M S Brown, J L Goldstein
The oligopeptide chemoattractant receptor on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) membranes exists in two affinity states. Since guanine nucleotides regulate the binding affinity and transductional activity of several other types of receptors, we examined the effect of nucleotides on the binding of N-formyl-methionyl peptides to their receptors on human PMN membranes. The addition of guanylylimidodiphosphate (0.1 mM), a nonhydrolyzable derivative of guanosine triphosphate (GTP), to PMN membrane preparations reduced the fraction of high-affinity receptors detected in equilibrium binding studies from 21.3 +/- 0.13 to 11.8 +/- 0.05% (P less than 0.03), without altering the binding affinities. Since the total number of receptors remained unchanged, the effect of guanylylimidodiphosphate was to convert a portion of the receptors from the high-affinity state to the low-affinity state. At the maximal concentration of guanine nucleotide tested, approximately 50% of the high-affinity sites were converted to low-affinity sites. The findings obtained by equilibrium binding were supported by kinetic studies since the dissociation of the radiolabeled oligopeptide chemoattractant N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-[3H]phenylalanine from PMN membranes was accelerated in the presence of guanine nucleotide. The effect of guanine nucleotides was reversed upon washing, indicating that affinity conversion is bidirectional. The guanine nucleotide effects were greatest with nonhydrolyzable derivatives of GTP followed by GTP then guanosine diphosphate. Neither guanosine monophosphate nor any adenine nucleotide tested had an effect on receptor binding. These data suggest a role for guanine nucleotides in the regulation of stimulus-receptor coupling of chemoattractant receptors on human PMN.
C Koo, R J Lefkowitz, R Snyderman
A dopaminergic mechanism has been proposed to suppress aldosterone secretion. To assess the possibility that a defect in the dopaminergic mechanism might enhance aldosterone secretion in hypertensive patients, we determined basal and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated plasma aldosterone (PA), cortisol, renin activity, and potassium concentrations before and during dopamine receptor stimulation with dopamine infusion and bromocriptine administration and dopamine receptor blockade with metoclopramide. The patient study groups included: (a) seven patients with low-renin hypertension and abnormal aldosterone suppression with sodium loading and presumed bilateral zona glomerulosa hyperplasia (ZGHP); (b) two patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma; (c) five patients with low-renin hypertension but normal aldosterone suppression with sodium loading; and (d) six patients with normal-renin hypertension. Dopamine infusion in patients with ZGHP caused PA to fall (P less than 0.01) into the normal range, but did not block the enhanced (P less than 0.05) aldosterone response to ACTH that is characteristic of these patients. Dopamine infusion in patients with low-renin hypertension but normal aldosterone suppression also suppressed PA (P less than 0.01), whereas it had no effect upon PA in patients with normal-renin hypertension or aldosterone-producing adenoma and did not blunt the PA response to ACTH in either group. Bromocriptine administration had no effect upon basal or ACTH-stimulated PA. Dopamine infusion in patients with ZGHP also enhanced (P less than 0.05) diuresis and natriuresis in comparison with normal-renin patients. Metoclopramide administration increased (P less than 0.01) PA in all patients. Thus, a dopaminergic mechanism appears to be important in the regulation of aldosterone secretion in patients with ZGHP and in other low-renin hypertensives with normal aldosterone suppression with sodium loading. In contrast, this latter group does not exhibit an enhanced aldosterone response to ACTH. Both of these groups differ from normal-renin hypertensives, who have no PA suppression with dopamine infusion.
O B Holland, C Thomas, H Brown, D Schindewolf, Y Hillier, C Gomez-Sanchez
We have developed a method for the direct analysis of a hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) allele associated with a deficiency of enzyme activity and an early onset of gout. The functionally abnormal enzyme coded for by this mutant allele (HPRTToronto) differs from the normal enzyme by an arginine-to-glycine substitution at position 50. A single base change in the codon for arginine 50 can explain this substitution. Direct analysis of this point mutation is based on the observation that it abolishes a Taq I recognition site in HPRT DNA. As predicted, DNA from individuals with the HPRTToronto allele exhibited an abnormal restriction pattern when digested with Taq I and probed with HPRT complimentary DNA: a normal 2.0-kb fragment is replaced by a 4.0-kb fragment. The 4.0/2.0-kb restriction fragment variation was used to detect the HPRTToronto allele in a heterozygote that was otherwise normal with respect to the classical techniques used to diagnose heterozygosity in HPRT deficiency.
J M Wilson, P Frossard, R L Nussbaum, C T Caskey, W N Kelley
Methotrexate (MTX-Glu1) exerts its antitumor effects through its potent inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), the enzyme responsible for maintaining the cellular pool of reduced folates. Since the drug-enzyme complex (bound drug) is slowly dissociable, an excess of drug (unbound or free drug) above that required to bind all enzyme sites is required in order to compete with substrate for sites made available by enzyme-drug dissociation. We have examined the role of the polyglutamyl metabolites of MTX-Glu1 containing two to five glutamyl (MTX-Glu2-5) groups in gamma peptide linkage in maintaining an intracellular pool of free drug and in forming slowly dissociable complexes with DHFR. During 24-h incubations of ZR-75-B human breast cancer cells with 2 microM MTX-Glu1, we observed the progressive formation of derivatives with two to five glutamyl groups, which rapidly replaced the parent compound on enzyme binding sites and represented 85% of both unbound and bound intracellular drug at the end of incubation. When cells were then placed in drug-free medium, the rates of disappearance of drug and metabolites from the intracellular bound and free fractions decreased with increasing glutamyl chain length. Over 90% of both bound and free MTX-Glu1 left the cells within 1 h, greater than 90% of MTX-glu2 left within 6 h, and greater than 90% of MTX-Glu3 left the bound and free fractions within 24 h. In contrast, free MTX-Glu4 fell by only 63% and bound by only 23% after 24 h, while free MTX-Glu5 increased by 52% after 6 h in drug-free medium and bound MTX-Glu5 increased threefold after 24 h, as it replaced the other forms of drug bound to DHFR. These results suggested a rapid dissociation of MTX-GLu1 and -Glu2 from the enzyme, and a slower dissociation of the longer chain length derivatives. This conclusion was confirmed by examining the rates at which [3H]MTX-Glu1 through -Glu5 could be replaced on enzyme binding sites by a fivefold or greater excess of unlabeled MTX-Glu1. Bound [3H]MTX-Glu1 and -Glu2 had dissociation t 1/2 of 12 and 30 min, respectively, while -Glu3, -Glu4, and -Glu5 had t 1/2 of 102, 108, and 120 min. These experiments demonstrated that the longer chain polyglutamates have prolonged intracellular retention and can be dissociated less readily than MTX-Glu2 from DHFR, properties likely to make them more efficient DHFR inhibitors than the parent drug and of potential importance in extending the duration of drug action in tumor cells.
