The cover image is a false-colored transmission electron micrograph of an alveolar type II cell from the lung of a patient with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Dysmorphic, swollen mitochondria are shown in pink. On page 521, Bueno et al. report that mitochondrial dysfunction in alveolar type II cells promotes idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
In recent years, questions have been raised regarding the failure of some preclinical work to translate to clinical benefit and the inability to reproduce some high-profile studies. While myriad factors contribute to these problems, an important step in improving the integrity of published work is for journals to enforce rigorous reporting of methods and results.
The necessary infrastructure to carry out genomics-driven oncology is now widely available and has resulted in the exponential increase in characterized cancer genomes. While a subset of genomic alterations is clinically actionable, the majority of somatic events remain classified as variants of unknown significance and will require functional characterization. A careful cataloging of the genomic alterations and their response to therapeutic intervention should allow the compilation of an “actionability atlas” and the creation of a genomic taxonomy stratified by tumor type and oncogenic pathway activation. The next phase of genomic medicine will therefore require talented bioinformaticians, genomic navigators, and multidisciplinary approaches to decode complex cancer genomes and guide potential therapy. Equally important will be the ethical and interpretable return of results to practicing oncologists. Finally, the integration of genomics into clinical trials is likely to speed the development of predictive biomarkers of response to targeted therapy as well as define pathways to acquired resistance.
D. Neil Hayes, William Y. Kim
Activation of the inflammasome occurs in response to infection with a wide array of pathogenic microbes. The inflammasome serves as a platform to activate caspase-1, which results in the subsequent processing and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 and the initiation of an inflammatory cell death pathway termed pyroptosis. Effective inflammasome activation is essential in controlling pathogen replication as well as initiating adaptive immune responses against the offending pathogens. However, a number of pathogens have developed strategies to evade inflammasome activation. In this Review, we discuss these pathogen evasion strategies as well as the potential infectious complications of therapeutic blockade of IL-1 pathways.
Tyler K. Ulland, Polly J. Ferguson, Fayyaz S. Sutterwala
Brown adipose tissue (BAT), a specialized fat that dissipates energy to produce heat, plays an important role in the regulation of energy balance. Two types of thermogenic adipocytes with distinct developmental and anatomical features exist in rodents and humans: classical brown adipocytes and beige (also referred to as brite) adipocytes. While classical brown adipocytes are located mainly in dedicated BAT depots of rodents and infants, beige adipocytes sporadically reside with white adipocytes and emerge in response to certain environmental cues, such as chronic cold exposure, a process often referred to as “browning” of white adipose tissue. Recent studies indicate the existence of beige adipocytes in adult humans, making this cell type an attractive therapeutic target for obesity and obesity-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes. This Review aims to cover recent progress in our understanding of the anatomical, developmental, and functional characteristics of brown and beige adipocytes and discuss emerging questions, with a special emphasis on adult human BAT.
Labros Sidossis, Shingo Kajimura
Apoptosis is a metazoan process of controlled cell elimination that plays critical roles in embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. Apoptosis dysregulation contributes to several important diseases, including cancer. Two distinct yet interconnected signaling pathways control apoptosis by activating a core intracellular machinery of death proteases called caspases. The intrinsic apoptotic pathway engages caspases via members of the BCL-2 protein family and the mitochondria in reaction to severe cellular damage or stress. The extrinsic pathway activates caspases via cell-surface death receptors, which respond to cognate death ligands expressed on immune-effector cells. Tumor cells can acquire various apoptosis-evasion mechanisms; nevertheless, the transformed state of these cells makes them uniquely susceptible to apoptosis reactivation if resistance is circumvented. Molecular approaches to reengage the apoptotic pathways in cancer have been underway for over two decades. Gratifyingly, BCL-2 antagonists — which drive the intrinsic pathway — are beginning to bear clinical fruit. In contrast, clinical attempts to stimulate the extrinsic pathway with proapoptotic receptor agonists (PARAs) have been disappointing, despite compelling preclinical efficacy with this class of agents. Here, I discuss some of the possible reasons for this translational discrepancy and suggest strategies to overcome it with the next generation of PARAs.
