To examine whether Cl/base exchange is present on the apical membrane of the proximal convoluted tubule, cell pH was measured fluorometrically in the in vivo microperfused rat proximal tubule with (2',7')-bis(carboxyethyl)-(5,6)-carboxyfluorescein. The effect of luminal chloride addition was examined in tubules perfused symmetrically with chloride-free solutions. In the absence of inhibitors, luminal chloride addition did not affect cell pH. However, after inhibition of basolateral membrane anion transport with peritubular 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyano-(2,2')-disulfonic-stilbene (to amplify effects of apical membrane transport on cell pH), luminal chloride addition caused a small cell acidification (delta pHi = 0.02). When 1 mM formate was added to the solutions, luminal chloride addition caused a larger change in cell pH (delta pHi = 0.06) that was inhibited by (4,4')-diisothiocyano-(2,2')-disulfonic-stilbene. This stimulation of Cl/base exchange was not seen with 1 mM acetate addition. These results demonstrate apical membrane Cl/base exchange, a significant fraction of which is dependent on the presence of formate and probably represents Cl/formate exchange.
R J Alpern
Urinary bile acids from a 3-mo-old boy with cholestatic jaundice were analyzed by ion exchange chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This suggested the presence of labile sulfated cholenoic acids with an allylic hydroxyl group, a conclusion supported by analysis using fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS). The compounds detected by FAB-MS were separated by thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The sulfated bile acids could be solvolyzed in acidified tetrahydrofuran, and glycine conjugates were partially hydrolyzed by cholylglycine hydrolase. Following solvolysis, deconjugation, and methylation with diazomethane, the bile acids were identified by GC-MS of trimethylsilyl derivatives. The major bile acids in the urine were 3 beta,7 alpha-dihydroxy-5-cholenoic acid 3-sulfate, 3 beta,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5-cholenoic acid monosulfate, and their glycine conjugates. Chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid were undetectable in urine and plasma. The family pedigree suggested that abnormal bile acid synthesis was an autosomal recessive condition leading to cirrhosis in early childhood.
P T Clayton, J V Leonard, A M Lawson, K D Setchell, S Andersson, B Egestad, J Sjövall
We have investigated a thiamine-dependent enzyme, transketolase, in cultured fibroblasts from 41 human subjects, including patients with alcoholism-associated Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (n = 3), familial chronic alcoholic males (n = 7), their sons (n = 7), nonalcoholic men (n = 7), their male offspring (n = 7), and three generations of an Amish family (n = 10) without any history of alcoholism. This study was undertaken to delineate whether transketolase abnormality (i.e., high Michaelis Menton constant (Km) for thiamine pyrophosphate), previously reported in patients with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is prevalent among familial chronic alcoholic men and their sons without prior history of alcohol abuse but who are at high risk for alcoholism. Our data suggest that an inborn error (i.e., high Km of transketolase for thiamine pyrophosphate) predisposing to thiamine deficiency diseases similar to those reported in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome may occur in the general population. However, for some as yet unexplained reason(s) this variant seems to occur more frequently among familial chronic alcoholic men and their male offspring without any history of alcoholism. The inheritance pattern of this enzyme variant as revealed from an Amish pedigree study may be autosomal recessive as previously suggested.
A B Mukherjee, S Svoronos, A Ghazanfari, P R Martin, A Fisher, B Roecklein, D Rodbard, R Staton, D Behar, C J Berg
Hybridomas obtained by in vitro stimulation with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of BALB/c, MRL/lpr, and NZB splenocytes were selected for expression of VH7183 by hybridization using slot blotting. Northern blot analysis showed that the majority of hybrids produce a full length message complementary to the VH7183 probe. The frequency of VH7183 hybridomas was significantly higher in NZB mice as compared with BALB/c mice. Using multiple binding assays, 60% of the total antibodies encoded by VH7183 were specific for self-epitopes. Finally, the vast majority express cross-reactive idiotypes borne by autoantibodies of various specificities.
B Bellon, A Manheimer-Lory, M Monestier, T Moran, A Dimitriu-Bona, F Alt, C Bona
Thrombospondin (TSP), a 450-kD multifunctional glycoprotein with a broad tissue distribution, is secreted upon platelet stimulation, binds to the activated platelet surface, and supports platelet aggregation. We have identified and isolated an 88-kd membrane glycoprotein present in platelets, endothelial cells, monocytes, and a variety of human tumor cell lines that is the membrane binding site for TSP. Endogenous platelet TSP binding to thrombin- and ionophore-stimulated human platelets was inhibited in the presence of the monoclonal antibody OKM5. TSP binding to C32 melanoma cells and HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells was specific and also inhibitable with OKM5 Mab. Cell labeling followed by specific immunoprecipitation demonstrated biosynthesis of a single 88-kD glycoprotein. Binding of TSP to the isolated membrane protein was specific and saturable. These studies identify an 88-kD membrane glycoprotein that reacts with the monoclonal antibody, OKM5, and may function as the cellular TSP receptor.
