Nir and colleagues show in this issue of the JCI that the immunosuppressant drugs clinically inhibit β cell proliferation in the diabetic setting (see the related article beginning on page 2553). They also demonstrate that β cells have a remarkable regenerative capacity and that normal β cell mass can recover even in the setting of hyperglycemia. Their new mouse model should aid in the development of improved immunoregulatory strategies and in the elucidation of the molecular pathways that govern β cell regeneration.
Klaus H. Kaestner
Advances in our understanding of the skin immune system have a major impact on studies of skin autoimmunity, graft-versus-host disease, inflammation, and cancer as well as on the development of novel vaccines and immunotherapy approaches. In this issue of the JCI, Zaba et al. carefully dissected the complex network of DCs and macrophages residing in normal human skin and defined novel phenotypic markers for these immunocytes (see the related article beginning on page 2517). These studies provide the basis for better insight into the role of important immune sentinels contributing to the maintenance of skin tissue homeostasis and lay the foundation for future studies of the skin immune system.
Frank O. Nestle, Brian J. Nickoloff
Increased cap-dependent mRNA translation rates are frequently observed in human cancers. Mechanistically, many human tumors often overexpress the cap binding protein eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), leading to enhanced translation of numerous tumor-promoting genes. In this issue of the JCI, Graff and colleagues describe potent antitumor effects using second-generation antisense oligonucleotides for eIF4E (see the related article beginning on page 2638). If their results are recapitulated in a clinical setting, this strategy will provide a promising antitumor therapy with broad-reaching applications.
Bryan C. Barnhart, M. Celeste Simon
It was previously appreciated that the determination of skeletal muscle fiber type (fast or slow) could be regulated by class II histone deacetylases (HDACs), which function by inhibiting the transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2). In a report by Potthoff et al. in this issue of the JCI, it is further shown that HDACs are degraded via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway, opening up a search for the putative E3 ligase that mediates the proteolysis of the responsible HDACs (see the related article beginning on page 2459). In a second report, by Suzuki et al., a new convergence between the biology of muscular dystrophy and muscle atrophy is elucidated (see the related study beginning on page 2468). It had previously been known that NO signaling is dysregulated during muscular dystrophy due to the disruption of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC), which anchors neuronal NOS (nNOS). Here it is shown that nNOS is similarly perturbed in a setting of skeletal muscle atrophy. Both of these studies suggest new avenues for the treatment of skeletal muscle disease.
David J. Glass
The homing of activated T lymphocytes to the gut in inflammatory bowel diseases is dependent on their coordinated, integrin-mediated adhesion and de-adhesion to substrates and blood vessel walls. In this issue of the JCI, Park and colleagues reveal a key modulatory role of a binding site within β integrins, known as the ADMIDAS domain, in controlling integrin de-adhesion in mice (see the related article beginning on page 2526). These observations add to our growing understanding of how integrin adhesiveness is regulated and raise the notion of the existence of a biological rheostat for lymphocyte homing. Disturbed migratory rheostat tone could account for variations in interindividual immune responses observed in patients with inflammatory bowel disease or other lymphocyte-mediated inflammatory disorders. These findings will inform future strategies to design small molecules for the treatment of a spectrum of chronic inflammatory conditions.
Ivor S. Douglas, Themistocles Dassopoulos
Acute stimulation of cardiac β1-adrenergic receptors (β1ARs) by norepinephrine represents the strongest endogenous mechanism for increasing cardiac function, but long-term stimulation induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis and contributes to cardiac disease. These effects have been attributed to coupling of the β1AR to the stimulatory G protein (Gs) and classical cAMP-mediated signaling. In this issue of the JCI, Noma and colleagues report that cardiomyocyte β1ARs may in addition deliver an antiapoptotic signal through transactivation of EGFRs (see the related article beginning on page 2445). Their findings provide a perspective for a novel class of receptor ligands that may direct β1AR signaling toward alternative signaling pathways.
The function of the adult thyroid is regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which acts through a G protein–coupled receptor. Overactivation of the TSH receptor results in hyperthyroidism and goiter. The Gs-mediated stimulation of adenylyl cyclase–dependent cAMP formation has been regarded as the principal intracellular signaling mechanism mediating the action of TSH. Here we show that the Gq/G11-mediated signaling pathway plays an unexpected and essential role in the regulation of thyroid function. Mice lacking the α subunits of Gq and G11 specifically in thyroid epithelial cells showed severely reduced iodine organification and thyroid hormone secretion in response to TSH, and many developed hypothyroidism within months after birth. In addition, thyrocyte-specific Gαq/Gα11-deficient mice lacked the normal proliferative thyroid response to TSH or goitrogenic diet, indicating an essential role of this pathway in the adaptive growth of the thyroid gland. Our data suggest that Gq/G11 and their downstream effectors are promising targets to interfere with increased thyroid function and growth.
Jukka Kero, Kashan Ahmed, Nina Wettschureck, Sorin Tunaru, Tim Wintermantel, Erich Greiner, Günther Schütz, Stefan Offermanns
Blast crisis chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML-BC) and Philadelphia chromosome–positive (Ph1-positive) acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) are 2 fatal BCR/ABL-driven leukemias against which Abl kinase inhibitors fail to induce a long-term response. We recently reported that functional loss of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity is important for CML blastic transformation. We assessed the therapeutic potential of the PP2A activator FTY720 (2-amino-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol hydrochloride), an immunomodulator in Phase III trials for patients with multiple sclerosis or undergoing organ transplantation, in CML-BC and Ph1 ALL patient cells and in in vitro and in vivo models of these BCR/ABL+ leukemias. Our data indicate that FTY720 induces apoptosis and impairs clonogenicity of imatinib/dasatinib-sensitive and -resistant p210/p190BCR/ABL myeloid and lymphoid cell lines and CML-BCCD34+ and Ph1 ALLCD34+/CD19+ progenitors but not of normal CD34+ and CD34+/CD19+ bone marrow cells. Furthermore, pharmacologic doses of FTY720 remarkably suppress in vivo p210/p190BCR/ABL-driven [including p210/p190BCR/ABL (T315I)] leukemogenesis without exerting any toxicity. Altogether, these results highlight the therapeutic relevance of rescuing PP2A tumor suppressor activity in Ph1 leukemias and strongly support the introduction of the PP2A activator FTY720 in the treatment of CML-BC and Ph1 ALL patients.