J Jolivet, B A Chabner
Cineangiographic studies in patients with ventricular septal defect (VSD) have occasionally demonstrated that part of the blood across the defect is ejected immediately into the pulmonary artery (PA) passing through the outflow tract of the right ventricle (RV), but without being trapped in it. We attempted to make a quantitative evaluation of the flow of a partial shunt pathway (a direct VSD-PA pathway) that drains that part of the blood from the defect. Our method depended on a thermal dilution technique to obtain the ejection fraction of the RV and to observe a simultaneous pair of dilution curves at the roots of the aorta and PA after introduction of tracer into the left atrium. An analytical process was specially designed by incorporating a stable one-pass deconvolution technique. The method was applied to eight anesthetized dogs with acutely produced experimental VSD on the entrance of the outflow tract of the RV. The flow through the direct VSD-PA pathway was, in most cases, greater than 50 and up to 85% (mean of the eight, 57 +/- 5% SE) of the total left-to-right shunt flow. This would imply that less than 50%, and down to as little as 15%, of the total amount of shunt flow contributed to extra work of the RV in these cases. In addition, the impact on the pulmonary vasculature due to such a large amount of pulsatile flow through the direct VSD-PA pathway may accelerate the development of hypertrophy of the pulmonary vessel wall.
M Nakai, T Tomino, Y Goto, J Yamamoto, Y Matsui, T Togawa, K Ogino
Using our recently described model of acute lung injury in rats after systemic activation of complement by cobra venom factor (CVF), we demonstrated that pretreatment of animals with human milk apolactoferrin (in its native or derivatized form), but not iron-saturated lactoferrin, provides significant protection against complement- and neutrophil-mediated lung injury. The synthetic iron chelator deferoxamine mesylate also affords protection from lung injury. The protective effects of apolactoferrin are not related to a blocking of CVF-induced complement activation. We also demonstrated that infusion of ionic iron, especially Fe3+, greatly potentiates lung vascular injury after systemic complement activation. Finally, protection from lung injury occurs in animals pretreated with the potent scavenger of hydroxyl radicals (OH.), dimethyl sulfoxide. Based on transmission electron microscopy, CVF-treated rats show leukoaggregates and endothelial cell destruction in interstitial pulmonary capillaries, along with intraalveolar hemorrhage and fibrin deposition. In animals protected with apolactoferrin, deferoxamine mesylate, or dimethyl sulfoxide, the morphological studies reveal leukoaggregates but no endothelial cell damage, hemorrhage, or fibrin deposition. These data support the concept that tissue injury that is complement and neutrophil dependent may be related to generation of OH. derived from H2O2 after leukocytic activation.
P A Ward, G O Till, R Kunkel, C Beauchamp
Reperfusion of ischemic myocardium is associated with increases in total myocardial calcium (Ca+2), which may influence the ultimate extent of ischemic damage as well as the development of arrhythmias. Since reperfusion is also associated with enhanced alpha-adrenergic responsivity, this study was performed to determine the potential interactions between alpha-adrenergic receptors and myocardial calcium during reperfusion. Cats were subjected to 35 min of left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion and 10 min of reperfusion. Total myocardial calcium was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Intracellular calcium was calculated from measurements of extracellular space [( 3H]inulin). In control animals with reperfusion, total calcium increased from 0.32 +/- 0.03 to 0.65 +/- 0.05 mmol/100 g dry tissue (P less than 0.0001), while intracellular calcium increased from 0.15 +/- 0.03 to 0.40 +/- 0.05 mmol/100 g dry tissue (P less than 0.001). Pretreatment with the alpha-adrenergic blocking agents phentolamine or prazosin prevented the increase in total and intracellular calcium. Phentolamine and the aqueous soluble alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist BE-2254 administered as late as 2 min before reperfusion similarly attenuated the increase in tissue calcium. Although administration of BE-2254 2 min before reperfusion failed to block the reperfusion-induced increase in extracellular space, the increase in calculated intracellular calcium was prevented. beta-Adrenergic blockade with propranolol partially attenuated but did not prevent an increase in total tissue calcium. Labetalol, a combined alpha- and beta-adrenergic blocking agent completely blocked the increase in tissue calcium during reperfusion. Additional experiments performed after 70 min of ischemia with reperfusion demonstrated a 49% attenuation of the increase in tissue calcium with alpha-adrenergic blockade. Electron microscopy with pyroantimonate and x-ray microprobe analysis demonstrated a large increase in calcium precipitate in mitochondria after reperfusion in untreated animals. Though alpha-adrenergic blockade prevented the calcium deposition in mitochondria, other criteria of ischemia persisted. Thus, alpha-adrenergic blockade specifically prevents the increase in intracellular calcium during reperfusion in reversibly injured tissue, independent of alterations in extracellular space and tissue water.
A D Sharma, J E Saffitz, B I Lee, B E Sobel, P B Corr
Nuclear transfer of androgen receptors (AR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR) was determined in cultured genital skin fibroblasts from 10 normal controls and eight patients with abnormalities of the external genitalia. In whole cell studies, cultures were incubated for 20 min at 37 degrees C with [3H]methyltrienolone (3H-R1881) or tritiated dexamethasone, and specific binding was determined in whole cell, cytoplasmic, and crude nuclear fractions. Between normal and affected fibroblasts no difference was seen in cellular levels of GR, or in cytoplasmic and nuclear distribution of GR. In normal fibroblasts, cytoplasmic binding of 3H-R1881 represented 56%, and crude nuclear binding 44%, of total binding; in fibroblasts from five of the eight patients similar values (cytoplasmic 55% and nuclear 44%) were seen for 3H-R1881 binding. In fibroblasts from the other three patients no decrease in total cellular levels of AR were seen; nuclear compartmentalization, however, was much lower (approximately 20%) than in other cultures. In vitro reconstitution studies, combining 3H-R1881-loaded cytosol with naive nuclei, lead us to suggest that the defect in nuclear compartmentalization lies at the level of the nuclear acceptor site rather than the cytoplasmic binder in affected cells. We interpret the data to suggest that defective nuclear binding of AR complexes may be involved in a proportion of cases of abnormal development of the external genitalia.