Neural centers in the hypothalamus regulate food intake and body weight in response to hormones and other neural stimuli, and dysfunctional communication between the brain and gut underlies metabolic disorders, including obesity. In this issue of the
Jenny Tong, David D’Alessio
Inflammatory conditions intensify and then resolve, often sparing and recovering some of the injured tissue. While the ebb and flow of inflammation can be followed in many tissues, there is not a great deal of information on how inflammation regresses in the brain. In this issue of the
Cancer cells exhibit altered metabolism compared with that of the surrounding tissue. There is hope that these reprogrammed metabolic pathways in tumors hold the key to advances for both cancer imaging and therapy. Translation of observations in cultured cancer cells to live tumors, however, has proven to be highly complex, and robust methods to analyze metabolic activity in primary human tumors are sorely needed. In this issue of the
Christopher T. Hensley, Ralph J. DeBerardinis
Spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an X-linked disease characterized by degeneration of motor neurons, muscle atrophy, and progressive weakness. It is caused by a polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in the androgen receptor (AR), a transcription factor that is activated upon hormone binding. The polyQ expansion in AR causes it to form intracellular aggregates and impairs transcriptional activity. Intriguingly, SUMOylation (where SUMO indicates small ubiquitin-like modifier) of AR inhibits its transcriptional activity and reduces aggregation of the polyQ form of this protein, but it is unclear whether SUMOylation plays a pathogenic or protective role in SBMA. In this issue of the
Tim J. Craig, Jeremy M. Henley
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a range of manifestations, including steatosis and cirrhosis. Progressive disease is characterized by hepatic leukocyte accumulation in the form of steatohepatitis. The adhesion molecule vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is a membrane-bound amine oxidase that promotes leukocyte recruitment to the liver, and the soluble form (sVAP-1) accounts for most circulating monoamine oxidase activity, has insulin-like effects, and can initiate oxidative stress. Here, we determined that hepatic VAP-1 expression is increased in patients with chronic liver disease and that serum sVAP-1 levels are elevated in patients with NAFLD compared with those in control individuals. In 4 murine hepatic injury models, an absence or blockade of functional VAP-1 reduced inflammatory cell recruitment to the liver and attenuated fibrosis. Moreover, disease was reduced in animals expressing a catalytically inactive form of VAP-1, implicating enzyme activity in the disease pathogenesis. Within the liver, hepatic stromal cells expressed functional VAP-1, and evaluation of cultured cells revealed that sVAP-1 promotes leukocyte migration through catalytic generation of ROS, which depended on VAP-1 enzyme activity. VAP-1 enhanced stromal cell spreading and wound closure and modulated expression of profibrotic genes. Together, these results link the amine oxidase activity of VAP-1 with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis and suggest that targeting VAP-1 has therapeutic potential for NAFLD and other chronic fibrotic liver diseases.
Chris J. Weston, Emma L. Shepherd, Lee C. Claridge, Pia Rantakari, Stuart M. Curbishley, Jeremy W. Tomlinson, Stefan G. Hubscher, Gary M. Reynolds, Kristiina Aalto, Quentin M. Anstee, Sirpa Jalkanen, Marko Salmi, David J. Smith, Christopher P. Day, David H. Adams
Although aging is a known risk factor for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the pathogenic mechanisms that underlie the effects of advancing age remain largely unexplained. Some age-related neurodegenerative diseases have an etiology that is related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we found that alveolar type II cells (AECIIs) in the lungs of IPF patients exhibit marked accumulation of dysmorphic and dysfunctional mitochondria. These mitochondrial abnormalities in AECIIs of IPF lungs were associated with upregulation of ER stress markers and were recapitulated in normal mice with advancing age in response to stimulation of ER stress. We found that impaired mitochondria in IPF and aging lungs were associated with low expression of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1). Knockdown of PINK1 expression in lung epithelial cells resulted in mitochondria depolarization and expression of profibrotic factors. Moreover, young PINK1-deficient mice developed similarly dysmorphic, dysfunctional mitochondria in the AECIIs and were vulnerable to apoptosis and development of lung fibrosis. Our data indicate that PINK1 deficiency results in swollen, dysfunctional mitochondria and defective mitophagy, and promotes fibrosis in the aging lung.