A S Asch, J Barnwell, R L Silverstein, R L Nachman
The effects of physiologic hyperinsulinemia and hyperaminoacidemia, alone or in combination, on leucine kinetics in vivo were studied in postabsorptive healthy subjects with primed-constant infusions of L-[4,5-3H]leucine and [1-14C]alpha-ketoisocaproate (KIC) under euglycemic conditions. Hyperinsulinemia (approximately 100 microU/ml) decreased (P less than 0.05 vs. baseline) steady state Leucine + KIC rates of appearance (Ra) from proteolysis, KIC (approximately leucine-carbon) oxidation, and nonoxidized leucine-carbon flux (leucine----protein). Hyperaminoacidemia (plasma leucine, 210 mumol/liter), with either basal hormone replacement or combined to hyperinsulinemia, resulted in comparable increases in leucine + KIC Ra, KIC oxidation, and leucine----protein (P less than 0.05 vs. baseline). However, endogenous leucine + KIC Ra was suppressed only with the combined infusion. Therefore, on the basis of leucine kinetic data, hyperinsulinemia and hyperaminoacidemia stimulated net protein anabolism in vivo by different mechanisms. Hyperinsulinemia decreased proteolysis but did not stimulate leucine----protein. Hyperaminoacidemia per se stimulated leucine----protein but did not suppress endogenous proteolysis. When combined, they had a cumulative effect on net leucine deposition into body protein.
P Tessari, S Inchiostro, G Biolo, R Trevisan, G Fantin, M C Marescotti, E Iori, A Tiengo, G Crepaldi
The hepatic removal of albumin-bound substances from plasma requires that they dissociate from albumin. Using indirect methods, we and others have proposed that dissociation may be catalyzed by interaction of albumin with the liver cell surface. This study looked for direct evidence of catalysis by comparing the rate of dissociation of oleate from albumin in vitro with the rate observed within the sinusoids of perfused rat liver. No evidence for catalysis was found. The rate of hepatic oleate removal from dilute albumin solutions did not exceed but instead closely paralleled the rate predicted from the in vitro dissociation rate constant (0.14s-1). These results suggest that under some conditions the liver can remove unbound material from the sinusoids faster than it can be replenished by dissociation from albumin, resulting in dissociation-limited removal. However, dissociation of oleate does not appear to be catalyzed by the liver.
R A Weisiger, W L Ma
The immunologic effects of bromocriptine and low dose cyclosporine on experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) induced in Lewis rats by S-antigen immunization were studied. Rats treated with a sub-optimal dose (low dose) of cyclosporine (2 mg/kg per d), bromocriptine (1.8 mg/kg per d), or both drugs were compared with untreated rats in regard to the development of EAU, lymphocyte proliferative responses, and anti-S-antigen serum antibodies. Bromocriptine alone decreased the incidence of EAU only in female rats (P less than 0.01), did not effect the lymphocyte proliferative response, but did significantly decrease antibody titers in both males (P less than 0.004) and females (P less than 0.0005). Low dose cyclosporine also partially decreased the incidence of EAU in female rats, but did not decrease antibody titers or lymphocyte proliferative responses. Bromocriptine plus low-dose cyclosporine led to more marked decreases in the incidence of EAU and anti-S-antigen antibody titers as well as in the lymphocyte proliferative assay (P less than 0.01 for males, P less than 0.0005 for females). This study suggests that bromocriptine can enhance the immunosuppression of low dose cyclosporine.
A G Palestine, C G Muellenberg-Coulombre, M K Kim, M C Gelato, R B Nussenblatt
The immune function of B lymphocytes from 12 patients with nonneoplastic immune-mediated diseases receiving chronic low-dose (2 mg/kg per d) cyclophosphamide (CY) was evaluated. There was a selective and differential suppressive effect of CY therapy on the various stages of the B cell cycle including activation, proliferation, and differentiation. The proliferative responses to Staphylococcus aureus Cowan strain I (SAC) and mitogenic concentrations of anti-mu were suppressed. In contrast, B cells that have been presumably activated in vivo proliferated with a normal pattern when exposed to B cell growth factor in vitro. Chronic low-dose CY therapy also suppressed B cell differentiation. Secretion of immunoglobulin by B cells following in vitro triggering with SAC and a T cell supernatant was suppressed in CY-treated patients. Moreover, differentiation of the large in vivo-activated B cells (which do not require an in vitro activation signal) in the presence of appropriate T lymphocyte supernatant was also suppressed. This selective suppression of B cell function at multiple points in the B cell cycle may be responsible for the efficacy of CY therapy in certain antibody and immune complex-mediated diseases.
