Autosomal dominant sterile α motif domain containing 9 (Samd9) and Samd9L (Samd9/9L) syndromes are a large subgroup of currently established inherited bone marrow failure syndromes that includes myelodysplasia, infection, growth restriction, adrenal hypoplasia, genital phenotypes, and enteropathy (MIRAGE), ataxia pancytopenia, and familial monosomy 7 syndromes. Samd9/9L genes are located in tandem on chromosome 7 and have been known to be the genes responsible for myeloid malignancies associated with monosomy 7. Additionally, as IFN-inducible genes, Samd9/9L are crucial for protection against viruses. Samd9/9L syndromes are caused by gain-of-function mutations and develop into infantile myelodysplastic syndromes associated with monosomy 7 (MDS/–7) at extraordinarily high frequencies. We generated mice expressing Samd9LD764N, which mimic MIRAGE syndrome, presenting with growth retardation, a short life, bone marrow failure, and multiorgan degeneration. In hematopoietic cells, Samd9LD764N downregulates the endocytosis of transferrin and c-Kit, resulting in a rare cause of anemia and a low bone marrow reconstitutive potential that ultimately causes MDS/–7. In contrast, in nonhematopoietic cells we tested, Samd9LD764N upregulated the endocytosis of EGFR by Ship2 phosphatase translocation to the cytomembrane and activated lysosomes, resulting in the reduced expression of surface receptors and signaling. Thus, Samd9/9L is a downstream regulator of IFN that controls receptor metabolism, with constitutive activation leading to multiorgan dysfunction.
Akiko Nagamachi, Akinori Kanai, Megumi Nakamura, Hiroshi Okuda, Akihiko Yokoyama, Satoru Shinriki, Hirotaka Matsui, Toshiya Inaba