Telomeres predict life expectancy: Coverage by Science World Report, Pulmonary Fibrosis News, and News-Medical.net on "Telomerase mutations in smokers with severe emphysema."
Nanomedicine keeping atherosclerosis in check: Coverage by Bioscience Technology and Controlled Environments on "Annexin A1–containing extracellular vesicles and polymeric nanoparticles promote epithelial wound repair."
Activated immune cells and colorectal cancer: Coverage by Oncology Nurse Advisor and Immuno-Oncology News on "Tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity determines colorectal cancer patient prognosis."
Bird flu protection from flu vaccine: Coverage by American Herald, WebMD, Healthline, Doctors Lounge on "Preexisting human antibodies neutralize recently emerged H7N9 influenza strains."
New lung cancer target: Coverage by Oncology Nurse Advisor on "Pyruvate carboxylase is critical for non–small-cell lung cancer proliferation."
Collagen cross-links can determine tumor ability to grow and spread: Coverage by Health Canal and News Medical.net on "Lysyl hydroxylase 2 induces a collagen cross-link switch in tumor stroma."
Bile duct cancer research point to new treatment: Coverage by Cancer Research UK and Medical Xpress on "WNT signaling drives cholangiocarcinoma growth and can be pharmacologically inhibited."
Defective goblet cell contributes to cystic fibrosis: Coverage by Eureka Alert on "Defective goblet cell exocytosis contributes to murine cystic fibrosis–associated intestinal disease."
Predicting effectiveness of cancer vaccines: Coverage by Science 2.0 on "Proximity ligation assay evaluates IDH1R132H presentation in gliomas."
Parkinson's Trial may lead to new treatments: Coverage by Medical News Today on "Safety and tolerability of intracerebroventricular PDGF-BB in Parkinson’s disease patients."
T cells mediating neuroprotection following CNS injury: Coverage by Nature Immunology (subscription) on "MHCII-independent CD4+ T cells protect injured CNS neurons via IL-4."
The composition of tumor-targeted T cell infiltrates is a major prognostic factor in colorectal cancer (CRC) outcome; however, the functional role of these populations in prolonging patient survival remains unclear. Here, we evaluated 190 patients with CRC for the presence of functionally active tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), the tumor specificity of these TILs, and the correlation between patient TILs and long-term survival. Using intracytoplasmic cytokine staining in conjunction with HLA multimers loaded with tumor peptide and antigen-specific cytokine secretion assays, we determined that TNF-α expression delineates a population of tumor antigen–specific (TA-specific) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) present within tumors from patients with CRC. Upregulation of TNF-α expression in TILs strongly correlated with an increase in the total amount of intratumoral TNF-α, which is indicative of tumor-specific CTL activity. Moreover, a retrospective multivariate analysis of 102 patients with CRC, which had multiple immune parameters evaluated, revealed that increased TNF-α concentration was an independent prognostic factor. Together, these results indicate that the prognostic impact of T cell infiltrates for CRC maybe largely based on subpopulations of active TA-specific T cells within the tumor, suggesting causal implication for these cells in patient survival. Additionally, these results support the use of intratumoral TNF-α, which is indicative of T cell function, as a prognostic parameter for CRC.
Christoph Reissfelder, Slava Stamova, Christina Gossmann, Marion Braun, Andreas Bonertz, Ute Walliczek, Mario Grimm, Nuh N. Rahbari, Moritz Koch, Maral Saadati, Axel Benner, Markus W. Büchler, Dirk Jäger, Niels Halama, Khashayarsha Khazaie, Jürgen Weitz, Philipp Beckhove
The emergence and seasonal persistence of pathogenic H7N9 influenza viruses in China have raised concerns about the pandemic potential of this strain, which, if realized, would have a substantial effect on global health and economies. H7N9 viruses are able to bind to human sialic acid receptors and are also able to develop resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors without a loss in fitness. It is not clear whether prior exposure to circulating human influenza viruses or influenza vaccination confers immunity to H7N9 strains. Here, we demonstrate that 3 of 83 H3 HA-reactive monoclonal antibodies generated by individuals that had previously undergone influenza A virus vaccination were able to neutralize H7N9 viruses and protect mice against homologous challenge. The H7N9-neutralizing antibodies bound to the HA stalk domain but exhibited a difference in their breadth of reactivity to different H7 influenza subtypes. Mapping viral escape mutations suggested that these antibodies bind at least two different epitopes on the stalk region. Together, these results indicate that these broadly neutralizing antibodies may contribute to the development of therapies against H7N9 strains and may also be effective against pathogenic H7 strains that emerge in the future.