L P Zhu, T R Cupps, G Whalen, A S Fauci
Monoclonal antibody 1-15 (Ab 1-15), is a murine anti-human neutrophil (PMN) IgG1 that inhibits PMN effector responses to N-formyl-met-leu-phe (FMLP) and phorbol myristate acetate. In this study, the effects of Ab 1-15 on PMN membrane-related functions were characterized: Ab 1-15 inhibited PMN superoxide (O-2) response to FMLP by 60% (P less than 0.005) without effect on the onset or duration of O-2 production. This inhibition of O-2 response was associated with a significant inhibition of PMN chymotrypsin-like, but not trypsin-like, protease activity. Cell fractionation studies indicated the presence of an Ab 1-15 inhibitable, chymotryptic neutral protease activity in PMN membranes. In studies of Ab 1-15 effects on membrane-related second messenger pathways, Ab 1-15 augmented both FMLP- and isoproterenol-induced intracellular cAMP accumulation, whereas alpha-chymotrypsin decreased PMN cAMP response to these stimuli. Our data suggest that the function-inhibiting, anti-PMN monoclonal Ab 1-15 defines a PMN chymotryptic enzyme on the membrane surface that is involved in regulation of two membrane-related functions, O-2 generation and cAMP generation.
C H King, C H Goralnik, P J Kleinhenz, J A Marino, J R Sedor, A A Mahmoud
Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with metabolic acidosis and abnormal muscle protein metabolism. As we have shown that acidosis by itself stimulates muscle protein degradation by a glucocorticoid-dependent mechanism, we assessed the contribution of acidosis to changes in muscle protein turnover in CRF. A stable model of uremia was achieved in partially nephrectomized rats (plasma urea nitrogen, 100-120 mg/dl, blood bicarbonate less than 21 meq/liter). CRF rats excreted 22% more nitrogen than pair-fed controls (P less than 0.005), so muscle protein synthesis and degradation were measured in perfused hindquarters. CRF rats had a 90% increase in net protein degradation (P less than 0.001); this was corrected by dietary bicarbonate. Correction of acidosis did not reduce the elevated corticosterone excretion rate of CRF rats, nor did it improve a second defect in muscle protein turnover, a 34% lower rate of insulin-stimulated protein synthesis. Thus, abnormal nitrogen production in CRF is due to accelerated muscle proteolysis caused by acidosis and an acidosis-independent inhibition of insulin-stimulated muscle protein synthesis.
R C May, R A Kelly, W E Mitch
The present in vitro microperfusion study examined whether insulin affects volume absorption (Jv) in the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT). PCT were perfused with an ultrafiltrate-like solution and were bathed in a serum-like albumin solution. Addition of a physiologic concentration of 10(-10) M insulin to the bathing solution resulted in a stimulation of Jv and a more negative transepithelial potential difference (PD). There was a progressive stimulation of the lumen negative PD and Jv with higher insulin concentrations. Maximal stimulation occurred at 10(-8) M bath insulin. The insulin-induced stimulation of volume reabsorption was also observed when glucose and amino acids were removed from the luminal perfusate. Direct examination of the effect of insulin on glucose, chloride, and bicarbonate absorption demonstrated that the transport of all these solutes was stimulated by insulin. Addition of insulin to the luminal perfusate had no affect on Jv. These data show that insulin has a direct effect to stimulate Jv in the proximal tubule.
To study exogenous fat metabolism, we used the vitamin A-fat loading test, which specifically labels intestinally derived lipoproteins with retinyl palmitate (RP). Postprandial RP concentrations were followed in total plasma, and chylomicron (Sf greater than 1,000) and nonchylomicron (Sf less than 1,000) fractions. In normal subjects postprandial lipoproteins were present for more than 14 h, and chylomicron levels correlated inversely with lipoprotein lipase activity and fasting high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and nonchylomicron levels correlated inversely with hepatic triglyceride lipase activity. The main abnormality in type IV patients was a 5.6-fold increase in the chylomicron fraction, whereas in type III patients it was a 6.4-fold increase in nonchylomicrons. Type IIa patients had abnormally low chylomicron fractions. In type IV patients gemfibrozil decreased, whereas in type IIa patients cholestyramine increased the chylomicron fraction 66 and 88%, respectively. This study demonstrates an unexpectedly large magnitude and long duration of postprandial lipemia in normal subjects and patients. These particles are potentially atherogenic, and their role in human atherosclerosis warrants further study.
M S Weintraub, S Eisenberg, J L Breslow
We studied acid secretory responses to exogenous pentagastrin and to exogenous and endogenous gastrin in 12 stable cirrhotic subjects with portacaval shunt, 12 unshunted cirrhotics, and 12 normal subjects. Basal and stimulated serum gastrin concentrations as well as basal and maximum acid outputs were similar in the three groups. At low doses of either exogenous pentagastrin or gastrin-17 (G17), cirrhotics with portacaval shunt secreted significantly greater amounts of gastric acid than unshunted subjects. After low doses of intragastric peptone, cirrhotics with portacaval shunt secreted significantly more acid than unshunted cirrhotics and normal subjects. At each measured serum gastrin concentration after either exogenous G17 or intragastric peptone meals, cirrhotics with portacaval shunt secreted more acid than the unshunted control groups and their dose-response curve was significantly shifted to the left. Thus, in cirrhotic patients with portacaval shunt, gastric acid secretion is abnormally sensitive to both exogenously administered or endogenously released gastrin.