Marta Bueno, Yen-Chun Lai, Yair Romero, Judith Brands, Claudette M. St. Croix, Christelle Kamga, Catherine Corey, Jose D. Herazo-Maya, John Sembrat, Janet S. Lee, Steve R. Duncan, Mauricio Rojas, Sruti Shiva, Charleen T. Chu, Ana L. Mora
In contrast to microbially triggered inflammation, mechanisms promoting sterile inflammation remain poorly understood. Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are considered key inducers of sterile inflammation following cell death, but the relative contribution of specific DAMPs, including high–mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), is ill defined. Due to the postnatal lethality of
Peter Huebener, Jean-Philippe Pradere, Celine Hernandez, Geum-Youn Gwak, Jorge Matias Caviglia, Xueru Mu, John D. Loike, Rosalind E. Jenkins, Daniel J. Antoine, Robert F. Schwabe
WNT signaling stimulates bone formation by increasing both the number of osteoblasts and their protein-synthesis activity. It is not clear how WNT augments the capacity of osteoblast progenitors to meet the increased energetic and synthetic needs associated with mature osteoblasts. Here, in cultured osteoblast progenitors, we determined that WNT stimulates glutamine catabolism through the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and consequently lowers intracellular glutamine levels. The WNT-induced reduction of glutamine concentration triggered a general control nonderepressible 2–mediated (GCN2-mediated) integrated stress response (ISR) that stimulated expression of genes responsible for amino acid supply, transfer RNA (tRNA) aminoacylation, and protein folding. WNT-induced glutamine catabolism and ISR were β-catenin independent, but required mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation. In a hyperactive WNT signaling mouse model of human osteosclerosis, inhibition of glutamine catabolism or
Courtney M. Karner, Emel Esen, Adewole L. Okunade, Bruce W. Patterson, Fanxin Long
Mutations in the essential telomerase genes
Susan E. Stanley, Julian J.L. Chen, Joshua D. Podlevsky, Jonathan K. Alder, Nadia N. Hansel, Rasika A. Mathias, Xiaodong Qi, Nicholas M. Rafaels, Robert A. Wise, Edwin K. Silverman, Kathleen C. Barnes, Mary Armanios
While 30%–70% of RSV-infected infants develop bronchiolitis, 2% require hospitalization. It is not clear why disease severity differs among healthy, full-term infants; however, virus titers, inflammation, and Th2 bias are proposed explanations. While TLR4 is associated with these disease phenotypes, the role of this receptor in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) pathogenesis is controversial. Here, we evaluated the interaction between TLR4 and environmental factors in RSV disease and defined the immune mediators associated with severe illness. Two independent populations of infants with RSV bronchiolitis revealed that the severity of RSV infection is determined by the
Mauricio T. Caballero, M. Elina Serra, Patricio L. Acosta, Jacqui Marzec, Luz Gibbons, Maximiliano Salim, Andrea Rodriguez, Andrea Reynaldi, Alejandro Garcia, Daniela Bado, Ursula J. Buchholz, Diego R. Hijano, Silvina Coviello, Dawn Newcomb, Miguel Bellabarba, Fausto M. Ferolla, Romina Libster, Ada Berenstein, Susana Siniawaski, Valeria Blumetti, Marcela Echavarria, Leonardo Pinto, Andrea Lawrence, M. Fabiana Ossorio, Arnoldo Grosman, Cecilia G. Mateu, Carola Bayle, Alejandra Dericco, Mariana Pellegrini, Ignacio Igarza, Horacio A. Repetto, Luciano Alva Grimaldi, Prathyusha Gudapati, Norberto R. Polack, Fernando Althabe, Min Shi, Fernando Ferrero, Eduardo Bergel, Renato T. Stein, R. Stokes Peebles, Mark Boothby, Steven R. Kleeberger, Fernando P. Polack
Bacterial infections represent a rapidly growing challenge to human health. Aminoglycosides are widely used broad-spectrum antibiotics, but they inflict permanent hearing loss in up to ~50% of patients by causing selective sensory hair cell loss. Here, we hypothesized that reducing aminoglycoside entry into hair cells via mechanotransducer channels would reduce ototoxicity, and therefore we synthesized 9 aminoglycosides with modifications based on biophysical properties of the hair cell mechanotransducer channel and interactions between aminoglycosides and the bacterial ribosome. Compared with the parent aminoglycoside sisomicin, all 9 derivatives displayed no or reduced ototoxicity, with the lead compound N1MS 17 times less ototoxic and with reduced penetration of hair cell mechanotransducer channels in rat cochlear cultures. Both N1MS and sisomicin suppressed growth of
Markus E. Huth, Kyu-Hee Han, Kayvon Sotoudeh, Yi-Ju Hsieh, Thomas Effertz, Andrew A. Vu, Sarah Verhoeven, Michael H. Hsieh, Robert Greenhouse, Alan G. Cheng, Anthony J. Ricci
For a targeted cancer vaccine to be effective, the antigen of interest needs to be naturally processed and presented on MHC by the target cell or an antigen-presenting cell (APC) in the tumor stroma. The presence of these characteristics is often assumed based on animal models, evaluation of antigen-overexpressing APCs in vitro, or assays of material-consuming immune precipitation from fresh solid tissue. Here, we evaluated the use of an alternative approach that uses the proximity ligation assay (PLA) to identify the presentation of an MHC class II–restricted antigen in paraffin-embedded tissue sections from patients with brain tumors. This approach required a specific antibody directed against the epitope that was presented. We used an antibody that specifically binds an epitope of mutated isocitrate dehydrogenase type 1 (IDH1R132H), which is frequently expressed in gliomas and other types of tumors. In situ PLA showed that the IDH1R132H epitope colocalizes with MHC class II in IDH1R132H-mutated glioma tissue. Moreover, PLA demonstrated colocalization between the class II epitope-containing melanoma antigen New York esophageal 1 and MHC class II. Collectively, our data suggest that PLA may be a useful tool to acquire information on whether an antigen is presented in situ, and this technique has potential to guide clinical studies that use antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy.