Paolo Neviani, Ramasamy Santhanam, Joshua J. Oaks, Anna M. Eiring, Mario Notari, Bradley W. Blaser, Shujun Liu, Rossana Trotta, Natarajan Muthusamy, Carlo Gambacorti-Passerini, Brian J. Druker, Jorge Cortes, Guido Marcucci, Ching-Shih Chen, Nicole M. Verrills, Denis C. Roy, Michael A. Caligiuri, Clara D. Bloomfield, John C. Byrd, Danilo Perrotti
The long plasma half-life of IgG, while allowing for enhanced tumor uptake of tumor-targeted IgG conjugates, also results in increased background activity and normal-tissue toxicity. Therefore, successful therapeutic uses of conjugated antibodies have been limited to the highly sensitive and readily accessible hematopoietic tumors. We report a therapeutic strategy to beneficially alter the pharmacokinetics of IgG antibodies via pharmacological inhibition of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) using high-dose IgG therapy. IgG-treated mice displayed enhanced blood and whole-body clearance of radioactivity, resulting in better tumor-to-blood image contrast and protection of normal tissue from radiation. Tumor uptake and the resultant therapeutic response was unaltered. Furthermore, we demonstrated the use of this approach for imaging of tumors in humans and discuss its potential applications in cancer imaging and therapy. The ability to reduce the serum persistence of conjugated IgG antibodies after their infusion can enhance their therapeutic index, resulting in improved therapeutic and diagnostic efficacy.
Jaspreet Singh Jaggi, Jorge A. Carrasquillo, Surya V. Seshan, Pat Zanzonico, Erik Henke, Andrew Nagel, Jazmin Schwartz, Brad Beattie, Barry J. Kappel, Debjit Chattopadhyay, Jing Xiao, George Sgouros, Steven M. Larson, David A. Scheinberg
Loss of cardiac myocytes in heart failure is thought to occur largely through an apoptotic process. Here we show that heart failure can also be precipitated through myocyte necrosis associated with Ca2+ overload. Inducible transgenic mice with enhanced sarcolemmal L-type Ca2+ channel (LTCC) activity showed progressive myocyte necrosis that led to pump dysfunction and premature death, effects that were dramatically enhanced by acute stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors. Enhanced Ca2+ influx–induced cellular necrosis and cardiomyopathy was prevented with either LTCC blockers or β-adrenergic receptor antagonists, demonstrating a proximal relationship among β-adrenergic receptor function, Ca2+ handling, and heart failure progression through necrotic cell loss. Mechanistically, loss of cyclophilin D, a regulator of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore that underpins necrosis, blocked Ca2+ influx–induced necrosis of myocytes, heart failure, and isoproterenol-induced premature death. In contrast, overexpression of the antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2 was ineffective in mitigating heart failure and death associated with excess Ca2+ influx and acute β-adrenergic receptor stimulation. This paradigm of mitochondrial- and necrosis-dependent heart failure was also observed in other mouse models of disease, which supports the concept that heart failure is a pleiotropic disorder that involves not only apoptosis, but also necrotic loss of myocytes in association with dysregulated Ca2+ handling and β-adrenergic receptor signaling.
Hiroyuki Nakayama, Xiongwen Chen, Christopher P. Baines, Raisa Klevitsky, Xiaoying Zhang, Hongyu Zhang, Naser Jaleel, Balvin H.L. Chua, Timothy E. Hewett, Jeffrey Robbins, Steven R. Houser, Jeffery D. Molkentin
Deleterious effects on the heart from chronic stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors (βARs), members of the 7 transmembrane receptor family, have classically been shown to result from Gs-dependent adenylyl cyclase activation. Here, we identify a new signaling mechanism using both in vitro and in vivo systems whereby β-arrestins mediate β1AR signaling to the EGFR. This β-arrestin–dependent transactivation of the EGFR, which is independent of G protein activation, requires the G protein–coupled receptor kinases 5 and 6. In mice undergoing chronic sympathetic stimulation, this novel signaling pathway is shown to promote activation of cardioprotective pathways that counteract the effects of catecholamine toxicity. These findings suggest that drugs that act as classical antagonists for G protein signaling, but also stimulate signaling via β-arrestin–mediated cytoprotective pathways, would represent a novel class of agents that could be developed for multiple members of the 7 transmembrane receptor family.
Takahisa Noma, Anthony Lemaire, Sathyamangla V. Naga Prasad, Liza Barki-Harrington, Douglas G. Tilley, Juhsien Chen, Philippe Le Corvoisier, Jonathan D. Violin, Huijun Wei, Robert J. Lefkowitz, Howard A. Rockman
Skeletal muscle is composed of heterogeneous myofibers with distinctive rates of contraction, metabolic properties, and susceptibility to fatigue. We show that class II histone deacetylase (HDAC) proteins, which function as transcriptional repressors of the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) transcription factor, fail to accumulate in the soleus, a slow muscle, compared with fast muscles (e.g., white vastus lateralis). Accordingly, pharmacological blockade of proteasome function specifically increases expression of class II HDAC proteins in the soleus in vivo. Using gain- and loss-of-function approaches in mice, we discovered that class II HDAC proteins suppress the formation of slow twitch, oxidative myofibers through the repression of MEF2 activity. Conversely, expression of a hyperactive form of MEF2 in skeletal muscle of transgenic mice promotes the formation of slow fibers and enhances running endurance, enabling mice to run almost twice the distance of WT littermates. Thus, the selective degradation of class II HDACs in slow skeletal muscle provides a mechanism for enhancing physical performance and resistance to fatigue by augmenting the transcriptional activity of MEF2. These findings provide what we believe are new insights into the molecular basis of skeletal muscle function and have important implications for possible therapeutic interventions into muscular diseases.