H J Lenz, T Struck, H Greten, M A Koss, V E Eysselein, J H Walsh, J I Isenberg
In vivo regulation of microsomal HMG CoA reductase activity was investigated in freshly isolated mononuclear leukocytes from 26 healthy adult males. Reductase activity exhibited a diurnal rhythm and decreased during fasting. Enzyme activity was also modulated in vivo by alterations in dietary and plasma cholesterol, suggesting the existence of an operative cholesterol feedback regulatory system. A single, high cholesterol meal decreased reductase activity within 2 h. In addition, rapid depletion of circulating cholesterol levels by plasmapheresis led to an approximately twofold elevation in enzyme activity within 90 min of treatment. Finally, reductase activity was inhibited by dichloroacetate, a compound known to lower plasma cholesterol in man and inhibit the human leukocyte enzyme in vitro. The regulatory mechanisms controlling HMG CoA reductase activity in the human mononuclear leukocyte in vivo thus are similar to those that modulate the mammalian liver enzyme in vivo. Assessment of mononuclear leukocyte reductase activity may provide insight into the in vivo regulation of human cholesterol metabolism.
H J Harwood Jr, D M Bridge, P W Stacpoole
We investigated metabolic utilization of exogenous (modelled after lung surfactant) phospholipids by granular pneumocytes in primary culture. Cells were incubated for 21, 65, and 140 min with [3H-methyl]dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) containing liposomes prepared from synthetic lipids. Radioactivity in cellular phosphatidylcholine (PC) declined steadily to 50% of the total trypsin-resistant cell-associated radioactivity. The proportion of radioactivity increased with time in cytidine-5'-diphosphate-choline and phosphorylcholine, which suggested reutilization of choline for PC synthesis. Cells incubated with liposomes for 2 h revealed that of the total cell-associated radioactivity, 7% was in lamellar bodies and 10% in the microsomal fraction. The lipid-associated radioactivity was 24% in "soluble," 96% in lamellar bodies, and 92% in the microsomal fraction. Percent of total PC label recovered in disaturated PC of microsomal fractions decreased (slope = -5.27%/h) with time of incubation (r = 0.67). Incubation of cells with liposomes containing ([3H-methyl]choline-[14C]palmitoyl) DPPC led to altered isotope ratios in both lamellar bodies and microsomes. These observations indicate that granular pneumocytes degrade exogenous PC and resynthesize PC from degradation products.
A Chander, J Reicherter, A B Fisher
To test the hypothesis that genetic factors are operative in the predisposition to leprosy (Hansen's disease) in humans, a genetic epidemiologic investigation was performed on 269 leprosy kindreds containing 552 affected individuals from an isolated population in Papua New Guinea. The community, and not the family, was the basic social unit. Leprosy, an infectious disease, was not communal but strongly familial within the Karimui. Segregation analysis, to determine whether a major gene for the susceptibility to leprosy was segregating within a single multi-generational kindred, could not differentiate between a Mendelian genetic and a purely environmental hypothesis. The composite kindred data, however, suggest a genetic hypothesis for the non-immunologically induced susceptibility to leprosy per se. Within familial kindreds leprosy invariably emanated from a common ancestral sibship, and risk was associated with the closeness of kin but not with infectivity or severity.
E D Shields, D A Russell, M A Pericak-Vance
A BamHI 3.7-kilobase (kb) fragment detected by an HLA-DQ beta-chain complementary DNA (cDNA) probe and negatively associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) was cloned and sequenced to localize the polymorphism to BamHI sites in intervening sequences of an HLA-DQ beta-chain gene. A probe of the first intervening sequence (IVS 1) showed the BamHI 3.7-kb fragment in 6 of 17 HLA-DR3/4 controls but in 0 of 13 DR-identical IDDM patients. All IDDM patients (13 of 13) had BamHI fragments of 12 and 4 kb, detected in 9 of 17 controls (P less than 0.02). The simple restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern of the IVS 1 probe was exploited by comparing 113 IDDM patients with 177 healthy controls to show increased prevalences in IDDM of the 12-kb (P less than 0.0001) and 4-kb (P less than 0.0001) fragments. In IDDM patients younger than 20 yr at onset, 98% were 12- and/or 4-kb positive, compared with 63% of controls (P less than 0.0001), giving a relative risk of 91.8 for individuals with both fragments. The 12-kb fragment was linked to HLA-DR4, and the 4-kb fragment to HLA-DR3. Both serologic markers were split and a non-DR3/non-DR4 IDDM patient was 4-kb positive. HLA-DQ seems therefore closer, than HLA-DR, to an IDDM susceptibility gene.