S Gyorki, G L Warne, B A Khalid, J W Funder
The question whether ascorbate regulates collagen production solely through its direct role in proline hydroxylation was investigated. Proteins in calvarial bones from control and scorbutic weanling guinea pigs were labeled in short-term cultures with radioactive proline. Proteins were digested with purified bacterial collagenase to distinguish between effects on collagen polypeptide production and hydroxyproline formation. There was a preferential decrease in the absolute rate of collagen biosynthesis beginning after 2 wk of ascorbate deficiency, and this effect was temporally dissociated from decreased proline hydroxylation. There were no significant changes in the absolute rates of collagen degradation or noncollagen protein production. In vitro inhibition of proline hydroxylation in normal bone with alpha, alpha'-dipyridyl did not affect the relative rate of collagen synthesis, further dissociating these functions. Ascorbate added to scorbutic bone cultures reversed defective proline hydroxylation but not defective collagen synthesis, suggesting that the latter was an indirect effect of scurvy. There was a linear correlation between the extent of body weight lost during the 3rd and 4th wk of scurvy and the rate of collagen synthesis in scorbutic bone. This correlation also applied to control animals receiving ascorbate, but with weight loss induced by food restriction. These studies establish for the first time that ascorbate deficiency in guinea pigs leads to a specific decrease in collagen polypeptide synthesis and suggest that this decrease results from the reduced food intake and/or weight-loss characteristic of scurvy.
M Chojkier, R Spanheimer, B Peterkofsky
Acute renal failure (ARF) in rats is associated with increased amino acid release from peripheral tissues and insulin resistance. To study whether abnormal protein and carbohydrate metabolism are linked in ARF, the effects of insulin on net muscle protein degradation (T) and on glucose uptake were measured in the perfused hindquarters of paired ARF and sham-operated (SO) rats. The basal rate of T increased 40% after 24 and 98% after 48 h of ARF. Insulin was less effective in decreasing T in ARF (-79% SO vs. -22% ARF 24 h and -64% SO vs. -23% ARF 48 h; P less than 0.01). Protein synthesis (PS) and protein degradation (PD) were measured independently in incubated epitrochlearis muscles; the increase in T after 24 h of ARF was due specifically to increased PD, while PS was unchanged. At this stage, insulin was less effective in decreasing PD in ARF (-10% ARF vs. -23% SO; P less than 0.02), although PS responded normally. After 48 h of ARF, the further increment in T was caused by the additional appearance of depressed basal and insulin-stimulated PS. This was confirmed in the perfused hindquarter (26 +/- 3 ARF vs. 38 +/- 3 SO, basal; 54 +/- 5 ARF vs 73 +/- 7 SO, insulin-stimulated, nmol phenylalanine/g per h; P less than 0.05). Although basal glucose uptake by hindquarters of ARF and SO rats was comparable, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was 33% less at 24 and 44% less after 48 h of ARF. After 48 h of ARF, lactate and alanine release were increased and net glycogen synthesis in muscle was depressed. These abnormalities were even more apparent in the presence of insulin. Inefficient glucose utilization, estimated as the ratio of lactate release to glucose uptake, was correlated with T (r = +0.78; P less than 0.001). In conclusion, after 24 h of ARF, both increased PD and altered glucose utilization could be detected. After 48 h of ARF, T increased further because PS was depressed. At this time, glucose utilization was clearly abnormal and the results suggest that abnormal net protein degradation in ARF may be a consequence of defective glucose utilization.
A S Clark, W E Mitch
To determine the extent to which the broad distribution in intracellular hemoglobin concentrations found in sickle erythrocytes affects the extent of intracellular polymerization of hemoglobin S, we have fractionated these cells by density using discontinuous Stractan gradients. The amount of polymer formed in the subpopulations was experimentally measured as a function of oxygen saturation using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results for each subpopulation are in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions based on the current thermodynamic description for hemoglobin S gelation. We further demonstrate that the erythrocyte density profile for a single individual with sickle cell anemia can be used with the theory to predict the amount of polymer in unfractionated cells. We find that heterogeneity in intracellular hemoglobin concentration causes the critical oxygen saturation for formation of polymer to shift from 84 to greater than 90%; polymer is formed predominantly in the dense cells at the very high oxygen saturation values. The existence of polymer at arterial oxygen saturation values has significance for understanding the pathophysiology of sickle cell anemia. The utility of these techniques for assessing various therapeutic strategies is discussed.
C T Noguchi, D A Torchia, A N Schechter
We have previously shown that flow cytometric analysis of acridine orange-stained bone marrow cells is useful for the objective enumeration and characterization of plasma cells from patients with myeloma, frequently exhibiting an abnormal DNA and an elevated RNA content. In this report on 77 previously untreated patients, we have investigated the biologic and prognostic implications of these quantitative tumor cell parameters. The degree of marrow involvement by tumor, both by microscopic and cytometric analysis, correlated with the clinically derived tumor mass stage. Examination of the product of relative tumor cell RNA content and marrow tumor infiltrate (as a measure of metabolic capacity for immunoglobulin production) in relationship to the myeloma protein concentration in the serum revealed differences in the efficiency of immunoglobulin production and/or catabolism. There was an inverse relationship between the degree of marrow tumor involvement and RNA index, suggesting a more aggressive behavior of myeloma in patients with a low tumor cell RNA content. Prognostically, high tumor cell RNA content identified patients with a high likelihood of response to both initial treatment (32 patients, P = 0.004) and salvage therapy (29 patients, P = 0.01). Favorable factors for survival were low clinical tumor mass stage (P = 0.07) and low marrow tumor infiltrate as determined morphologically (P = 0.04) and cytometrically (P = 0.004). Thus, the direct examination of marrow cellular DNA and RNA content permitted assessment of tumor burden and was useful in the prediction of response and survival.
B Barlogie, R Alexanian, E A Gehan, L Smallwood, T Smith, B Drewinko
Two fractions of sarcoplasmic reticulum, one light (LSR) and one heavy (HSR), were isolated from gracilis muscle of control and malignant hyperthermia (MH)-susceptible pigs. Part of the gracilis muscle biopsy was used to compare the contracture sensitivity of the muscle to the calcium-releasing effects of caffeine on isolated SR membranes. Gracilis muscle of MH pigs was more sensitive to the contracture-producing effects of caffeine than control pig muscle. The caffeine dose-cumulative contracture response curve for MH muscle was shifted left of that for controls. The amount of caffeine-induced calcium released from SR is a function of the amount of calcium preload and this did not differ between LSR of MH and control muscle. When LSR fractions were optimally loaded with calcium for caffeine-induced calcium release, no difference in calcium-releasing effects of varying caffeine doses was observed between MH and control LSR. At calcium preloads below optimal, the MH-LSR appeared to be more sensitive to caffeine-induced calcium release. The HSR fractions could not be loaded with calcium in a manner similar to the LSR fractions because of an apparent calcium-induced calcium release phenomenon. Therefore, calcium threshold for calcium-induced calcium release was compared between MH and control HSR fraction. The effect of caffeine on the calcium-induced calcium release was also studied. The average calcium concentration threshold for calcium-induced calcium release was markedly lower for MH vs. control HSR; 20 vs. 63 nmol Ca2+/mg, respectively. Caffeine decreased the threshold for calcium-induced calcium release more in the MH than in control HSR. Under all conditions studied, the amount of calcium released did not differ between the two groups. Ruthenium red increased the threshold calcium concentration for calcium-induced calcium release while it reduced the amount of calcium released. Increasing concentrations of Mg2+ increased the Ca2+ threshold for release and the amount of Ca2+ released but did not significantly affect rate of Ca2+ release. Results of the study suggest a defect in the mechanisms causing calcium release from SR in MH-affected muscle.