Matthew J. Potthoff, Hai Wu, Michael A. Arnold, John M. Shelton, Johannes Backs, John McAnally, James A. Richardson, Rhonda Bassel-Duby, Eric N. Olson
Forkhead box O (Foxo) transcription factors induce muscle atrophy by upregulating the muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases MuRF-1 and atrogin-1/MAFbx, but other than Akt, the upstream regulators of Foxos during muscle atrophy are largely unknown. To examine the involvement of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC) in regulation of Foxo activities and muscle atrophy, we analyzed the expression of DGC members during tail suspension, a model of unloading-induced muscle atrophy. Among several DGC members, only neuronal NOS (nNOS) quickly dislocated from the sarcolemma to the cytoplasm during tail suspension. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry revealed production of NO in atrophying muscle. nNOS-null mice showed much milder muscle atrophy after tail suspension than did wild-type mice. Importantly, nuclear accumulation of dephosphorylated Foxo3a was not evident in nNOS-null muscle, and neither MuRF-1 nor atrogin-1/MAFbx were upregulated during tail suspension. Furthermore, an nNOS-specific inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole, significantly prevented suspension-induced muscle atrophy. The NF-κB pathway was activated in both wild-type and nNOS-null muscle during tail suspension. We also show that nNOS was involved in the mechanism of denervation-induced atrophy. We conclude that nNOS/NO mediates muscle atrophy via regulation of Foxo transcription factors and is a new therapeutic target for disuse-induced muscle atrophy.
Naoki Suzuki, Norio Motohashi, Akiyoshi Uezumi, So-ichiro Fukada, Tetsuhiko Yoshimura, Yasuto Itoyama, Masashi Aoki, Yuko Miyagoe-Suzuki, Shin’ichi Takeda
Forkhead box O (Foxo) transcription factors govern metabolism and cellular differentiation. Unlike Foxo-dependent metabolic pathways and target genes, the mechanisms by which these proteins regulate differentiation have not been explored. Activation of Notch signaling mimics the effects of Foxo gain of function on cellular differentiation. Using muscle differentiation as a model system, we show that Foxo physically and functionally interacts with Notch by promoting corepressor clearance from the Notch effector Csl, leading to activation of Notch target genes. Inhibition of myoblast differentiation by constitutively active Foxo1 is partly rescued by inhibition of Notch signaling while Foxo1 loss of function precludes Notch inhibition of myogenesis and increases myogenic determination gene (MyoD) expression. Accordingly, conditional Foxo1 ablation in skeletal muscle results in increased formation of MyoD-containing (fast-twitch) muscle fibers and altered fiber type distribution at the expense of myogenin-containing (slow-twitch) fibers. Notch/Foxo1 cooperation may integrate environmental cues through Notch with metabolic cues through Foxo1 to regulate progenitor cell maintenance and differentiation.
Tadahiro Kitamura, Yukari Ido Kitamura, Yasuhiro Funahashi, Carrie J. Shawber, Diego H. Castrillon, Ramya Kollipara, Ronald A. DePinho, Jan Kitajewski, Domenico Accili
Maintenance of skeletal and cardiac muscle structure and function requires precise control of the synthesis, assembly, and turnover of contractile proteins of the sarcomere. Abnormalities in accumulation of sarcomere proteins are responsible for a variety of myopathies. However, the mechanisms that mediate turnover of these long-lived proteins remain poorly defined. We show that muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1) and MuRF3 act as E3 ubiquitin ligases that cooperate with the E2 ubiquitin–conjugating enzymes UbcH5a, -b, and -c to mediate the degradation of β/slow myosin heavy chain (β/slow MHC) and MHCIIa via the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) in vivo and in vitro. Accordingly, mice deficient for MuRF1 and MuRF3 develop a skeletal muscle myopathy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy characterized by subsarcolemmal MHC accumulation, myofiber fragmentation, and diminished muscle performance. These findings identify MuRF1 and MuRF3 as key E3 ubiquitin ligases for the UPS-dependent turnover of sarcomeric proteins and reveal a potential basis for myosin storage myopathies.
Jens Fielitz, Mi-Sung Kim, John M. Shelton, Shuaib Latif, Jeffrey A. Spencer, David J. Glass, James A. Richardson, Rhonda Bassel-Duby, Eric N. Olson
Clinical use of prostaglandin synthase–inhibiting NSAIDs is associated with the development of hypertension; however, the cardiovascular effects of antagonists for individual prostaglandin receptors remain uncharacterized. The present studies were aimed at elucidating the role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) E-prostanoid receptor subtype 1 (EP1) in regulating blood pressure. Oral administration of the EP1 receptor antagonist SC51322 reduced blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. To define whether this antihypertensive effect was caused by EP1 receptor inhibition, an EP1-null mouse was generated using a “hit-and-run” strategy that disrupted the gene encoding EP1 but spared expression of protein kinase N (PKN) encoded at the EP1 locus on the antiparallel DNA strand. Selective genetic disruption of the EP1 receptor blunted the acute pressor response to Ang II and reduced chronic Ang II–driven hypertension. SC51322 blunted the constricting effect of Ang II on in vitro–perfused preglomerular renal arterioles and mesenteric arteriolar rings. Similarly, the pressor response to EP1-selective agonists sulprostone and 17-phenyltrinor PGE2 were blunted by SC51322 and in EP1-null mice. These data support the possibility of targeting the EP1 receptor for antihypertensive therapy.