B Michelsen, A Lernmark
Monoclonal antibody L4F3 reacts with most acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells and virtually all normal granulocyte/monocyte colony-forming cells (CFU-GM). Our objective was to determine whether lysis of AML cells with L4F3 and complement allowed expression of normal myeloid progenitors. The five glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) heterozygous patients with AML studied manifested only a single G6PD type in blast cells and in most or all granulocyte colony-forming cells, indicating that the leukemias developed clonally. The cells remaining after L4F3 treatment from two of the patients gave rise to granulocytic colonies that expressed the G6PD type not seen in the leukemic clone, indicating that they were derived from normal progenitors (CFU-GM). L4F3-treated cells from these two patients cultured over an irradiated adherent cell layer from normal long-term marrow cultures also gave rise to CFU-GM, which were shown by G6PD analysis to be predominantly nonleukemic. In the other three patients, the progenitor cells remaining after L4F3 treatment were derived mainly from the leukemic clone. The data suggest that in vitro cytolytic treatment with L4F3 of cells from certain patients with AML can enable normal, presumably highly immature progenitors to be expressed.
I D Bernstein, J W Singer, R G Andrews, A Keating, J S Powell, B H Bjornson, J Cuttner, V Najfeld, G Reaman, W Raskind
Euthymic LEW rats, when injected with streptococcal cell walls, exhibited rapid onset development of acute exudative arthritis coincident with enhanced synovial expression of Ia antigen. By 21 d after injection, the expression of Ia was markedly increased compared with basal conditions and paralleled the severity of the later developing proliferative and erosive disease. Immunodeficient athymic and cyclosporin A-treated LEW rats developed only the early phase arthritis, which was again paralleled by synovial Ia expression. Chronic expression of high levels of Ia antigen was not observed. Histocompatible F344 rats, both athymic and euthymic, developed minimal, if any, clinically significant arthritis and did not exhibit the enhanced Ia expression demonstrated in the LEW rats. Our results indicate that enhanced synovial Ia expression parallels clinical disease severity and varies by rat strain, and that the rapid onset enhanced synovial Ia expression is thymus independent, whereas the markedly enhanced chronic phase Ia expression is thymus dependent.
R L Wilder, J B Allen, C Hansen
Mechanisms for transport of bilirubin and its conjugates in hepatocytes have not been defined. We investigated the hepatic processing of bilirubin glucuronides and their precursors, and characterized the disposition of bile pigments arising from intraversus extrahepatic sources. Tracer doses of purified radiolabeled biliverdin, bilirubin, bilirubin monoglucuronide (BMG) or diglucuronide (BDG) were administered intravenously to intact normal or jaundiced homozygous Gunn rats. Rapid sequential analysis of radiolabeled BMG and BDG in bile revealed comparable excretion patterns following biliverdin and bilirubin injection, with BDG as the major pigment. Biliary excretion of radiolabeled conjugates from injected BMG was more rapid, with BMG predominating. Excretion of injected BDG in normal rats and BMG or BDG in Gunn rats was virtually identical to that of unaltered BMG in normal rats. Model independent analysis by deconvolution provided objective comparison of the disposition of radiolabeled pigments from the different sources. These findings indicate that bilirubin glucuronides formed in the liver from endogenous (hepatic) and exogenous (extrahepatic) sources of bilirubin follow a similar excretory pathway. BMG formed endogenously is converted preferentially to BDG, whereas circulating BMG is excreted predominantly unchanged. Exogenous conjugated bilirubins are excreted more rapidly than those generated intrahepatically, by a transcellular pathway that is largely independent of the conjugation system.
J M Crawford, B J Ransil, C S Potter, S V Westmoreland, J L Gollan
Exercise-training might be a logical method to reverse muscle atrophy and weakness in patients treated with glucocorticoids. The purpose of the present investigation was to establish whether a treatment with low dose prednisone (10 +/- 2.9 mg/d) modulates the effect of a moderate strength type isokinetic training during 7 wk (21 sessions of 20 min) on "muscle efficiency" (power output/muscle mass) and on concomitant changes in ultrastructure of the thigh muscle measured by quantitative electron-microscopic morphometry. Training caused a similar increase in "muscle efficiency" in patients on prednisone (n = 9) as in normal volunteers (n = 9). In normal subjects the increase in muscle efficiency was associated with an increase in sarcoplasm, whereas in patients on prednisone the functional improvement was associated with an increase in sarcoplasm, capillaries, and mitochondria content. Thus, a therapy with low dose prednisone does not abrogate training-induced improvement of muscle efficiency but modulates the ultrastructural response of the muscle to the training.
F F Horber, H Hoopeler, J R Scheidegger, B E Grünig, H Howald, F J Frey
Using a new in vitro procedure of the isolated perfused rat pancreas with vagal innervation, electrical vagal stimulation produced an increase in both insulin and glucagon secretion in proportion to the pulse frequency, but an inhibition in somatostatin release. When atropine was infused, both insulin and glucagon responses to vagal stimulation were partially suppressed, whereas somatostatin release was enhanced. In the presence of hexamethonium, vagal stimulation failed to affect insulin, glucagon, or somatostatin secretion. Propranolol partially blocked both insulin and glucagon responses but did not influence somatostatin response. Phentolamine had no significant effect on release of hormones. Simultaneous administration of propranolol and phentolamine tended to inhibit both insulin and glucagon responses to vagal stimulation. These findings suggest that not only a cholinergic but also a noncholinergic neuron may be involved in vagal regulation of pancreatic hormone secretion and that these neurons may be under the control of preganglionic vagal fibers via nicotinic receptors.