T E Nelson
To assess the renal functional adaptation to reduced excretory capacity, we studied whole kidney and single nephron function in anesthetized volume-replete rabbits after unilateral (left kidney) nephrectomy (UNX), ureteral obstruction (UO), or ureteroperitoneostomy (UP). At 24 h, despite the absence of measurable hypertrophy of the contralateral (right) kidney, these procedures significantly increased p-aminohippurate clearance (45-54%) and inulin clearance (CIN) (64-110%) compared with sham-operated control animals. In each group, whole kidney sodium reabsorption increased in proportion to the rise in CIN. To determine whether the intrinsic transport capacity of proximal tubule segments is altered by these maneuvers, we measured fluid volume reabsorption rate (Jv) in isolated superficial proximal straight tubule (PST) segments perfused in vitro, comparing each control tubule (obtained by biopsy of the left kidney immediately before an experimental maneuver) with a corresponding tubule segment obtained 24 h or 7 d later from the contralateral kidney. Control tubule Jv in sham-24 h animals averaged 0.48 +/- 0.04 nl/(min X mm). Jv did not change significantly at 24 h or 7 d after sham maneuvers but increased significantly at 24 h after UNX [delta Jv = 0.13 +/- 0.03 nl/(min X mm)], UO [delta Jv = 0.10 +/- 0.04 nl/(min X mm)], and UP [delta Jv = 0.13 +/- 0.04 nl/(min X mm)]. Jv remained increased by similar amounts at 7 d after UNX and UO. To evaluate whether an increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) might be the stimulus to this augmentation in Jv values, methylprednisolone (MP) (15 mg/kg per d) was administered daily to sham-operated animals, a maneuver which induced a 73% rise in CIN by day 5. This procedure also produced a significant increase in Jv in PST at 5 d [delta Jv = 0.16 +/- 0.05 nl/(min X mm)]. The increase in Jv evident in each group at 5 or 7 d was paralleled by an equivalent change in tubule cell volume and apparent tubule luminal surface area in UNX-7d and MP-5d; no such increments in these indices, or in apparent tubule serosal surface area were evident at 24 h in any group. Thus, a 50% reduction in renal excretory function in the rabbit provokes adjustments in renal plasma flow rate and GFR in the contralateral kidney, which are evident by 24 h. The concurrent change in Jv in PST is closely related to CIN or some associated hemodynamic process, but does not appear to require an increase in tubule cell volume or apparent surface area. The ability to detect these small in vivo changes in Jv may derive from the enhanced sensitivity of paired-kidney experiments using tubule segments obtained by renal biopsy.
K Tabei, D J Levenson, B M Brenner
We have studied the mechanism(s) of hyperlipidemia and liver insulin sensitivity in a rat model of severe chronic uremia (U). Basal lipid synthesis was decreased in freshly isolated hepatocytes from U when compared with sham-operated ad lib.-fed controls (alfC). Basal lipid synthesis in pair-fed controls (pfC) was in between U and alfC. Similarly, the activity of liver acetyl CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthetase, citrate cleavage enzyme, malate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was diminished in U. Muscle and adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase was also decreased. Insulin stimulated lipid synthesis in freshly isolated hepatocytes from alfC. Hepatocytes from U and pfC were resistant to this effect of insulin. To ascertain if the insulin resistance in U was due to starvation (chow intake 50% of alfC) or to uremia itself, the U and pfC were intragastrically fed an isocaloric diet via a Holter pump the last week of the experimental period. Hepatocytes from orally fed U and pfC were also cultured for 24 h in serum-free medium. While freshly isolated and cultured U hepatocytes remained insulin resistant, those from pfC normalized, in vivo and in vitro, when they were provided with enough nutrients. Conclusions: (a) Hyperlipidemia in uremia is not due to increased synthesis, but to defect(s) in clearance. (b) Insulin does not stimulate lipid synthesis in uremia. This finding, along with our recent demonstration that insulin binding and internalization are not decreased in the uremic liver, suggests that a post-binding defect(s) in the liver plays an important role in the mechanism(s) of insulin resistance in uremia. (c) Cultured hepatocytes from uremic rats remain insulin resistant. This quality renders these cells useful in studying the postinsulin binding events responsible for the insulin-resistant state in the absence of complicating hormonal and substrate changes that occur in vivo.
J F Caro, S Lanza-Jacoby
The thermic effect of infused glucose and insulin was measured by combining the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique with indirect calorimetry, in 10 normal weight volunteers (group I), 7 obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance (group II), and 13 obese subjects with abnormal glucose tolerance or noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus before (group IIIa) and after weight loss of 10.8 +/- 0.4 kg (group IIIb). During hyperinsulinemia (760-1,100 pmol/liter), total glucose disposal from combined endogenous production and glucose infusion was 545 +/- 49, 441 +/- 70, 233 +/- 35, 231 +/- 31 mg/min and energy expenditure changed by + 0.476 +/- 0.080, +0.293 +/- 0.095, -0.114 +/- 0.063, and +0.135 +/- 0.082 kJ/min in group I, II, IIIa, and IIIb, respectively. The increased energy expenditure correlated with glucose storage (measured cost of processing the glucose: 1.33 kJ/g). In group IIIa there was no increase in energy expenditure in response to glucose and insulin infusions. After therapy (group IIIb) there was a significant recovery (P less than 0.05) of the thermic effect of infused glucose although total glucose disposal was unchanged. It is proposed that the recovered thermic effect of infused insulin/glucose is due to the different contributions of gluconeogenesis in the fasting state and during the glucose clamp before and after weight loss. In addition we hypothesize that some of the lower thermic effect of food reported in obese noninsulin-dependent diabetics may be explained by decreased energy expenditure due to a greater suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis as well as by lower storage rate.
E Ravussin, C Bogardus, R S Schwartz, D C Robbins, R R Wolfe, E S Horton, E Danforth Jr, E A Sims
To describe the mechanical characteristics of the respiratory system in intubated neonates with respiratory disease, we measured impedance and resistance in six paralyzed intubated infants with respiratory distress syndrome, three of whom also had pulmonary interstitial emphysema. We subtracted the effects of the endotracheal tube after showing that such subtraction was valid. Oscillatory flow was generated from 4 to 40 Hz by a loudspeaker, airway pressure was measured, and flow was calculated from pressure changes in an airtight enclosure mounted behind the flow source (speaker plethysmograph). After subtraction of the endotracheal tube contribution, resistance ranged from 22 to 34 cmH2O liter-1 s; compliance from 0.22 to 0.68 ml/cmH2O; and inertance from 0.0056 to 0.047 cmH2O liter-1 s2. Our results indicate that, for these intubated infants, the mechanics of the respiratory system are well described as resistance, compliance, and inertance in series. Most of the inertance, some of the resistance, and little of the compliance are due to the endotracheal tube. When the contribution of the endotracheal tube is subtracted, the results are descriptive of the subglottal respiratory system. These data characterize the neonatal respiratory system of infants with respiratory distress syndrome (with or without pulmonary interstitial emphysema) in the range of frequencies used during high frequency ventilation.