Lukas Bunse, Theresa Schumacher, Felix Sahm, Stefan Pusch, Iris Oezen, Katharina Rauschenbach, Marina Gonzalez, Gergely Solecki, Matthias Osswald, David Capper, Benedikt Wiestler, Frank Winkler, Christel Herold-Mende, Andreas von Deimling, Wolfgang Wick, Michael Platten
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common inherited nephropathy responsible for 4%–10% of end-stage renal disease cases. Mutations in the genes encoding polycystin-1 (PC1,
Vladimir G. Gainullin, Katharina Hopp, Christopher J. Ward, Cynthia J. Hommerding, Peter C. Harris
The gene encoding F-box protein FBXW7 is frequently mutated in many human cancers. Although most previous studies have focused on the tumor-suppressive capacity of FBXW7 in tumor cells themselves, we determined that FBXW7 in the host microenvironment also suppresses cancer metastasis. Deletion of
Kanae Yumimoto, Sayuri Akiyoshi, Hiroki Ueo, Yasuaki Sagara, Ichiro Onoyama, Hiroaki Ueo, Shinji Ohno, Masaki Mori, Koshi Mimori, Keiichi I. Nakayama
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder that presents with extensive phenotypic variability, including facial dysmorphism, developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), abnormal extremities, and hirsutism. About 65% of patients harbor mutations in genes that encode subunits or regulators of the cohesin complex, including
Bo Yuan, Davut Pehlivan, Ender Karaca, Nisha Patel, Wu-Lin Charng, Tomasz Gambin, Claudia Gonzaga-Jauregui, V. Reid Sutton, Gozde Yesil, Sevcan Tug Bozdogan, Tulay Tos, Asuman Koparir, Erkan Koparir, Christine R. Beck, Shen Gu, Huseyin Aslan, Ozge Ozalp Yuregir, Khalid Al Rubeaan, Dhekra Alnaqeb, Muneera J. Alshammari, Yavuz Bayram, Mehmed M. Atik, Hatip Aydin, B. Bilge Geckinli, Mehmet Seven, Hakan Ulucan, Elif Fenercioglu, Mustafa Ozen, Shalini Jhangiani, Donna M. Muzny, Eric Boerwinkle, Beyhan Tuysuz, Fowzan S. Alkuraya, Richard A. Gibbs, James R. Lupski
Vascular endothelial barrier dysfunction underlies diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), characterized by edema and inflammatory cell infiltration. The transcription factor HIF2α is highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and may regulate endothelial barrier function. Here, we analyzed promoter sequences of genes encoding proteins that regulate adherens junction (AJ) integrity and determined that
Haixia Gong, Jalees Rehman, Haiyang Tang, Kishore Wary, Manish Mittal, Pallavi Chatturvedi, Youyang Zhao, Yulia A. Komorova, Stephen M. Vogel, Asrar B. Malik
Cellular lipid metabolism has been linked to immune responses; however, the precise mechanisms by which de novo fatty acid synthesis can regulate inflammatory responses remain unclear. The NLRP3 inflammasome serves as a platform for caspase-1–dependent maturation and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Here, we demonstrated that the mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) regulates NLRP3-mediated caspase-1 activation through the stimulation of lipid synthesis in macrophages. UCP2-deficient mice displayed improved survival in a mouse model of polymicrobial sepsis. Moreover, UCP2 expression was increased in human sepsis. Consistently, UCP2-deficient mice displayed impaired lipid synthesis and decreased production of IL-1β and IL-18 in response to LPS challenge. In macrophages, UCP2 deficiency suppressed NLRP3-mediated caspase-1 activation and NLRP3 expression associated with inhibition of lipid synthesis. In UCP2-deficient macrophages, inhibition of lipid synthesis resulted from the downregulation of fatty acid synthase (FASN), a key regulator of fatty acid synthesis. FASN inhibition by shRNA and treatment with the chemical inhibitors C75 and cerulenin suppressed NLRP3-mediated caspase-1 activation and inhibited NLRP3 and pro–IL-1β gene expression in macrophages. In conclusion, our results suggest that UCP2 regulates the NLRP3 inflammasome by inducing the lipid synthesis pathway in macrophages. These results identify UCP2 as a potential therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases such as sepsis.