S Nishi, Y Seino, H Ishida, M Seno, T Taminato, H Sakurai, H Imura
Using a sensitive single isotope enzymatic assay we measured bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid histamine in asymptomatic normal (nonallergic), allergic rhinitic, and allergic asthmatic subjects. Normal subjects were found to have little or no detectable amounts of histamine in BAL fluid (11 +/- 11 pg/ml), and few BAL fluid mast cells. In comparison, the allergic rhinitics and allergic asthmatics had much higher amounts of BAL fluid histamine (113 +/- 53 and 188 +/- 42 pg/ml, respectively), and a significantly greater number of BAL fluid mast cells. Furthermore, despite having equivalent baseline pulmonary function values, allergic asthmatics with BAL fluid histamine levels greater than 100 pg/ml required only 7 +/- 2 breath units of methacholine to induce a 20% drop in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) (PD20FEV1) while asthmatics with BAL fluid histamine levels less than 100 pg/ml required 49 +/- 19 breath units (P less than 0.05). These data suggest that allergic asthmatics have ongoing lung mast cell degranulation that might contribute to the etiology of airway hyperresponsiveness.
T B Casale, D Wood, H B Richerson, S Trapp, W J Metzger, D Zavala, G W Hunninghake
We have used two strategies to study 14 hemophilia B families from 11 kindreds for possible carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis. First, we sequentially used the Factor IX probes (sequentially with restriction enzymes Taq I, Xmn I, and Dde I), and the linked probes p45h (Taq I), p45d (Pst I), and 52a (Taq I) for restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Second, we searched for useful variant Taq I digestion fragments using the Factor IX complementary DNA. Two separate new Taq I variants in exon VIII were identified. Using both strategies, 11 of 14 families (from 9 of 11 kindreds) were informative for further studies. In five kindreds studied in detail, the carrier status of all 11 at risk females was determined and prenatal diagnosis could be offered to the offsprings of each of the six carriers identified. Thus, in this study, we have identified a higher proportion of informative families than has previously been reported.
M C Poon, D H Chui, M Patterson, D M Starozik, L S Dimnik, D I Hoar
This study was undertaken to examine whether Escherichia coli adherent to tissue cells gain advantages over nonadherent bacteria due to their proximity to the cells. We used tissue culture cells and isogenic derivatives of a proline auxotrophic strain of E. coli that were fimbriated (Fim+) or nonfimbriated (Fim-), and were heat-labile enterotoxin producing (Tox+) or toxin nonproducing (Tox-). We found that the Fim+ bacteria; which were capable of adhering to tissue culture cells, initiated growth much sooner than did nonadherent Fim- bacteria; the adherent bacteria used tissue cell-derived proline, which was available at high concentrations only in the zone of bacterial adherence. Likewise, cyclic AMP secreted by adherent (Fim+) bacteria was maintained at high concentration on the tissue cell surfaces. As few as 2 X 10(5) adherent Fim+ Tox+ bacteria exert toxic activity upon Y1 adrenal cells, whereas toxin secreted in the medium by 6 X 10(6) Fim- Tox+ bacteria was undetectable. The results suggest that the growth advantage and enhanced toxicity of adherent E. coli is due to restricted diffusion of products secreted by the tissue culture and bacterial cells, respectively.
D Zafriri, Y Oron, B I Eisenstein, I Ofek
Plasma cholesteryl esters, synthesized in the high density lipoproteins (HDL), may be transferred to other lipoproteins by a cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). We found a twofold increase in mass transfer of cholesteryl ester from HDL to apoB-containing lipoproteins in incubated hypercholesterolemic rabbit plasma compared with control. There was a two- to fourfold increase in the activity of CETP, measured in an isotopic assay in hypercholesterolemic plasma. A CETP-like molecule was isolated in increased amounts from hypercholesterolemic plasma. Incubated plasma from four dysbetalipoproteinemic subjects also showed an increase (threefold) in cholesteryl ester mass transfer, compared with normolipidemic controls. There was a twofold increase in the activity of CETP, assayed in whole or lipoprotein-free plasma. Thus, there is increased transfer of cholesteryl esters from HDL to potentially atherogenic apoB-containing lipoproteins in dyslipidemic rabbit and human plasma. The enhanced transfer results in part from increased activity of CETP, possibly reflecting an increase in CETP mass.