H L Dorkin, A R Stark, J W Werthammer, D J Strieder, J J Fredberg, I D Frantz 3rd
The effect of dazoxiben, a selective thromboxane (Tx) synthetase inhibitor, on systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics, eicosanoids, and lung permeability was assessed in awake goats with lung lymph fistulae following infusion of Escherichia coli endotoxin (1 microgram/kg). Animals received endotoxin either with no treatment or pretreatment with a bolus (25 mg/kg) followed by a maintenance infusion (10 mg/kg per h) of dazoxiben. In untreated animals, the peak rise of 26.8 cm H2O in pulmonary artery (Ppa) and of 13.5 cm H2O in wedge (Pw) pressures occurred at the same time as the peak elevations in plasma thromboxane B2 (T X B2). Maximum reduction in cardiac output (Qt) also occurred at the same time. Lung lymph flow (QL) increased during this period and remained elevated for at least 6 h after endotoxin. T X B2 levels had returned from a peak of 13.1 to 0.7 ng/ml by 2 h. In dazoxiben-treated animals, plasma concentrations of T X B2 were never significantly elevated. Increases in Ppa and Pw were markedly reduced and decreased Qt was transient. QL in treated animals began to increase by 30 min after endotoxin and reached a peak by 2 h. Increased QL in treated animals was not as great as in the untreated animals. Moreover, lymph-plasma protein ratios increased significantly in treated animals. Plasma prostaglandin (PG)F2 alpha and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha concentrations were elevated in both groups after endotoxin with values significantly greater in treated animals. We conclude that selective inhibition of Tx ameliorates many adverse hemodynamic consequences of endotoxemia but does not prevent lung permeability changes.
R Winn, J Harlan, B Nadir, L Harker, J Hildebrandt
Animals with lateral hypothalamic lesions lost significantly more weight in the 18 h following this lesion than did sham-operated animals or rats with cerebral cortical lesions deprived of food for the same time period. In the acutely fasted sham-operated animals the turnover of norepinephrine in interscapular brown adipose tissue, heart, and pancreas was slowed but in fasted rats with lateral hypothalamic lesions norepinephrine turnover rates were three- to ninefold faster in all three organs. Exposure to the cold (4 degrees C) significantly increased norepinephrine turnover in the interscapular brown adipose tissue, heart, and pancreas of fasted sham-operated rats, but did not further increase the rate of turnover in lateral hypothalamic-lesioned rats. Rats with lesions in the cerebral cortex responded in a fashion similar to that of the sham-operated animals. Gastric erosions and microhemorrhagic gastric mucosa were observed in five of six acutely fasted rats with lateral hypothalamic lesions whereas all sham-operated rats had a normal appearance of the stomach lining. Animals with lateral hypothalamic lesions made 3 wk earlier also showed an increased rate of norepinephrine turnover in the interscapular brown adipose tissue, heart, and pancreas following an 18 h fast. Rats with bilateral lesions in the paraventricular region of the hypothalamus, however, responded similarly to sham-operated animals with a reduction in the turnover in norepinephrine with fasting and an increase in norepinephrine turnover rate after cold exposure even with fasting. These data suggest that lateral hypothalamic lesions produce an acute increase in turnover of norepinephrine, and that this increased turnover persists for up to 3 wk.
T Yoshida, J W Kemnitz, G A Bray
The sodium-transporting activity of toad skin is stimulated in vitro with aldosterone in the absence of energy-providing substrate; it can be stimulated further upon addition of glucose after prolonged (overnight) incubation. The magnifying effect exerted by glucose in these conditions could be blocked by inhibitors of ribonucleic acid and protein biosynthesis. In addition, exposure to cycloheximide prevented the increase in thermodynamic affinity resulting from aldosterone treatment. A synthetic 19-nor steroid, (RU 24411), dimethyl-2,2-hydroxy-21-nor-19-pregnene-4-dione-3,20, also stimulated sodium transport by toad skin incubated in the absence of glucose, but there was no magnifying effect of this substrate. Furthermore, there was no change in thermodynamic affinity with RU 24411. Therefore, the magnifying effect seen with glucose and the increase in thermodynamic affinity are not necessarily integral parts of the response of sodium-transporting epithelial to "mineralocorticoids."
R Beauwens, J Crabbé
Respiratory muscle blood flow and organ blood flow was studied in two groups of dogs with radioactively labeled microspheres to assess the influence of the working respiratory muscles on the regional distribution of blood flow when arterial pressure and cardiac output were lowered by pericardial tamponade. In one group (n = 6), the dogs were paralyzed and mechanically ventilated (Mv), while in the other (n = 6), they were left to breathe spontaneously (Sb). Cardiac output fell to 30% of control values during tamponade in both groups and was maintained constant. None of the dogs was hypoxic. Ventilation in the Sb group peaked after 50 min of hypotension, but remained unchanged in the Mv group. Duplicate measurements of blood flow were made during a control period and after 50 min of tamponade (corresponding to the peak ventilation in Sb). Blood flow to the respiratory muscles increased significantly (P less than 0.001) during tamponade in Sb (diaphragmatic flow increased to 361% of control values), while it decreased in Mv. Although the arterial blood pressure and cardiac output were comparable in the two groups, blood flow distribution during tamponade was different. In Sb, the respiratory muscles received 21% of the cardiac output, compared with only 3% in the Mv group. Thus, by muscle paralysis and Mv, a large fraction of the cardiac output used by the working respiratory muscles can be made available for perfusion of other organs during low cardiac output state: blood flows to the liver, brain, and quadriceps muscles were significantly higher during tamponade in the Mv group compared with the Sb group. Similarly, blood lactate at all times after the induction of low cardiac output and hypotension was significantly lower in the Mv animals (P less than 0.005).