Jong-Seok Moon, Seonmin Lee, Mi-Ae Park, Ilias I. Siempos, Maria Haslip, Patty J. Lee, Mijin Yun, Chun K. Kim, Judie Howrylak, Stefan W. Ryter, Kiichi Nakahira, Augustine M.K. Choi
Tau is a highly abundant and multifunctional brain protein that accumulates in neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), most commonly in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and primary age-related tauopathy. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been linked to neurodegeneration; however, it is not clear whether miRNA dysregulation contributes to tau neurotoxicity. Here, we determined that the highly conserved brain miRNA miR-219 is downregulated in brain tissue taken at autopsy from patients with AD and from those with severe primary age-related tauopathy. In a
Ismael Santa-Maria, Maria E. Alaniz, Neil Renwick, Carolina Cela, Tudor A. Fulga, David Van Vactor, Thomas Tuschl, Lorraine N. Clark, Michael L. Shelanski, Brian D. McCabe, John F. Crary
Anabolic biosynthesis requires precursors supplied by the Krebs cycle, which in turn requires anaplerosis to replenish precursor intermediates. The major anaplerotic sources are pyruvate and glutamine, which require the activity of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and glutaminase 1 (GLS1), respectively. Due to their rapid proliferation, cancer cells have increased anabolic and energy demands; however, different cancer cell types exhibit differential requirements for PC- and GLS-mediated pathways for anaplerosis and cell proliferation. Here, we infused patients with early-stage non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with uniformly 13C-labeled glucose before tissue resection and determined that the cancerous tissues in these patients had enhanced PC activity. Freshly resected paired lung tissue slices cultured in 13C6-glucose or 13C5,15N2-glutamine tracers confirmed selective activation of PC over GLS in NSCLC. Compared with noncancerous tissues, PC expression was greatly enhanced in cancerous tissues, whereas GLS1 expression showed no trend. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis of paired lung tissues showed PC overexpression in cancer cells rather than in stromal cells of tumor tissues. PC knockdown induced multinucleation, decreased cell proliferation and colony formation in human NSCLC cells, and reduced tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model. Growth inhibition was accompanied by perturbed Krebs cycle activity, inhibition of lipid and nucleotide biosynthesis, and altered glutathione homeostasis. These findings indicate that PC-mediated anaplerosis in early-stage NSCLC is required for tumor survival and proliferation.
Katherine Sellers, Matthew P. Fox, Michael Bousamra II, Stephen P. Slone, Richard M. Higashi, Donald M. Miller, Yali Wang, Jun Yan, Mariia O. Yuneva, Rahul Deshpande, Andrew N. Lane, Teresa W.-M. Fan
A body of experimental evidence suggests that T cells mediate neuroprotection following CNS injury; however, the antigen specificity of these T cells and how they mediate neuroprotection are unknown. Here, we have provided evidence that T cell–mediated neuroprotection after CNS injury can occur independently of major histocompatibility class II (MHCII) signaling to T cell receptors (TCRs). Using two murine models of CNS injury, we determined that damage-associated molecular mediators that originate from injured CNS tissue induce a population of neuroprotective, IL-4–producing T cells in an antigen-independent fashion. Compared with wild-type mice, IL-4–deficient animals had decreased functional recovery following CNS injury; however, transfer of CD4+ T cells from wild-type mice, but not from IL-4–deficient mice, enhanced neuronal survival. Using a culture-based system, we determined that T cell–derived IL-4 protects and induces recovery of injured neurons by activation of neuronal IL-4 receptors, which potentiated neurotrophin signaling via the AKT and MAPK pathways. Together, these findings demonstrate that damage-associated molecules from the injured CNS induce a neuroprotective T cell response that is independent of MHCII/TCR interactions and is MyD88 dependent. Moreover, our results indicate that IL-4 mediates neuroprotection and recovery of the injured CNS and suggest that strategies to enhance IL-4–producing CD4+ T cells have potential to attenuate axonal damage in the course of CNS injury in trauma, inflammation, or neurodegeneration.
James T. Walsh, Sven Hendrix, Francesco Boato, Igor Smirnov, Jingjing Zheng, John R. Lukens, Sachin Gadani, Daniel Hechler, Greta Gölz, Karen Rosenberger, Thomas Kammertöns, Johannes Vogt, Christina Vogelaar, Volker Siffrin, Ali Radjavi, Anthony Fernandez-Castaneda, Alban Gaultier, Ralf Gold, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti, Robert Nitsch, Frauke Zipp, Jonathan Kipnis
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a public health concern with an annual mortality rate that exceeds those of breast and prostate cancer, heart failure, and diabetes combined. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage are drivers of AKI-associated pathology; however, the pathways that mediate these events are poorly defined. Here, using a murine cisplatin-induced AKI model, we determined that both oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage are associated with reduced levels of renal sirtuin 3 (SIRT3). Treatment with the AMPK agonist AICAR or the antioxidant agent acetyl-
Marina Morigi, Luca Perico, Cinzia Rota, Lorena Longaretti, Sara Conti, Daniela Rottoli, Rubina Novelli, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Ariela Benigni
Mutations in the cellular retinaldehyde–binding protein (CRALBP, encoded by
Yunlu Xue, Susan Q. Shen, Jonathan Jui, Alan C. Rupp, Leah C. Byrne, Samer Hattar, John G. Flannery, Joseph C. Corbo, Vladimir J. Kefalov
The composition of tumor-targeted T cell infiltrates is a major prognostic factor in colorectal cancer (CRC) outcome; however, the functional role of these populations in prolonging patient survival remains unclear. Here, we evaluated 190 patients with CRC for the presence of functionally active tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), the tumor specificity of these TILs, and the correlation between patient TILs and long-term survival. Using intracytoplasmic cytokine staining in conjunction with HLA multimers loaded with tumor peptide and antigen-specific cytokine secretion assays, we determined that TNF-α expression delineates a population of tumor antigen–specific (TA-specific) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) present within tumors from patients with CRC. Upregulation of TNF-α expression in TILs strongly correlated with an increase in the total amount of intratumoral TNF-α, which is indicative of tumor-specific CTL activity. Moreover, a retrospective multivariate analysis of 102 patients with CRC, which had multiple immune parameters evaluated, revealed that increased TNF-α concentration was an independent prognostic factor. Together, these results indicate that the prognostic impact of T cell infiltrates for CRC maybe largely based on subpopulations of active TA-specific T cells within the tumor, suggesting causal implication for these cells in patient survival. Additionally, these results support the use of intratumoral TNF-α, which is indicative of T cell function, as a prognostic parameter for CRC.