A Tall, E Granot, R Brocia, I Tabas, C Hesler, K Williams, M Denke
We have studied how cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) changes and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) exposure affects ligand-independent cell surface expression of fMet-Leu-Phe receptors on human neutrophils. Mere incubation primed neutrophils to double their binding of fMet-Leu-Phe. This spontaneous increase of peptide binding was unaffected by changes in the extracellular calcium concentration. However, depression of the [Ca2+]i totally abolished the increased binding of fMet-Leu-Phe. Scatchard-Plot analysis revealed that the observed increase of peptide binding was due to an increased number of receptors. Normalization of the [Ca2+]i in cells where it was initially depressed resulted in a slow but progressive increase in fMet-Leu-Phe binding. The rate of receptor recruitment could be enhanced by rapidly increasing the [Ca2+]i by addition of ionomycin. Addition of PMA to cells with near maximal receptor expression led to a marked reduction of fMet-Leu-Phe binding without affecting [Ca2+]i. These observations suggest the existence of a dual regulatory mechanism for up- and down-regulation of fMet-Leu-Phe receptors on the cell surface of human neutrophils.
T Andersson, C Dahlgren, P D Lew, O Stendahl
Recent evidence suggests that local immunoregulation may prevent rejection of the placenta by the mother. This local immunoregulation may also compromise the response to placental infection. Listeria monocytogenes infection in 121 pregnant mice and 1,050 fetoplacental units was examined and the kinetics of bacterial growth in various maternal and fetal tissues were determined. A subset of pregnant mice developed overwhelming placental listeria infections. Pregnancy did not impair the maternal immune response in the liver and spleen. Pregnant mice without placental infection had numbers of listeria equivalent to nonpregnant controls and mice immunized during pregnancy had significantly less listeria than nonimmunized controls. The secondary response in immunized pregnant mice had no effect on the development of placental infection and the histologic features of placental infection were distinct from those in other organs. Our data suggest that an ineffective local immune response may contribute to the pathogenicity of listeria for the placenta.
R W Redline, C Y Lu
The presence of cross-reactive idiotypes on human IgG antibodies of tetanus toxoid (TT) antigen was assessed by examining the capacity of two anti-idiotypic (ID) antisera raised against IgG (Fab')2 anti-TT (idiotype) from two subjects to bind radiolabeled "idiotype" and to inhibit the binding of radiolabeled TT to IgG from unrelated subjects and from family members of the idiotype donors. Idiotypic crossreactivity with unrelated individuals was infrequent and weak but was frequent and stronger among siblings. The strongest idiotypic crossreactivity was seen between identical twins in studies using four anti-ID raised against the anti-TT idiotypes of two sets of twins. The results of the present study suggest that idiotypic determinants restricted to human anti-TT antibodies are, at least in part, encoded by inherited genes, which are infrequently shared among unrelated individuals.
C M Brozek, R S Geha
The cause of bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis--decreased bone formation or increased bone resorption--is controversial. Synthesis of bone--Gla protein (BGP), a specific osteoblast product, is stimulated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D] in vitro. Thus, increases in serum BGP levels during 1,25(OH)2D administration might provide a useful dynamic index of osteoblast function. We compared 14 postmenopausal osteoporotic women with 12 age-matched postmenopausal normal women before and during 6 d of 1,25(OH)2D administration (2.0 micrograms/d). Serum BGP levels were similar at baseline and increased during treatment in both groups (P less than 0.001). However, trend analysis showed a greater (P less than 0.01) increase in the osteoporotic women. These data do not support the hypothesis that defective osteoblast function is the major cause of bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis.
R J Duda Jr, R Kumar, K I Nelson, A R Zinsmeister, K G Mann, B L Riggs
Subcutaneous implantation of osmotic pumps into CAF1 mice resulted in the formation of thick fibrous capsules around the pumps. When pumps were loaded with recombinant murine gamma-interferon (rMuIFN-gamma) to deliver 2 X 10(3) U/h for 14 d, there was a marked decrease in thickness and collagen content of the capsules from rMuIFN-gamma-treated animals compared with capsules from animals receiving diluent alone. The collagen content of the capsules was estimated by hydroxyproline analysis of the tissue and by quantitative electron microscopy of collagen bundles. Heat-inactivated rMuIFN-gamma failed to reduce the fibrotic response in this assay. These results provide compelling evidence that gamma-interferon can down-regulate collagen synthesis in vivo and suggest the possibility that this lymphokine may be useful in the treatment of disease states characterized by excessive fibrosis.
R D Granstein, G F Murphy, R J Margolis, M H Byrne, E P Amento
Transport of 35S-labeled sulfobromophthalein [35S]BSP was studied in short-term cultured rat hepatocytes incubated in bovine serum albumin. At 37 degrees C, initial uptake of [35S]BSP was 5-10-fold that at 4 degrees C, linear for at least 15 min, saturable, inhibited by bilirubin, and reduced by greater than 70% after ATP depletion or isosmotic substitution of sucrose for NaCl in medium. Replacement of Na+ by K+ or Li+ did not alter uptake, whereas replacement of Cl- by HCO-3 or gluconate- reduced uptake by approximately 40%. Substitution of Cl- by the more permeant NO-3 enhanced initial BSP uptake by 30%. Efflux of [35S]BSP from cells to media was inhibited by 40% after ATP depletion or sucrose substitution. To confirm these results in a more physiologic system, transport of [3H]bilirubin was studied in isolated livers perfused with control medium or medium in which Cl- was replaced by gluconate-. Perfusion data analyzed by the model of Goresky, revealed 40-50% reductions in influx and efflux with gluconate- substitution. These results are consistent with existence of a Cl-/organic anion-exchange mechanism similar to that described by others in renal tubules.