N Viires, G Sillye, M Aubier, A Rassidakis, C Roussos
The site of synthesis of Hageman factor (HF, Factor XII) has not been previously demonstrated with certainty. We have studied the production and release of HF in the isolated perfused rat liver and have compared rates of synthesis in this system with absolute rates of degradation measured in vivo. Rat livers, perfused for 5 h with a recycling fluid consisting of a perfluorochemical emulsion (Fluosol 43), were used to demonstrate a cumulative increase of HF in the perfusate as measured by a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay. The rate of increase in the perfusate pool of HF during the final 4 h of perfusion yielded a mean synthetic rate of 3.5 micrograms/h per 100 g body wt, which was approximately 0.2% of the synthetic rate of albumin in the same system. The cumulative appearance of albumin and transferrin was linear after 1 h and calculated rates of synthesis were 2,012 micrograms/h per 100 g and 263 micrograms/h per 100 g body wt, respectively. De novo synthesis of HF was confirmed by demonstrating incorporation of [14C]lysine into specific immunoprecipitates of HF, and by the observations that both specific incorporation of labeled amino acid and net release of immunoassayable HF were inhibited by the administration of cycloheximide. Finally, it was evident that the rates of synthesis observed in the isolated perfused liver agreed closely with absolute rates of degradation of HF measured in vivo with 125I-rat HF (4.0 micrograms/h per 100 g). From these data we conclude that the liver is the principal site of synthesis of HF.
H Saito, S M Hamilton, A S Tavill, L T Goodnough, L Louis, A Angell
The role of calcium in stimulation of the oxyntic cell by histamine and carbamylcholine was studied using a sensitive quantitative cytochemical staining technique that measures oxyntic cell hydroxyl ion production (HIP) as an index of acid secretion. Histamine (10(-17)-10(-14) M), carbamylcholine (10(-12)-10(-9) M), and extracellular calcium (10(-7)-10(-3) M) caused a linear, dose-dependent stimulation of the oxyntic cell. EGTA (10(-6) M) inhibited carbamylcholine by 50% but not histamine-stimulated activity. Lanthanum chloride (10(-6) M) caused 100% inhibition of carbamylcholine-induced activity but did not affect histamine-stimulated activity. A maximally effective dose of calcium (10(-4) M) caused additive effects on HIP at low doses of carbamylcholine without alteration of the maximal effect of carbamylcholine. Calcium (10(-4) M) did not enhance the effects of histamine. The calmodulin antagonists, trifluoperazine (10(-5) M), pimozide (10(-5) M), and a naphthalenesulfonamide (W-7), inhibited the integrated response to histamine by 54, 56, and 53%, and that of carbamylcholine by 65, 64, and 99%, respectively. Thus, extracellular calcium per se, stimulates the oxyntic cell. The action of carbamylcholine is completely dependent upon calcium/calmodulin mediation, supporting the concept that cholinergic actions are mediated via calcium-calmodulin events. Although histamine does not require extracellular or membrane calcium events to stimulate the oxyntic cell, calmodulin appears to participate in histamine action.
W Walker, A Vinik, A Heldsinger, R Kaveh
In previous studies from this laboratory, human bone marrow hypoxanthine concentrations were found to average 7.1 microM, three times higher than plasma hypoxanthine concentrations measured simultaneously. To assess the significance of this finding, the relationship between hypoxanthine concentration and the rate of purine nucleotide synthesis by the de novo pathway was studied in normal human bone marrow mononuclear cells and in the human promyelocytic cell line, HL-60, in vitro. Utilizing a [14C]formate incorporation technique, rates of total cellular de novo purine synthesis as well as rates of de novo adenine, de novo guanine, and thymine synthesis and incorporation into RNA and DNA were measured as a function of hypoxanthine concentration. In normal human marrow cells, the rate of total de novo purine synthesis declined by 81%, while the rate of de novo adenine and de novo guanine synthesis and incorporation into macromolecules declined by 89 and 75%, respectively, when media hypoxanthine was increased from 0 to 10 microM. Similar results were seen in the HL-60 cell line. In contrast, rates of thymine synthesis and incorporation into DNA as well as overall rates of RNA and DNA synthesis did not change with varying media hypoxanthine concentrations. In addition, hypoxanthine salvage and incorporation into RNA and DNA was shown to progressively increase with increasing media hypoxanthine concentrations. These results indicate that physiologic concentrations of hypoxanthine are sufficient to regulate the rate of de novo purine synthesis in human bone marrow in vivo.
M E King, J M Honeysett, S B Howell
Lymphocyte subsets were assessed in patients with measles using the OKT range of monoclonal antibodies. A significant decrease in cells reacting with the OKT3 and OKT4 monoclonal antibodies was observed. When the tests were repeated 3 wk after the acute infection, significant recovery of these subsets was observed. The abnormality in lymphocyte subsets could be reproduced by treating normal lymphocytes with measles virus in vitro. When lymphocytes from patients with measles or when normal cells infected with measles virus in vitro were treated with either levamisole or L-ascorbic acid for 15 min and then retested with the OKT antisera, restoration of the previously depleted OKT3+ and OKT4+ cell population was observed. Ascorbic-acid treatment also, to a certain extent, reversed the inability of measles mononuclear cells to produce lymphocyte mitogenic factor (helper factor for B cells) after pokeweed mitogen activation. This abnormality, however, could not be reversed by in vitro treatment with levamisole. Measles patients treated with L-ascorbic acid demonstrated no accelerated recovery in either their lymphocyte subset profile or their ability to produce lymphocyte mitogenic factor. Although the cause of the depressed OKT3+ and OKT4+ lymphocyte subpopulations in patients with measles is not clear, the results suggest that the effect is not due to an aberration of protein synthesis, but rather to a blocking or steric change produced by the virus on the cell membrane. It is likely that both ascorbic acid and levamisole have the ability to reverse this effect by virtue of their antioxidant properties.
M I Joffe, N R Sukha, A R Rabson
The role of beta-adrenergically mediated sympathetic nervous activity in the regulation of glucose-induced thermogenesis was examined in healthy male subjects. Respiratory gas exchange was measured continuously, using the ventilated hood technique, under conditions of hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia (glucose clamp technique, insulin infusion 1 mU/kg per min, glucose levels 125 mg/dl above basal) before and after beta-adrenergic blockade (i.v. propranolol, 3-mg bolus plus 0.1 mg/min for 2 h). After 2 h of insulin and glucose infusion in series 1, glucose uptake had increased to 23.5 +/- 2.3 mg/kg per min and insulin concentration to 199 +/- 21 microU/ml. Simultaneously, the energy expenditure had risen by 0.39 +/- 0.05 kcal/min above basal. After propranolol administration, glucose uptake did not change, while energy expenditure fell significantly, to a level 0.28 +/- 0.04 kcal/min above basal. The glucose-induced thermogenesis (GIT) was 6.5 +/- 0.3% before and 4.6 +/- 0.5% (P less than 0.02) after propranolol. In series 2, insulin and glucose infusion was continued for 4 h without propranolol administration. Glucose uptake rose (+12%) and insulin levels increased (+40%) between the 2nd and 4th h but energy expenditure and GIT remained unchanged. Subjects in series 3 received saline infusion alone for 3 h, at which time propranolol administration as in series 1 was added during a further 2-h period. No changes in energy expenditure were seen during saline or propranolol infusion. These data demonstrate the presence of a beta-adrenergically mediated sympathetic nervous component in glucose-induced thermogenesis in healthy human subjects. This factor may be of importance in the regulation of normal body weight in man.