Christoph Reissfelder, Slava Stamova, Christina Gossmann, Marion Braun, Andreas Bonertz, Ute Walliczek, Mario Grimm, Nuh N. Rahbari, Moritz Koch, Maral Saadati, Axel Benner, Markus W. Büchler, Dirk Jäger, Niels Halama, Khashayarsha Khazaie, Jürgen Weitz, Philipp Beckhove
The phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and associated vesicles (efferocytosis) by DCs is an important mechanism for both self tolerance and host defense. Although some of the engulfment ligands involved in efferocytosis have been identified and studied in vitro, the contributions of these ligands in vivo remain ill defined. Here, we determined that during
Fanny Tzelepis, Mark Verway, Jamal Daoud, Joshua Gillard, Kimya Hassani-Ardakani, Jonathan Dunn, Jeffrey Downey, Marilena Elena Gentile, Joanna Jaworska, Anthony Michel Jean Sanchez, Yohann Nédélec, Hojatollah Vali, Maryam Tabrizian, Arnold Scott Kristof, Irah Luther King, Luis Bruno Barreiro, Maziar Divangahi
The current treatment for patients with hypothyroidism is levothyroxine (L-T4) along with normalization of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). However, normalization of serum TSH with L-T4 monotherapy results in relatively low serum 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3) and high serum thyroxine/T3 (T4/T3) ratio. In the hypothalamus-pituitary dyad as well as the rest of the brain, the majority of T3 present is generated locally by T4 deiodination via the type 2 deiodinase (D2); this pathway is self-limited by ubiquitination of D2 by the ubiquitin ligase WSB-1. Here, we determined that tissue-specific differences in D2 ubiquitination account for the high T4/T3 serum ratio in adult thyroidectomized (Tx) rats chronically implanted with subcutaneous L-T4 pellets. While L-T4 administration decreased whole-body D2-dependent T4 conversion to T3, D2 activity in the hypothalamus was only minimally affected by L-T4. In vivo studies in mice harboring an astrocyte-specific
Joao Pedro Werneck de Castro, Tatiana L. Fonseca, Cintia B. Ueta, Elizabeth A. McAninch, Sherine Abdalla, Gabor Wittmann, Ronald M. Lechan, Balazs Gereben, Antonio C. Bianco
Satiety and other core physiological functions are modulated by sensory signals arising from the surface of the gut. Luminal nutrients and bacteria stimulate epithelial biosensors called enteroendocrine cells. Despite being electrically excitable, enteroendocrine cells are generally thought to communicate indirectly with nerves through hormone secretion and not through direct cell-nerve contact. However, we recently uncovered in intestinal enteroendocrine cells a cytoplasmic process that we named neuropod. Here, we determined that neuropods provide a direct connection between enteroendocrine cells and neurons innervating the small intestine and colon. Using cell-specific transgenic mice to study neural circuits, we found that enteroendocrine cells have the necessary elements for neurotransmission, including expression of genes that encode pre-, post-, and transsynaptic proteins. This neuroepithelial circuit was reconstituted in vitro by coculturing single enteroendocrine cells with sensory neurons. We used a monosynaptic rabies virus to define the circuit’s functional connectivity in vivo and determined that delivery of this neurotropic virus into the colon lumen resulted in the infection of mucosal nerves through enteroendocrine cells. This neuroepithelial circuit can serve as both a sensory conduit for food and gut microbes to interact with the nervous system and a portal for viruses to enter the enteric and central nervous systems.