A W Wolkoff, A C Samuelson, K L Johansen, R Nakata, D M Withers, A Sosiak
Phosphoinositide hydrolysis in platelets stimulated by thrombin is thought to be regulated by a pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein) referred to as Gp. The present studies examine the role of Gp in platelet responses to the thromboxane A2 analogue U46619 and in the pathway by which the phosphoinositide hydrolysis product inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) causes secretion. In permeabilized platelets, U46619 caused phosphatidic acid formation and secretion, which were abolished by the G protein inhibitor, guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiophosphate) (GDP beta S). Unlike thrombin, however, U46619-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis was unaffected by pertussis toxin, and U46619 was unable to inhibit the [32P]ADP ribosylation of the 42-kD pertussis toxin substrate in platelets. IP3-induced secretion, which is known to depend upon intracellular Ca release and subsequent arachidonic acid metabolism, was also inhibited by GDP beta S, as was Ca-induced secretion. These observations suggest that platelet thromboxane A2 (TxA2) receptors are coupled to a toxin-resistant form of Gp distinct from the one that is coupled to thrombin receptors, and that TxA2-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis may serve as a feedback mechanism by which stimuli for arachidonic acid release, such as IP3 and Ca, amplify responses to agonists.
L F Brass, C C Shaller, E J Belmonte
The major pathway for HCO3- transport across the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubule cell is electrogenic Na+-HCO3- cotransport. In this study, we have determined the stoichiometry of the Na+-HCO3- cotransport system in basolateral membrane vesicles that were isolated from rabbit renal cortex by Percoll gradient centrifugation. When the membrane potential is approximated by the Nernst potential for K+, as in the presence of the K+ ionophore valinomycin, equilibrium thermodynamics predicts that the Na+-HCO3- cotransport system should come to equilibrium and mediate no net flux when (Na)i/(Na)o = [(HCO3)o/(HCO3)i]n[(K)o/(K)i]n-1, where n is the HCO3-:Na+ stoichiometry. Our experimental approach was to impose transmembrane Na+, HCO3-, and K+ gradients of varying magnitude and direction, and then to measure the net flux of Na+ over the subsequent 3-s period. In this way, we could determine the conditions for equilibrium of the transport system and thereby calculate n. The results of these experiments indicate that the value of n is greater than 2.6 and less than 3.5, consistent with a stoichiometry of 3 HCO3-:1 Na+, or a thermodynamically equivalent process. Based on reported intracellular potentials and ion activities, this value for the stoichiometry indicates that the inside-negative membrane potential is sufficient to drive HCO3- exit against the inward concentration gradients of HCO3- and Na+ that are present across the basolateral membrane of the intact proximal tubule cell under physiologic conditions.
M Soleimani, S M Grassi, P S Aronson
Early thymus-derived lymphocytes bearing the T gamma gene product in association with the CD3(T3) complex have recently been described. We report a unique case of human acute lymphoblastic leukemia with a CD2+, CD3+, CD4-, CD5+, CD7+, CD8-, WT31- phenotype. These cells were found to have T gamma gene rearrangement and T gamma transcripts in absence of T alpha or T beta rearrangement or transcripts. Immunoprecipitation studies with anti-CD3 antibodies showed a 43-kD protein associated with T3; this 43-kD protein is also precipitated with antiserum raised against synthetic peptides representing the constant region of the putative T gamma protein.
R González-Sarmiento, T W LeBien, J G Bradley, J M Greenberg, J G Seidman, S Ang, J H Kersey
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta), when injected subcutaneously into newborn mice, induces a rapid fibrotic response, stimulates chemotaxis, and elevates the rates of biosynthesis of collagen and fibronectin by fibroblasts in vitro. We explored the molecular mechanisms of TGF beta-mediated stimulation of collagen and fibronectin synthesis in cultured human foreskin fibroblasts. TGF beta preferentially stimulated the synthesis of fibronectin and type I procollagen chains 3-5-fold as shown by polypeptide analysis. Concomitant elevation in the steady state levels of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) coding for type I procollagen and fibronectin also occurred but without a net increase in the rate of transcription of either of these genes. The preferential stabilization of mRNAs specifying type I procollagen and fibronectin provides a partial explanation for the mechanisms by which TGF beta enhances the synthesis of type I procollagen and fibronectin in mesenchymal cells.
R Raghow, A E Postlethwaite, J Keski-Oja, H L Moses, A H Kang