Youfei Guan, Yahua Zhang, Jing Wu, Zhonghua Qi, Guangrui Yang, Dou Dou, Yuansheng Gao, Lihong Chen, Xiaoyan Zhang, Linda S. Davis, Mingfeng Wei, Xuefeng Fan, Monica Carmosino, Chuanming Hao, John D. Imig, Richard M. Breyer, Matthew D. Breyer
Sphingosine 1–phosphate (S1P), a multifunctional lipid mediator that signals via the S1P family of G protein–coupled receptors (S1PR), regulates vascular maturation, permeability, and angiogenesis. In this study, we explored the role of S1P 2 receptor (S1P2R) in normal vascularization and hypoxia-triggered pathological angiogenesis of the mouse retina. S1P2R is strongly induced in ECs during hypoxic stress. When neonatal mice were subjected to ischemia-driven retinopathy, pathologic neovascularization in the vitreous chamber was suppressed in S1p2–/– mice concomitant with reduction in endothelial gaps and inflammatory cell infiltration. In addition, EC patterning and normal revascularization into the avascular zones of the retina were augmented. Reduced expression of the proinflammatory enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and increased expression of eNOS were observed in the S1p2–/– mouse retina. S1P2R activation in ECs induced COX-2 expression and suppressed the expression of eNOS. These data identify the S1P2R-driven inflammatory process as an important molecular event in pathological retinal angiogenesis. We propose that antagonism of the S1P2R may be a novel therapeutic approach for the prevention and/or treatment of pathologic ocular neovascularization.
Athanasia Skoura, Teresa Sanchez, Kevin Claffey, Suzanne M. Mandala, Richard L. Proia, Timothy Hla
We used a panel of monoclonal antibodies to characterize DCs in the dermis of normal human skin. Staining for the CD11c integrin, which is abundant on many kinds of DCs, revealed cells in the upper dermis. These cells were positive for blood DC antigen–1 (BDCA-1; also known as CD1c), HLA-DR, and CD45, markers that are also expressed by circulating myeloid DCs. A small subset of CD11c+ dermal cells expressed DEC-205/CD205 and DC-lysosomal–associated membrane glycoprotein/CD208 (DC-LAMP/CD208), suggesting some differentiation or maturation. When BDCA-1+ cells were selected from collagenase digests of normal dermis, they proved to be strong stimulators for T cells in a mixed leukocyte reaction. A second major population of cells located throughout the dermis was positive for factor XIIIA (FXIIIA), but lacked CD11c and BDCA-1. They expressed the macrophage scavenger receptor CD163 and stained weakly for HLA-DR and CD45. Isolated CD163+ dermal cells were inactive in stimulating T cell proliferation, but in biopsies of tattoos, these cells were selectively laden with granular pigments. Plasmacytoid DCs were also present in the dermis, marked by CD123 and BDCA-2. In summary, the normal dermis contains typical immunostimulatory myeloid DCs identified by CD11c and BDCA-1, as well as an additional population of poorly stimulatory macrophages marked by CD163 and FXIIIA.
Lisa C. Zaba, Judilyn Fuentes-Duculan, Ralph M. Steinman, James G. Krueger, Michelle A. Lowes
Integrin adhesion molecules mediate lymphocyte migration and homing to normal and inflamed tissues. While the ligand-binding activity of integrins is known to be modulated by conformational changes, little is known about how the appropriate balance of integrin adhesiveness is maintained in order to optimize the migratory capacity of lymphocytes in vivo. In this study we examined the regulation of the gut homing receptor α4β7 integrin by manipulating at the germline level an integrin regulatory domain known as adjacent to metal ion-dependent adhesion site (ADMIDAS). ADMIDAS normally serves to raise the activation threshold of α4β7, thereby stabilizing it in the default nonadhesive state. Lymphocytes from knockin β7 (D146A) mice, which harbor a disrupted ADMIDAS, not only expressed an α4β7 integrin that persistently adhered to mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule–1 (MAdCAM-1), but also exhibited perturbed cell migration along MAdCAM-1 substrates resulting from improper de-adhesion of the lymphocyte trailing edge. In vivo, aberrantly activated α4β7 enhanced adhesion to Peyer’s patch venules, but suppressed lymphocyte homing to the gut, diminishing the capacity of T cells to induce colitis. Our results underscore the importance of a proper balance in the adhesion and de-adhesion of the α4β7 integrin, both for lymphocyte trafficking to the gut and for colitis progression.
Eun Jeong Park, J. Rodrigo Mora, Christopher V. Carman, JianFeng Chen, Yoshiteru Sasaki, Guiying Cheng, Ulrich H. von Andrian, Motomu Shimaoka
Central nervous system control of energy balance affects susceptibility to obesity and diabetes, but how fatty acids, malonyl-CoA, and other metabolites act at this site to alter metabolism is poorly understood. Pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FAS), rate limiting for de novo lipogenesis, decreases appetite independently of leptin but also promotes weight loss through activities unrelated to FAS inhibition. Here we report that the conditional genetic inactivation of FAS in pancreatic β cells and hypothalamus produced lean, hypophagic mice with increased physical activity and impaired hypothalamic PPARα signaling. Administration of a PPARα agonist into the hypothalamus increased PPARα target genes and normalized food intake. Inactivation of β cell FAS enzyme activity had no effect on islet function in culture or in vivo. These results suggest a critical role for brain FAS in the regulation of not only feeding, but also physical activity, effects that appear to be mediated through the provision of ligands generated by FAS to PPARα. Thus, 2 diametrically opposed proteins, FAS (induced by feeding) and PPARα (induced by starvation), unexpectedly form an integrative sensory module in the central nervous system to orchestrate energy balance.
