The paradigm for recovery of the renal tubule from acute tubular necrosis is that surviving cells from the areas bordering the injury must migrate into the regions of tubular denudation and proliferate to re-establish the normal tubular epithelium. However, therapies aimed at stimulating these events have failed to alter the course of acute renal failure in human trials. In the present study, we demonstrate that Lin–Sca-1+ cells from the adult mouse bone marrow are mobilized into the circulation by transient renal ischemia and home specifically to injured regions of the renal tubule. There they differentiate into renal tubular epithelial cells and appear to constitute the majority of the cells present in the previously necrotic tubules. Loss of stem cells following bone marrow ablation results in a greater rise in blood urea nitrogen after renal ischemia, while stem cell infusion after bone marrow ablation reverses this effect. Thus, therapies aimed at enhancing the mobilization, propagation, and/or delivery of bone marrow stem cells to the kidney hold potential as entirely new approaches for the treatment of acute tubular necrosis.
Sujata Kale, Anil Karihaloo, Paul R. Clark, Michael Kashgarian, Diane S. Krause, Lloyd G. Cantley
The only curative therapy for sickle cell disease (SCD) is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation. Gene therapy approaches for autologous HSC transplantation are being developed. Although earlier engraftment is seen when cells from GCSF-mobilized blood are transplanted than when bone marrow is transplanted, administration of GCSF to patients with SCD can cause significant morbidity. We tested whether primitive hematopoietic progenitors are spontaneously mobilized in the blood of patients with SCD during acute crisis (AC-SCD patients). The frequency of myeloid-lymphoid–initiating cells (ML-ICs) and SCID-repopulating cells (SRCs) was significantly higher in blood from AC-SCD patients than in blood from patients with steady-state SCD or from normal donors. The presence of SRCs in peripheral blood was not associated with detection of long-term culture–initiating cells, consistent with the notion that SRCs are more primitive than long-term culture–initiating cells. As ML-ICs and SRCs were both detected in blood of AC-SCD patients only, these assays may both measure primitive progenitors. The frequency of ML-ICs also correlated with increases in stem cell factor, GCSF, and IL-8 levels in AC-SCD compared with steady-state SCD and normal-donor sera. Because significant numbers of ML-ICs and SRCs are mobilized in the blood without exogenous cytokine treatment during acute crisis of SCD, collection of peripheral blood progenitors during crisis may yield a source of autologous HSCs suitable for ex-vivo correction by gene therapy approaches and subsequent transplantation.
Christopher E.D. Lamming, Lance Augustin, Mark Blackstad, Troy C. Lund, Robert P. Hebbel, Catherine M. Verfaillie
Vascular progenitors were previously isolated from blood and bone marrow; herein, we define the presence, phenotype, potential, and origin of vascular progenitors resident within adult skeletal muscle. Two distinct populations of cells were simultaneously isolated from hindlimb muscle: the side population (SP) of highly purified hematopoietic stem cells and non-SP cells, which do not reconstitute blood. Muscle SP cells were found to be derived from, and replenished by, bone marrow SP cells; however, within the muscle environment, they were phenotypically distinct from marrow SP cells. Non-SP cells were also derived from marrow stem cells and contained progenitors with a mesenchymal phenotype. Muscle SP and non-SP cells were isolated from Rosa26 mice and directly injected into injured muscle of genetically matched recipients. SP cells engrafted into endothelium during vascular regeneration, and non-SP cells engrafted into smooth muscle. Thus, distinct populations of vascular progenitors are resident within skeletal muscle, are derived from bone marrow, and exhibit different cell fates during injury-induced vascular regeneration.
Susan M. Majka, Kathyjo A. Jackson, Kirsten A. Kienstra, Mark W. Majesky, Margaret A. Goodell, Karen K. Hirschi
Kohshi Ohishi, Barbara Varnum-Finney, Irwin D. Bernstein
Emanuela Gussoni, Richard R. Bennett, Kristina R. Muskiewicz, Todd Meyerrose, Jan A. Nolta, Irene Gilgoff, James Stein, Yiu-mo Chan, Hart G. Lidov, Carsten G. Bönnemann, Arpad von Moers, Glenn E. Morris, Johan T. den Dunnen, Jeffrey S. Chamberlain, Louis M. Kunkel, Kenneth Weinberg