Diego V. Bohórquez, Rafiq A. Shahid, Alan Erdmann, Alex M. Kreger, Yu Wang, Nicole Calakos, Fan Wang, Rodger A. Liddle
Elisa Fabbrini, Jun Yoshino, Mihoko Yoshino, Faidon Magkos, Courtney Tiemann Luecking, Dmitri Samovski, Gemma Fraterrigo, Adewole L. Okunade, Bruce W. Patterson, Samuel Klein
The hypothalamus is the central regulator of systemic energy homeostasis, and its dysfunction can result in extreme body weight alterations. Insights into the complex cellular physiology of this region are critical to the understanding of obesity pathogenesis; however, human hypothalamic cells are largely inaccessible for direct study. Here, we developed a protocol for efficient generation of hypothalamic neurons from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) obtained from patients with monogenetic forms of obesity. Combined early activation of sonic hedgehog signaling followed by timed NOTCH inhibition in human ESCs/iPSCs resulted in efficient conversion into hypothalamic NKX2.1+ precursors. Application of a NOTCH inhibitor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) further directed the cells into arcuate nucleus hypothalamic-like neurons that express hypothalamic neuron markers proopiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide (AGRP), somatostatin, and dopamine. These hypothalamic-like neurons accounted for over 90% of differentiated cells and exhibited transcriptional profiles defined by a hypothalamic-specific gene expression signature that lacked pituitary markers. Importantly, these cells displayed hypothalamic neuron characteristics, including production and secretion of neuropeptides and increased p-AKT and p-STAT3 in response to insulin and leptin. Our results suggest that these hypothalamic-like neurons have potential for further investigation of the neurophysiology of body weight regulation and evaluation of therapeutic targets for obesity.
Liheng Wang, Kana Meece, Damian J. Williams, Kinyui Alice Lo, Matthew Zimmer, Garrett Heinrich, Jayne Martin Carli, Charles A. Leduc, Lei Sun, Lori M. Zeltser, Matthew Freeby, Robin Goland, Stephen H. Tsang, Sharon L. Wardlaw, Dieter Egli, Rudolph L. Leibel
Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells that are important for maintenance of bone remodeling and mineral homeostasis. Regulation of osteoclast differentiation and activity is important for the pathogenesis and treatment of diseases associated with bone loss. Here, we demonstrate that retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are key elements of the transcriptional program of differentiating osteoclasts. Loss of RXR function in hematopoietic cells resulted in formation of giant, nonresorbing osteoclasts and increased bone mass in male mice and protected female mice from bone loss following ovariectomy, which induces osteoporosis in WT females. The increase in bone mass associated with RXR deficiency was due to lack of expression of the RXR-dependent transcription factor v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family, protein B (MAFB) in osteoclast progenitors. Evaluation of osteoclast progenitor cells revealed that RXR homodimers directly target and bind to the
María P. Menéndez-Gutiérrez, Tamás Rőszer, Lucía Fuentes, Vanessa Núñez, Amelia Escolano, Juan Miguel Redondo, Nora De Clerck, Daniel Metzger, Annabel F. Valledor, Mercedes Ricote
NOTCH signaling suppresses tumor growth and proliferation in several types of stratified epithelia. Here, we show that missense mutations in
Antonio Maraver, Pablo J. Fernandez-Marcos, Timothy P. Cash, Marinela Mendez-Pertuz, Marta Dueñas, Paolo Maietta, Paola Martinelli, Maribel Muñoz-Martin, Mónica Martínez-Fernández, Marta Cañamero, Giovanna Roncador, Jorge L. Martinez-Torrecuadrada, Dimitrios Grivas, Jose Luis de la Pompa, Alfonso Valencia, Jesús M. Paramio, Francisco X. Real, Manuel Serrano
Expansion of the polyglutamine (polyQ) tract within the androgen receptor (AR) causes neuromuscular degeneration in individuals with spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). PolyQ AR has diminished transcriptional function and exhibits ligand-dependent proteotoxicity, features that have both been implicated in SBMA; however, the extent to which altered AR transcriptional function contributes to pathogenesis remains controversial. Here, we sought to dissociate effects of diminished AR function from polyQ-mediated proteotoxicity by enhancing the transcriptional activity of polyQ AR. To accomplish this, we bypassed the inhibitory effect of AR SUMOylation (where SUMO indicates small ubiquitin-like modifier) by mutating conserved lysines in the polyQ AR that are sites of SUMOylation. We determined that replacement of these residues by arginine enhances polyQ AR activity as a hormone-dependent transcriptional regulator. In a murine model, disruption of polyQ AR SUMOylation rescued exercise endurance and type I muscle fiber atrophy; it also prolonged survival. These changes occurred without overt alterations in polyQ AR expression or aggregation, revealing the favorable trophic support exerted by the ligand-activated receptor. Our findings demonstrate beneficial effects of enhancing the transcriptional function of the ligand-activated polyQ AR and indicate that the SUMOylation pathway may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention in SBMA.