Manu V. Chakravarthy, Yimin Zhu, Miguel López, Li Yin, David F. Wozniak, Trey Coleman, Zhiyuan Hu, Michael Wolfgang, Antonio Vidal-Puig, M. Daniel Lane, Clay F. Semenkovich
The mechanisms that regulate pancreatic β cell mass are poorly understood. While autoimmune and pharmacological destruction of insulin-producing β cells is often irreversible, adult β cell mass does fluctuate in response to physiological cues including pregnancy and insulin resistance. This plasticity points to the possibility of harnessing the regenerative capacity of the β cell to treat diabetes. We developed a transgenic mouse model to study the dynamics of β cell regeneration from a diabetic state. Following doxycycline administration, transgenic mice expressed diphtheria toxin in β cells, resulting in apoptosis of 70%–80% of β cells, destruction of islet architecture, and diabetes. Withdrawal of doxycycline resulted in a spontaneous normalization of blood glucose levels and islet architecture and a significant regeneration of β cell mass with no apparent toxicity of transient hyperglycemia. Lineage tracing analysis indicated that enhanced proliferation of surviving β cells played the major role in regeneration. Surprisingly, treatment with Sirolimus and Tacrolimus, immunosuppressants used in the Edmonton protocol for human islet transplantation, inhibited β cell regeneration and prevented the normalization of glucose homeostasis. These results suggest that regenerative therapy for type 1 diabetes may be achieved if autoimmunity is halted using regeneration-compatible drugs.
Tomer Nir, Douglas A. Melton, Yuval Dor
Molecularly targeted kinase inhibitor cancer therapies are currently administered sequentially rather than simultaneously. We addressed the potential long-term impact of this strategy in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), which is driven by the fusion oncogene BCR-ABL. Analysis of BCR-ABL genotypes in CML patients who relapsed after sequential treatment with the ABL inhibitors imatinib and dasatinib revealed evolving resistant BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations in all cases. Twelve patients relapsed with the pan-resistant T315I mutation, whereas 6 patients developed novel BCR-ABL mutations predicted to retain sensitivity to imatinib based on in vitro studies. Three of these patients were retreated with imatinib (or the chemically related compound nilotinib) and responded; however, selection for compound mutants (2 or 3 BCR-ABL mutations in the same molecule) can substantially limit the potential effectiveness of retreating patients with inhibitors that have previously failed. Furthermore, drug-resistant mutations, when compounded, can increase oncogenic potency relative to the component mutants in transformation assays. The Aurora kinase inhibitor VX-680, currently under clinical evaluation based on its activity against the T315I mutation, is also effective against the other commonly detected dasatinib-resistant mutation in our analysis, V299L. Our findings demonstrate the potential hazards of sequential kinase inhibitor therapy and suggest a role for a combination of ABL kinase inhibitors, perhaps including VX-680, to prevent the outgrowth of cells harboring drug-resistant BCR-ABL mutations.
Neil P. Shah, Brian J. Skaggs, Susan Branford, Timothy P. Hughes, John M. Nicoll, Ronald L. Paquette, Charles L. Sawyers
A small population of plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) in mouse tumor-draining LNs can express the immunoregulatory enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). We show that these IDO+ pDCs directly activate resting CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs for potent suppressor activity. In vivo, Tregs isolated from tumor-draining LNs were constitutively activated and suppressed antigen-specific T cells immediately ex vivo. In vitro, IDO+ pDCs from tumor-draining LNs rapidly activated resting Tregs from non–tumor-bearing hosts without the need for mitogen or exogenous anti-CD3 crosslinking. Treg activation by IDO+ pDCs was MHC restricted, required an intact amino acid–responsive GCN2 pathway in the Tregs, and was prevented by CTLA4 blockade. Tregs activated by IDO markedly upregulated programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) and PD-L2 expression on target DCs, and the ability of Tregs to suppress target T cell proliferation was abrogated by antibodies against the programmed cell death 1/PD-L (PD-1/PD-L) pathway. In contrast, Tregs activated by anti-CD3 crosslinking did not cause upregulation of PD-Ls, and suppression by these cells was unaffected by blocking the PD-1/PD-L pathway. Tregs isolated from tumor-draining LNs in vivo showed potent PD-1/PD-L–mediated suppression, which was selectively lost when tumors were grown in IDO-deficient hosts. We hypothesize that IDO+ pDCs create a profoundly suppressive microenvironment within tumor-draining LNs via constitutive activation of Tregs.
Madhav D. Sharma, Babak Baban, Phillip Chandler, De-Yan Hou, Nagendra Singh, Hideo Yagita, Miyuki Azuma, Bruce R. Blazar, Andrew L. Mellor, David H. Munn
Ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury in transplanted livers contributes to organ dysfunction and failure and is characterized in part by loss of NO bioavailability. Inhalation of NO is nontoxic and at high concentrations (80 ppm) inhibits IR injury in extrapulmonary tissues. In this prospective, blinded, placebo-controlled study, we evaluated the hypothesis that administration of inhaled NO (iNO; 80 ppm) to patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation inhibits hepatic IR injury, resulting in improved liver function. Patients were randomized to receive either placebo or iNO (n = 10 per group) during the operative period only. When results were adjusted for cold ischemia time and sex, iNO significantly decreased hospital length of stay, and evaluation of serum transaminases (alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase) and coagulation times (prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time) indicated that iNO improved the rate at which liver function was restored after transplantation. iNO did not significantly affect changes in inflammatory markers in liver tissue 1 hour after reperfusion but significantly lowered hepatocyte apoptosis. Evaluation of circulating NO metabolites indicated that the most likely candidate transducer of extrapulmonary effects of iNO was nitrite. In summary, this study supports the clinical use of iNO as an extrapulmonary therapeutic to improve organ function following transplantation.
John D. Lang Jr., Xinjun Teng, Phillip Chumley, Jack H. Crawford, T. Scott Isbell, Balu K. Chacko, Yuliang Liu, Nirag Jhala, D. Ralph Crowe, Alvin B. Smith, Richard C. Cross, Luc Frenette, Eric E. Kelley, Diana W. Wilhite, Cheryl R. Hall, Grier P. Page, Michael B. Fallon, J. Steven Bynon, Devin E. Eckhoff, Rakesh P. Patel
NO transfer reactions between protein and peptide cysteines have been proposed to represent regulated signaling processes. We used the pharmaceutical antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as a bait reactant to measure NO transfer reactions in blood and to study the vascular effects of these reactions in vivo. NAC was converted to S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (SNOAC), decreasing erythrocytic S-nitrosothiol content, both during whole-blood deoxygenation ex vivo and during a 3-week protocol in which mice received high-dose NAC in vivo. Strikingly, the NAC-treated mice developed pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) that mimicked the effects of chronic hypoxia. Moreover, systemic SNOAC administration recapitulated effects of both NAC and hypoxia. eNOS-deficient mice were protected from the effects of NAC but not SNOAC, suggesting that conversion of NAC to SNOAC was necessary for the development of PAH. These data reveal an unanticipated adverse effect of chronic NAC administration and introduce a new animal model of PAH. Moreover, evidence that conversion of NAC to SNOAC during blood deoxygenation is necessary for the development of PAH in this model challenges conventional views of oxygen sensing and of NO signaling.