Carole J. Henry Dunand, Paul E. Leon, Kaval Kaur, Gene S. Tan, Nai-Ying Zheng, Sarah Andrews, Min Huang, Xinyan Qu, Yunping Huang, Marlene Salgado-Ferrer, Irvin Y. Ho, William Taylor, Rong Hai, Jens Wrammert, Rafi Ahmed, Adolfo García-Sastre, Peter Palese, Florian Krammer, Patrick C. Wilson
Anabolic biosynthesis requires precursors supplied by the Krebs cycle, which in turn requires anaplerosis to replenish precursor intermediates. The major anaplerotic sources are pyruvate and glutamine, which require the activity of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and glutaminase 1 (GLS1), respectively. Due to their rapid proliferation, cancer cells have increased anabolic and energy demands; however, different cancer cell types exhibit differential requirements for PC- and GLS-mediated pathways for anaplerosis and cell proliferation. Here, we infused patients with early-stage non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with uniformly 13C-labeled glucose before tissue resection and determined that the cancerous tissues in these patients had enhanced PC activity. Freshly resected paired lung tissue slices cultured in 13C6-glucose or 13C5,15N2-glutamine tracers confirmed selective activation of PC over GLS in NSCLC. Compared with noncancerous tissues, PC expression was greatly enhanced in cancerous tissues, whereas GLS1 expression showed no trend. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis of paired lung tissues showed PC overexpression in cancer cells rather than in stromal cells of tumor tissues. PC knockdown induced multinucleation, decreased cell proliferation and colony formation in human NSCLC cells, and reduced tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model. Growth inhibition was accompanied by perturbed Krebs cycle activity, inhibition of lipid and nucleotide biosynthesis, and altered glutathione homeostasis. These findings indicate that PC-mediated anaplerosis in early-stage NSCLC is required for tumor survival and proliferation.
Katherine Sellers, Matthew P. Fox, Michael Bousamra II, Stephen P. Slone, Richard M. Higashi, Donald M. Miller, Yali Wang, Jun Yan, Mariia O. Yuneva, Rahul Deshpande, Andrew N. Lane, Teresa W.-M. Fan
Epithelial tumor metastasis is preceded by an accumulation of collagen cross-links that heighten stromal stiffness and stimulate the invasive properties of tumor cells. However, the biochemical nature of collagen cross-links in cancer is still unclear. Here, we postulated that epithelial tumorigenesis is accompanied by changes in the biochemical type of collagen cross-links. Utilizing resected human lung cancer tissues and a p21CIP1/WAF1-deficient, K-rasG12D-expressing murine metastatic lung cancer model, we showed that, relative to normal lung tissues, tumor stroma contains higher levels of hydroxylysine aldehyde–derived collagen cross-links (HLCCs) and lower levels of lysine aldehyde–derived cross-links (LCCs), which are the predominant types of collagen cross-links in skeletal tissues and soft tissues, respectively. Gain- and loss-of-function studies in tumor cells showed that lysyl hydroxylase 2 (LH2), which hydroxylates telopeptidyl lysine residues on collagen, shifted the tumor stroma toward a high-HLCC, low-LCC state, increased tumor stiffness, and enhanced tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Together, our data indicate that LH2 enhances the metastatic properties of tumor cells and functions as a regulatory switch that controls the relative abundance of biochemically distinct types of collagen cross-links in the tumor stroma.
Yulong Chen, Masahiko Terajima, Yanan Yang, Li Sun, Young-Ho Ahn, Daniela Pankova, Daniel S. Puperi, Takeshi Watanabe, Min P. Kim, Shanda H. Blackmon, Jaime Rodriguez, Hui Liu, Carmen Behrens, Ignacio I. Wistuba, Rosalba Minelli, Kenneth L. Scott, Johannah Sanchez-Adams, Farshid Guilak, Debananda Pati, Nishan Thilaganathan, Alan R. Burns, Chad J. Creighton, Elisabeth D. Martinez, Tomasz Zal, K. Jane Grande-Allen, Mitsuo Yamauchi, Jonathan M. Kurie
Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is typically diagnosed at an advanced stage and is refractory to surgical intervention and chemotherapy. Despite a global increase in the incidence of CC, little progress has been made toward the development of treatments for this cancer. Here we utilized human tissue; CC cell xenografts; a p53-deficient transgenic mouse model; and a non-transgenic, chemically induced rat model of CC that accurately reflects both the inflammatory and regenerative background associated with human CC pathology. Using these systems, we determined that the WNT pathway is highly activated in CCs and that inflammatory macrophages are required to establish this WNT-high state in vivo. Moreover, depletion of macrophages or inhibition of WNT signaling with one of two small molecule WNT inhibitors in mouse and rat CC models markedly reduced CC proliferation and increased apoptosis, resulting in tumor regression. Together, these results demonstrate that enhanced WNT signaling is a characteristic of CC and suggest that targeting WNT signaling pathways has potential as a therapeutic strategy for CC.