K Acheson, E Jéquier, J Wahren
Experimental studies in rats showed that immunization of the pregnant female led to the transplacental immunization of her fetuses. The possibility that this also occurred in humans was explored by immunizing 42 pregnant women with tetanus toxoid (2.5 or 5 Lf) in the fifth and eighth months of pregnancy and comparing the immune responses of their offspring with the responses of the offspring of 25 unimmunized mothers. Only the offspring of the immunized mothers were sensitized to tetanus. IgM antitetanus antibodies were in their blood before immunization with diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus vaccine (DPT), they had a more rapid (P less than 0.01) response to DPT immunization, and they were still highly sensitized (P less than 0.01) to tetanus 13 mo after birth. In addition, pregnancy had no immunosuppressive effect (P less than 0.05) on the responses of the mothers to tetanus toxoid. Thus, transplacental immunization occurs in humans; it enhances the response of the offspring to subsequent immunization, and it could be used to circumvent the necessity for immunization in early neonatal life.
T J Gill 3rd, C F Repetti, L A Metlay, B S Rabin, F H Taylor, D S Thompson, A L Cortese
Among other defects in water metabolism, adrenal insufficiency is associated with an inability to concentrate urine maximally in both man and experimental animals. Recent studies in the rabbit cortical collecting tubule have suggested indirectly that this defect may result from impaired cyclic AMP (cAMP) formation in response to antidiuretic hormone stimulation. In the present study, we examined key elements of arginine vasopressin (AVP)-dependent cAMP metabolism in the papillary collecting duct (PCD), microdissected from 8-d adrenalectomized (ADX) and sham-operated control rats. AVP-sensitive adenylate cyclase (ADC) activity in PCD did not differ between control and ADX rats. cAMP-phosphodiesterase activity (cAMP-PDIE), measured at 10(-6) M cAMP substrate concentration, was significantly higher (delta + 31.6%) in PCD of ADX rats compared with controls. Incubation of intact PCD from ADX rats with AVP resulted in an accumulation of cAMP (delta - 48.5%) significantly lower than observed in control PCD. Chronic administration of dexamethasone reduced cAMP-PDIE activity in PCD of ADX rats to levels close to or below those observed in control rat PCD, and also resulted in a restoration of AVP-stimulated cAMP accumulation to levels approaching control values. Results indicate that the impaired maximal urinary concentrating ability associated with adrenal insufficiency may be due, at least in part, to a reduced accumulation of cAMP in response to AVP in the PCD. This decreased cAMP accumulation results from increased cAMP-PDIE activity in the PCD of ADX rats and can be corrected by administration of glucocorticoid.
B A Jackson, J L Braun-Werness, E Kusano, T P Dousa
The specific roles of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in controlling human spermatogenesis are poorly understood. We studied the effect of an experimentally induced, selective LH deficiency on sperm production in normal men. After a 3-mo control period, five men received 200 mg testosterone enanthate (T) i.m./wk to suppress LH, FSH, and sperm counts. Then, while continuing T at the same dosage, human FSH (hFSH) was administered simultaneously to replace FSH activity, leaving LH activity suppressed. Four men received 100 IU hFSH s.c. daily plus T (high dosage hFSH) for 13-14 wk, while one man received 50 IU hFSH s.c. daily plus T (low dosage hFSH) for 5 mo. The effect on sperm production of the selective LH deficiency produced by hFSH plus T administration was assessed.
Alvin M. Matsumoto, Anthony E. Karpas, C. Alvin Paulsen, William J. Bremner
The genetic relationships between the multiple variants of mucolipidosis II (I-cell disease) and mucolipidosis III (pseudo-Hurler polydystrophy) were investigated with a sensitive genetic complementation analysis procedure. These clinically distinct disorders have defects in the synthesis of a recognition marker necessary for the intracellular transport of acid hydrolases into lysosomes. Both disorders are associated with an inherited deficiency of a uridine diphosphate-N-acetyl-glucosamine: lysosomal enzyme precursor N-acetyl-glucosamine-phosphate transferase activity. We had previously shown that both disorders are genetically heterogeneous. Complementation analysis between mucolipidosis II and III fibroblasts indicated an identity of mucolipidosis II with one of the three mucolipidosis III complementation groups (ML IIIA), suggesting a close genetic relationship between these groups. The presence of several instances of complementation within this group suggested an intragenic complementation mechanism. Genetic complementation in heterokaryons resulted in increases in N-acetyl-glucosamine-phosphate transferase activity, as well as in the correction of lysosomal enzyme transport. This resulted in increases in the intracellular levels of several lysosomal enzymes and in the correction of the abnormal electrophoretic mobility pattern of intracellular beta-hexosaminidase. The findings demonstrate that a high degree of genetic heterogeneity exists within these disorders. N-acetyl-glucosamine-phosphate transferase is apparently a multicomponent enzyme with a key role in the biosynthesis and targeting of lysosomal enzymes.
O T Mueller, N K Honey, L E Little, A L Miller, T B Shows
The d < 1.006 lipoproteins of patients in a kindred with atypical dysbetalipoproteinemia induced marked cholesteryl ester accumulation in mouse peritoneal macrophages. The affected family members had severe hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, xanthomatosis, premature vascular disease, the apo-E3/3 phenotype, and a predominance of cholesterol-rich β-very low density lipoproteins (β-VLDL) in the d < 1.006 fraction. When incubated with mouse peritoneal macrophages, the d < 1.006 lipoproteins or β-VLDL from the affected family members stimulated cholesteryl [14C]oleate synthesis 15- to 30-fold above that caused by normal, control d < 1.006 lipoproteins (VLDL). The ability of the β-VLDL to stimulate macrophage cholesteryl ester accumulation was greatly reduced as a consequence of treatment with hypolipidemic agents, which specifically reduced the concentration of β-VLDL. Two important differences were noted in a comparison of the β-VLDL from these atypical dysbetalipoproteinemic subjects with that of classic E2/2 dysbetalipoproteinemics: (a) the β-VLDL from the atypical subjects were severalfold more active in stimulating cholesteryl ester accumulation in macrophages, and (b) both the intestinal and hepatic β-VLDL from the atypical subjects were active. The triglyceriderich, α2-migrating VLDL from the affected family members constituted <10% of the d < 1.006 fraction and were similar to normal VLDL in that they did not stimulate cholesteryl ester synthesis in the macrophages.