Lisa A. Palmer, Allan Doctor, Preeti Chhabra, Mary Lynn Sheram, Victor E. Laubach, Molly Z. Karlinsey, Michael S. Forbes, Timothy Macdonald, Benjamin Gaston
The presumed involvement of paired box gene 5 (PAX5) in B-lymphomagenesis is based largely on the discovery of Pax5-specific translocations and somatic hypermutations in non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Yet mechanistically, the contribution of Pax5 to neoplastic growth remains undeciphered. Here we used 2 Myc-induced mouse B lymphoma cell lines, Myc5-M5 and Myc5-M12, which spontaneously silence Pax5. Reconstitution of these cells with Pax5–tamoxifen receptor fusion protein (Pax5ERTAM) increased neoplastic growth in a hormone-dependent manner. Conversely, expression of dominant-negative Pax5 in murine lymphomas and Pax5 knockdown in human lymphomas negatively affected cell expansion. Expression profiling revealed that Pax5 was required to maintain mRNA levels of several crucial components of B cell receptor (BCR) signaling, including CD79a, a protein with the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). In contrast, expression of 2 known ITAM antagonists, CD22 and PIR-B, was suppressed. The key role of BCR/ITAM signaling in Pax5-dependent lymphomagenesis was corroborated in Syk, an ITAM-associated tyrosine kinase. Moreover, we observed consistent expression of phosphorylated BLNK, an activated BCR adaptor protein, in human B cell lymphomas. Thus, stimulation of neoplastic growth by Pax5 occurs through BCR and is sensitive to genetic and pharmacological inhibitors of this pathway.
Diana Cozma, Duonan Yu, Suchita Hodawadekar, Anna Azvolinsky, Shannon Grande, John W. Tobias, Michele H. Metzgar, Jennifer Paterson, Jan Erikson, Teresa Marafioti, John G. Monroe, Michael L. Atchison, Andrei Thomas-Tikhonenko
Targeted disruption of a highly conserved distal enhancer reduces expression of the PU.1 transcription factor by 80% and leads to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with frequent cytogenetic aberrations in mice. Here we identify a SNP within this element in humans that is more frequent in AML with a complex karyotype, leads to decreased enhancer activity, and reduces PU.1 expression in myeloid progenitors in a development-dependent manner. This SNP inhibits binding of the chromatin-remodeling transcriptional regulator special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1 (SATB1). Overexpression of SATB1 increased PU.1 expression, and siRNA inhibition of SATB1 downregulated PU.1 expression. Targeted disruption of the distal enhancer led to a loss of regulation of PU.1 by SATB1. Interestingly, disruption of SATB1 in mice led to a selective decrease of PU.1 RNA in specific progenitor types (granulocyte-macrophage and megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors) and a similar effect was observed in AML samples harboring this SNP. Thus we have identified a SNP within a distal enhancer that is associated with a subtype of leukemia and exerts a deleterious effect through remote transcriptional dysregulation in specific progenitor subtypes.
Ulrich Steidl, Christian Steidl, Alexander Ebralidze, Björn Chapuy, Hye-Jung Han, Britta Will, Frank Rosenbauer, Annegret Becker, Katharina Wagner, Steffen Koschmieder, Susumu Kobayashi, Daniel B. Costa, Thomas Schulz, Karen B. O’Brien, Roel G.W. Verhaak, Ruud Delwel, Detlef Haase, Lorenz Trümper, Jürgen Krauter, Terumi Kohwi-Shigematsu, Frank Griesinger, Daniel G. Tenen
Excess caloric intake can lead to insulin resistance. The underlying reasons are
complex but likely related to ectopic lipid deposition in nonadipose tissue. We
hypothesized that the inability to appropriately expand subcutaneous adipose tissue
may be an underlying reason for insulin resistance and β cell failure.
Mice lacking leptin while overexpressing adiponectin showed normalized glucose and
insulin levels and dramatically improved glucose as well as positively affected
serum triglyceride levels. Therefore, modestly increasing the levels of circulating
full-length adiponectin completely rescued the diabetic phenotype in
Ja-Young Kim, Esther van de Wall, Mathieu Laplante, Anthony Azzara, Maria E. Trujillo, Susanna M. Hofmann, Todd Schraw, Jorge L. Durand, Hua Li, Guangyu Li, Linda A. Jelicks, Mark F. Mehler, David Y. Hui, Yves Deshaies, Gerald I. Shulman, Gary J. Schwartz, Philipp E. Scherer
Expression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is commonly elevated in human and experimental cancers, promoting angiogenesis and tumor growth. Elevated eIF4E levels selectively increase translation of growth factors important in malignancy (e.g., VEGF, cyclin D1) and is thereby an attractive anticancer therapeutic target. Yet to date, no eIF4E-specific therapy has been developed. Herein we report development of eIF4E-specific antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) designed to have the necessary tissue stability and nuclease resistance required for systemic anticancer therapy. In mammalian cultured cells, these ASOs specifically targeted the eIF4E mRNA for destruction, repressing expression of eIF4E-regulated proteins (e.g., VEGF, cyclin D1, survivin, c-myc, Bcl-2), inducing apoptosis, and preventing endothelial cells from forming vessel-like structures. Most importantly, intravenous ASO administration selectively and significantly reduced eIF4E expression in human tumor xenografts, significantly suppressing tumor growth. Because these ASOs also target murine eIF4E, we assessed the impact of eIF4E reduction in normal tissues. Despite reducing eIF4E levels by 80% in mouse liver, eIF4E-specific ASO administration did not affect body weight, organ weight, or liver transaminase levels, thereby providing the first in vivo evidence that cancers may be more susceptible to eIF4E inhibition than normal tissues. These data have prompted eIF4E-specific ASO clinical trials for the treatment of human cancers.