Luke Boulter, Rachel V. Guest, Timothy J. Kendall, David H. Wilson, Davina Wojtacha, Andrew J. Robson, Rachel A. Ridgway, Kay Samuel, Nico Van Rooijen, Simon T. Barry, Stephen J. Wigmore, Owen J. Sansom, Stuart J. Forbes
Cystic fibrosis (CF) intestinal disease is associated with the pathological manifestation mucoviscidosis, which is the secretion of tenacious, viscid mucus that plugs ducts and glands of epithelial-lined organs. Goblet cells are the principal cell type involved in exocytosis of mucin granules; however, little is known about the exocytotic process of goblet cells in the CF intestine. Using intestinal organoids from a CF mouse model, we determined that CF goblet cells have altered exocytotic dynamics, which involved intrathecal granule swelling that was abruptly followed by incomplete release of partially decondensated mucus. Some CF goblet cells exhibited an ectopic granule location and distorted cellular morphology, a phenotype that is consistent with retrograde intracellular granule movement during exocytosis. Increasing the luminal concentration of bicarbonate, which mimics CF transmembrane conductance regulator–mediated anion secretion, increased spontaneous degranulation in WT goblet cells and improved exocytotic dynamics in CF goblet cells; however, there was still an apparent incoordination between granule decondensation and exocytosis in the CF goblet cells. Compared with those within WT goblet cells, mucin granules within CF goblet cells had an alkaline pH, which may adversely affect the polyionic composition of the mucins. Together, these findings indicate that goblet cell dysfunction is an epithelial-autonomous defect in the CF intestine that likely contributes to the pathology of mucoviscidosis and the intestinal manifestations of obstruction and inflammation.
Jinghua Liu, Nancy M. Walker, Akifumi Ootani, Ashlee M. Strubberg, Lane L. Clarke
For a targeted cancer vaccine to be effective, the antigen of interest needs to be naturally processed and presented on MHC by the target cell or an antigen-presenting cell (APC) in the tumor stroma. The presence of these characteristics is often assumed based on animal models, evaluation of antigen-overexpressing APCs in vitro, or assays of material-consuming immune precipitation from fresh solid tissue. Here, we evaluated the use of an alternative approach that uses the proximity ligation assay (PLA) to identify the presentation of an MHC class II–restricted antigen in paraffin-embedded tissue sections from patients with brain tumors. This approach required a specific antibody directed against the epitope that was presented. We used an antibody that specifically binds an epitope of mutated isocitrate dehydrogenase type 1 (IDH1R132H), which is frequently expressed in gliomas and other types of tumors. In situ PLA showed that the IDH1R132H epitope colocalizes with MHC class II in IDH1R132H-mutated glioma tissue. Moreover, PLA demonstrated colocalization between the class II epitope-containing melanoma antigen New York esophageal 1 and MHC class II. Collectively, our data suggest that PLA may be a useful tool to acquire information on whether an antigen is presented in situ, and this technique has potential to guide clinical studies that use antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy.
Lukas Bunse, Theresa Schumacher, Felix Sahm, Stefan Pusch, Iris Oezen, Katharina Rauschenbach, Marina Gonzalez, Gergely Solecki, Matthias Osswald, David Capper, Benedikt Wiestler, Frank Winkler, Christel Herold-Mende, Andreas von Deimling, Wolfgang Wick, Michael Platten
Gesine Paul, Olof Zachrisson, Andrea Varrone, Per Almqvist, Markus Jerling, Göran Lind, Stig Rehncrona, Bengt Linderoth, Hjalmar Bjartmarz, Lisa L. Shafer, Robert Coffey, Mikael Svensson, Katarina Jansson Mercer, Anton Forsberg, Christer Halldin, Per Svenningsson, Håkan Widner, Jonas Frisén, Sven Pålhagen, Anders Haegerstrand