Jason P. Chua, Satya L. Reddy, Zhigang Yu, Elisa Giorgetti, Heather L. Montie, Sarmistha Mukherjee, Jake Higgins, Richard C. McEachin, Diane M. Robins, Diane E. Merry, Jorge A. Iñiguez-Lluhí, Andrew P. Lieberman
A complex neural network regulates body weight and energy balance, and dysfunction in the communication between the gut and this neural network is associated with metabolic diseases, such as obesity. The stomach-derived hormone ghrelin stimulates appetite through interactions with neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH). Here, we evaluated the physiological and neurobiological contribution of ghrelin during development by specifically blocking ghrelin action during early postnatal development in mice. Ghrelin blockade in neonatal mice resulted in enhanced ARH neural projections and long-term metabolic effects, including increased body weight, visceral fat, and blood glucose levels and decreased leptin sensitivity. In addition, chronic administration of ghrelin during postnatal life impaired the normal development of ARH projections and caused metabolic dysfunction. Consistent with these observations, direct exposure of postnatal ARH neuronal explants to ghrelin blunted axonal growth and blocked the neurotrophic effect of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin. Moreover, chronic ghrelin exposure in neonatal mice also attenuated leptin-induced STAT3 signaling in ARH neurons. Collectively, these data reveal that ghrelin plays an inhibitory role in the development of hypothalamic neural circuits and suggest that proper expression of ghrelin during neonatal life is pivotal for lifelong metabolic regulation.
Sophie M. Steculorum, Gustav Collden, Berengere Coupe, Sophie Croizier, Sarah Lockie, Zane B. Andrews, Florian Jarosch, Sven Klussmann, Sebastien G. Bouret
Molecular chaperones control a multitude of cellular functions via folding chaperone-specific client proteins. CD4+FOXP3+ Tregs play key roles in maintaining peripheral tolerance, which is subject to regulation by multiple molecular switches, including mTOR and hypoxia-inducible factor. It is not clear whether GP96 (also known as GRP94), which is a master TLR and integrin chaperone, controls Treg function. Using murine genetic models, we demonstrated that GP96 is required for Treg maintenance and function, as loss of GP96 resulted in instability of the Treg lineage and impairment of suppressive functions in vivo. In the absence of GP96, Tregs were unable to maintain FOXP3 expression levels, resulting in systemic accumulation of pathogenic IFN-γ–producing and IL-17–producing T cells. We determined that GP96 serves as an essential chaperone for the cell-surface protein glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP), which is a docking receptor for latent membrane–associated TGF-β (mLTGF-β). The loss of both GARP and integrins on GP96-deficient Tregs prevented expression of mLTGF-β and resulted in inefficient production of active TGF-β. Our work demonstrates that GP96 regulates multiple facets of Treg biology, thereby placing Treg stability and immunosuppressive functions strategically under the control of a major stress chaperone.
Yongliang Zhang, Bill X. Wu, Alessandra Metelli, Jessica E. Thaxton, Feng Hong, Saleh Rachidi, Ephraim Ansa-Addo, Shaoli Sun, Chenthamarakshan Vasu, Yi Yang, Bei Liu, Zihai Li
The use of adeno-associated virus (AAV) as a gene therapy vector has been approved recently for clinical use and has demonstrated efficacy in a growing number of clinical trials. However, the safety of AAV as a vector has been challenged by a single study that documented hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after AAV gene delivery in mice. Most studies have not noted genotoxicity following AAV-mediated gene delivery; therefore, the possibility that there is an association between AAV and HCC is controversial. Here, we performed a comprehensive study of HCC in a large number of mice following therapeutic AAV gene delivery. Using a sensitive high-throughput integration site-capture technique and global expressional analysis, we found that AAV integration into the RNA imprinted and accumulated in nucleus (
Randy J. Chandler, Matthew C. LaFave, Gaurav K. Varshney, Niraj S. Trivedi, Nuria Carrillo-Carrasco, Julien S. Senac, Weiwei Wu, Victoria Hoffmann, Abdel G. Elkahloun, Shawn M. Burgess, Charles P. Venditti
Ksenia N. Tonyushkina, Meng-Chieh Shen, Theresa Ortiz-Toro, Rolf O. Karlstrom
Xuefei Tian, Jin Ju Kim, Susan M. Monkley, Nanami Gotoh, Ramiro Nandez, Keita Soda, Kazunori Inoue, Daniel M. Balkin, Hossam Hassan, Sung Hyun Son, Yashang Lee, Gilbert Moeckel, David A. Calderwood, Lawrence B. Holzman, David R. Critchley, Roy Zent, Jochen Reiser, Shuta Ishibe