Jeremy R. Graff, Bruce W. Konicek, Thomas M. Vincent, Rebecca L. Lynch, David Monteith, Spring N. Weir, Phil Schwier, Andrew Capen, Robin L. Goode, Michele S. Dowless, Yuefeng Chen, Hong Zhang, Sean Sissons, Karen Cox, Ann M. McNulty, Stephen H. Parsons, Tao Wang, Lillian Sams, Sandaruwan Geeganage, Larry E. Douglass, Blake Lee Neubauer, Nicholas M. Dean, Kerry Blanchard, Jianyong Shou, Louis F. Stancato, Julia H. Carter, Eric G. Marcusson
Mucormycosis causes mortality in at least 50% of cases despite current first-line therapies. Clinical and animal data indicate that the presence of elevated available serum iron predisposes the host to mucormycosis. Here we demonstrate that deferasirox, an iron chelator recently approved for use in humans by the US FDA, is a highly effective treatment for mucormycosis. Deferasirox effectively chelated iron from Rhizopus oryzae and demonstrated cidal activity in vitro against 28 of 29 clinical isolates of Mucorales at concentrations well below clinically achievable serum levels. When administered to diabetic ketoacidotic or neutropenic mice with mucormycosis, deferasirox significantly improved survival and decreased tissue fungal burden, with an efficacy similar to that of liposomal amphotericin B. Deferasirox treatment also enhanced the host inflammatory response to mucormycosis. Most importantly, deferasirox synergistically improved survival and reduced tissue fungal burden when combined with liposomal amphotericin B. These data support clinical investigation of adjunctive deferasirox therapy to improve the poor outcomes of mucormycosis with current therapy. As iron availability is integral to the pathogenesis of other infections (e.g., tuberculosis, malaria), broader investigation of deferasirox as an antiinfective treatment is warranted.
Ashraf S. Ibrahim, Teclegiorgis Gebermariam, Yue Fu, Lin Lin,, Mohamed I. Husseiny, Samuel W. French, Julie Schwartz, Christopher D. Skory, John E. Edwards Jr., Brad J. Spellberg
GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) is rate limiting in the provision of the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin for biosynthesis of catecholamines and NO. We asked whether common genetic variation at GCH1 alters transmitter synthesis and predisposes to disease. Here we undertook a systematic search for polymorphisms in GCH1, then tested variants’ contributions to NO and catecholamine release as well as autonomic function in twin pairs. Renal NO and neopterin excretions were significantly heritable, as were baroreceptor coupling (heart rate response to BP fluctuation) and pulse interval (1/heart rate). Common GCH1 variant C+243T in the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTRs) predicted NO excretion, as well as autonomic traits: baroreceptor coupling, maximum pulse interval, and pulse interval variability, though not catecholamine secretion. In individuals with the most extreme BP values in the population, C+243T affected both diastolic and systolic BP, principally in females. In functional studies, C+243T decreased reporter expression in transfected 3′-UTRs plasmids. We conclude that human NO secretion traits are heritable, displaying joint genetic determination with autonomic activity by functional polymorphism at GCH1. Our results document novel pathophysiological links between a key biosynthetic locus and NO metabolism and suggest new strategies for approaching the mechanism, diagnosis, and treatment of risk predictors for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension.
Lian Zhang, Fangwen Rao, Kuixing Zhang, Srikrishna Khandrika, Madhusudan Das, Sucheta M. Vaingankar, Xuping Bao, Brinda K. Rana, Douglas W. Smith, Jennifer Wessel, Rany M. Salem, Juan L. Rodriguez-Flores, Sushil K. Mahata, Nicholas J. Schork, Michael G. Ziegler, Daniel T. O’Connor
We show here that the process of megakaryocytic differentiation requires the presence of the recently discovered protein tescalcin. Tescalcin is dramatically upregulated during the differentiation and maturation of primary megakaryocytes or upon PMA-induced differentiation of K562 cells. This upregulation requires sustained signaling through the ERK pathway. Overexpression of tescalcin in K562 cells initiates events of spontaneous megakaryocytic differentiation, such as expression of specific cell surface antigens, inhibition of cell proliferation, and polyploidization. Conversely, knockdown of this protein in primary CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors and cell lines by RNA interference suppresses megakaryocytic differentiation. In cells lacking tescalcin, the expression of Fli-1, Ets-1, and Ets-2 transcription factors, but not GATA-1 or MafB, is blocked. Thus, tescalcin is essential for the coupling of ERK cascade activation with the expression of Ets family genes in megakaryocytic differentiation.
Konstantin Levay, Vladlen Z. Slepak
Familial tumoral calcinosis is characterized by ectopic calcifications and hyperphosphatemia due to inactivating mutations in FGF23 or UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 (GALNT3). Herein we report a homozygous missense mutation (H193R) in the KLOTHO (KL) gene of a 13-year-old girl who presented with severe tumoral calcinosis with dural and carotid artery calcifications. This patient exhibited defects in mineral ion homeostasis with marked hyperphosphatemia and hypercalcemia as well as elevated serum levels of parathyroid hormone and FGF23. Mapping of H193R mutation onto the crystal structure of myrosinase, a plant homolog of KL, revealed that this histidine residue was at the base of the deep catalytic cleft and mutation of this histidine to arginine should destabilize the putative glycosidase domain (KL1) of KL, thereby attenuating production of membrane-bound and secreted KL. Indeed, compared with wild-type KL, expression and secretion of H193R KL were markedly reduced in vitro, resulting in diminished ability of FGF23 to signal via its cognate FGF receptors. Taken together, our findings provide what we believe to be the first evidence that loss-of-function mutations in human KL impair FGF23 bioactivity, underscoring the essential role of KL in FGF23-mediated phosphate and vitamin D homeostasis in humans.
Shoji Ichikawa, Erik A. Imel, Mary L. Kreiter, Xijie Yu, Donald S. Mackenzie, Andrea H. Sorenson, Regina Goetz, Moosa Mohammadi, Kenneth E. White, Michael J. Econs
Transgenic mice with cardiac-restricted overexpression of secretable TNF (MHCsTNF) develop progressive LV wall thinning and dilation accompanied by an increase in cardiomyocyte apoptosis and a progressive loss of cytoprotective Bcl-2. To test whether cardiac-restricted overexpression of Bcl-2 would prevent adverse cardiac remodeling, we crossed MHCsTNF mice with transgenic mice harboring cardiac-restricted overexpression of Bcl-2. Sustained TNF signaling resulted in activation of the intrinsic cell death pathway, leading to increased cytosolic levels of cytochrome c, Smac/Diablo and Omi/HtrA2, and activation of caspases -3 and -9. Cardiac-restricted overexpression of Bcl-2 blunted activation of the intrinsic pathway and prevented LV wall thinning; however, Bcl-2 only partially attenuated cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Subsequent studies showed that c-FLIP was degraded, that caspase-8 was activated, and that Bid was cleaved to t-Bid, suggesting that the extrinsic pathway was activated concurrently in MHCsTNF hearts. As expected, cardiac Bcl-2 overexpression had no effect on extrinsic signaling. Thus, our results suggest that sustained inflammation leads to activation of multiple cell death pathways that contribute to progressive cardiomyocyte apoptosis; hence the extent of such programmed myocyte cell death is a critical determinant of adverse cardiac remodeling.
Sandra B. Haudek, George E. Taffet, Michael D. Schneider, Douglas L. Mann
Vα24-invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells are potentially important for antitumor immunity. We and others have previously demonstrated positive associations between NKT cell presence in primary tumors and long-term survival in distinct human cancers. However, the mechanism by which aggressive tumors avoid infiltration with NKT and other T cells remains poorly understood. Here, we report that the v-myc myelocytomatosis viral related oncogene, neuroblastoma derived (MYCN), the hallmark of aggressive neuroblastoma, repressed expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein–1/CC chemokine ligand 2 (MCP-1/CCL2), a chemokine required for NKT cell chemoattraction. MYCN knockdown in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cell lines restored CCL2 production and NKT cell chemoattraction. Unlike other oncogenes, MYCN repressed chemokine expression in a STAT3-independent manner, requiring an E-box element in the CCL2 promoter to mediate transcriptional repression. MYCN overexpression in neuroblastoma xenografts in NOD/SCID mice severely inhibited their ability to attract human NKT cells, T cells, and monocytes. Patients with MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma metastatic to bone marrow had 4-fold fewer NKT cells in their bone marrow than did their nonamplified counterparts, indicating that the MYCN-mediated immune escape mechanism, which we believe to be novel, is operative in metastatic cancer and should be considered in tumor immunobiology and for the development of new therapeutic strategies.
Liping Song, Tasnim Ara, Hong-Wei Wu, Chan-Wook Woo, C. Patrick Reynolds, Robert C. Seeger, Yves A. DeClerck, Carol J. Thiele, Richard Sposto, Leonid S. Metelitsa
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide, accounting for an estimated 600,000 deaths annually. Aberrant methylation, consisting of DNA hypomethylation and/or promoter gene CpG hypermethylation, is implicated in the development of a variety of solid tumors, including HCC. We analyzed the global levels of DNA methylation as well as the methylation status of 105 putative tumor suppressor genes and found that the extent of genome-wide hypomethylation and CpG hypermethylation correlates with biological features and clinical outcome of HCC patients. We identified activation of Ras and downstream Ras effectors (ERK, AKT, and RAL) due to epigenetic silencing of inhibitors of the Ras pathway in all HCC. Further, selective inactivation of SPRY1 and -2, DAB2, and SOCS4 and -5 genes and inhibitors of angiogenesis (BNIP3, BNIP3L, IGFBP3, and EGLN2) was associated with poor prognosis. Importantly, several epigenetically silenced putative tumor suppressor genes found in HCC were also inactivated in the nontumorous liver. Our results assign both therapeutic and chemopreventive significance to methylation patterns in human HCC and open the possibility of using molecular targets, including those identified in this study, to effectively inhibit HCC development and progression.
Diego F. Calvisi, Sara Ladu, Alexis Gorden, Miriam Farina, Ju-Seog Lee, Elizabeth A. Conner, Insa Schroeder, Valentina M. Factor, Snorri S. Thorgeirsson
Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase orchestrates nuclear DNA damage responses but is proposed to be involved in other important and clinically relevant functions. Here, we provide evidence for what we believe are 2 novel and intertwined roles for ATM: the regulation of ribonucleotide reductase (RR), the rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo synthesis of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, and control of mitochondrial homeostasis. Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) patient fibroblasts, wild-type fibroblasts treated with the ATM inhibitor KU-55933, and cells in which RR is inhibited pharmacologically or by RNA interference (RNAi) each lead to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion under normal growth conditions. Disruption of ATM signaling in primary A-T fibroblasts also leads to global dysregulation of the R1, R2, and p53R2 subunits of RR, abrogation of RR-dependent upregulation of mtDNA in response to ionizing radiation, high mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA)/mtDNA ratios, and increased resistance to inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration and translation. Finally, there are reduced expression of the R1 subunit of RR and tissue-specific alterations of mtDNA copy number in ATM null mouse tissues, the latter being recapitulated in tissues from human A-T patients. Based on these results, we propose that disruption of RR and mitochondrial homeostasis contributes to the complex pathology of A-T and that RR genes are candidate disease loci in mtDNA-depletion syndromes.
Jana S. Eaton, Z. Ping Lin, Alan C. Sartorelli, Nicholas D. Bonawitz, Gerald S. Shadel