Thomas P. Bersot, Thomas L. Innerarity, Robert W. Mahley, Richard J. Havel
A hereditary dysfibrinogenemia associated with defective aggregation of fibrin monomers was found in a 39-yr-old female and in the members of her immediate family, who had all been asymptomatic. The abnormality was probably due to an impaired polymerization site exposed in the DD domain of two adjacent fibrin molecules, because plasmic fragment DD derived from the propositus' cross-linked fibrin bound far less tightly to insolubilized normal fragment E than that from the normal one. Its complementary polymerization site in the E domain of fibrin, which was exposed by thrombin cleavage, and the polymerization site in the D domain of fibrinogen, which was available without activation by thrombin, were both found to be normal. More anodal migration of the abnormal fragment DD than the normal one, as shown by immunoelectrophoresis, seemed to support our concept that the mutation most likely resides in the D domain of the abnormal fibrinogen molecule at or near a region closely related to the polymerization site that is exposed when two fibrin molecules are linearly aligned. The work of others on the polymerization of normal fibrin with different techniques yielded results consistent with our conclusions. We tentatively designate this type of abnormal fibrinogen "fibrinogen Tokyo II," but its possible identity with other abnormalities of fibrinogen reported heretofore is not excluded.
M Matsuda, M Baba, K Morimoto, C Nakamikawa
To better understand how heparin structure affects its activity the relationships between the functional domains for inhibitor binding and charge density were investigated to determine how these domains affect heparin-mediated thrombin inhibition by two different heparin-dependent protease inhibitors, antithrombin (AT) and heparin cofactor II (HC II). A series of heparins, fractionated systematically by charge density, was further fractionated on antithrombin agarose to isolate more homogeneous subfractions that were either inactive or highly active with respect to thrombin inhibition by AT. With AT, the activities of the AT-active subfractions increased sharply with heparin charge density, while those with little or no affinity for AT were virtually inactive. In contrast, with HC II inhibitor, the activities of the heparins depended only upon their charge densities and were independent of AT affinity. At any given charge density, the heparin before fractionation by AT affinity and the fractions that were highly active and inactive with AT were all equally active with HC II. The two inhibitors also differed in their reactivity with heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate. A charge-density effect with the subfractions having similar high affinity for AT demonstrates that charge density represents a heparin functional domain that is independent of the AT-binding domain. The behavior of the AT-inactive heparins, being fully active with HC II, demonstrates the functional domain necessary for AT binding is not needed to produce HC II activity.
R E Hurst, M C Poon, M J Griffith
Direct actions of insulin on gonadal tissues have been difficult to demonstrate in vivo. We have developed an in vitro system in which swine ovarian cells remain highly responsive to trophic actions of insulin. Purified porcine insulin significantly augmented the biosynthesis and secretion of progesterone by cultured granulosa cells. These stimulatory actions of insulin were dose- and time-dependent and saturable. Under serum-restricted conditions, insulin also significantly amplified the capacity of estradiol and 8-bromo cyclic AMP to stimulate progesterone production. Inhibitors of protein and RNA synthesis (cycloheximide, actinomycin D, and alpha-amanatin) inhibited insulin action. The stimulation of progesterone production by insulin was attributable to increased biosynthesis of pregnenolone, rather than diminished catabolism of progesterone to its principal metabolite, 20α-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one. Insulin also enhanced progesterone production in the presence of a soluble sterol substrate, 5-cholesten-3β,25-diol, which readily gains access to the mitochondrial cholesterol side-chain cleavage system. Moreover, exposure of granulosa cells to insulin produced a three- to sevenfold increase in mitochondrial content of cytochrome P-450 measured by difference spectroscopy, with a corresponding increase in mitochondrial cholesterol side-chain cleavage activity.
Johannes D. Veldhuis, Lisa A. Kolp
Nerve conduction impairment in experimental diabetes has been empirically but not mechanistically linked to altered nerve myo-inositol metabolism. The phospholipid-dependent membrane-bound sodium-potassium ATPase provides a potential mechanism to relate defects in diabetic peripheral nerve myo-inositol-phospholipid metabolism, impulse conduction, and energy utilization. Therefore, the effect of streptozocin-induced diabetes mellitus and dietary myo-inositol supplementation on rat sciatic nerve sodium-potassium ATPase was studied. ATPase activity was measured enzymatically in sciatic nerve homogenates from 4-wk streptozocin diabetic rats and age-matched controls either fed a standard or 1% myo-inositol supplemented diet. The sodium-potassium ATPase components were assessed by ouabain inhibition or the omission of sodium and potassium ions. Diabetes reduced the composite ATPase activity recovered in crude homogenates of sciatic nerve. The 40% reduction in the sodium-potassium ATPase was selectively prevented by 1% myo-inositol supplementation (which preserved normal nerve conduction). Thus, in diabetic peripheral nerve, abnormal myo-inositol metabolism is associated with abnormal sodium-potassium ATPase activity. The mechanism of the effect of dietary myo-inositol to correct diabetic nerve conduction may be through changes in a sodium-potassium ATPase, possibly via changes in myo-inositol-containing phospholipids.
D A Greene, S A Lattimer
Nutrient malabsorption and diarrhea are characteristic of the blind loop syndrome. Alterations in motility have been implicated as a cause of bacterial overgrowth, but the possibility that altered motility may result from alterations in the flora has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to characterize the myoelectric activity of the small intestine in the blind loop rat model. Eight groups of rats were studied: rats with self-filling blind loops, which develop bacterial overgrowth; rats with self-emptying blind loops, which are surgical controls that do not develop overgrowth; unoperated litter mates; rats with self-filling blind loops and unoperated controls treated with chloramphenicol, 200 mg/d i.p.; rats with surgically removed self-filling blind loops; operated control rats; and gnotobiotic rats with self-filling blind loops. In the untreated rats with self-filling blind loops, there was altered myoelectric activity characterized by an increased percentage of slow waves occupied by action potentials and by organized activity similar to the migrating action potential complex. Migrating action potential complex activity and percentage of slow waves occupied by action potentials were significantly decreased with chloramphenicol therapy; that decrease correlated with a decrease in aerobes and anaerobes. Migrating action potential complex activity was abolished in rats with surgically removed self-filling blind loops; they also showed a significant decrease in percentage of slow waves occupied by action potentials. Gnotobiotic rats with self-filling blind loops showed no alteration in myoelectric activity. These data indicate: (a) bacterial overgrowth is associated with a significant increase in percentage of slow waves occupied by action potentials and migrating action potential complex activity; (b) chloramphenicol significantly reduced both percentage of slow waves occupied by action potentials and migrating action potential complex activity; and (c) surgical removal of the loop reduced the alterations in motor function. This study suggests that the altered myoelectric activity in this model of bacterial overgrowth was due, in part, to the abnormal bacterial flora and supports the concept that alterations in motility may contribute to the diarrhea that is characteristic of the blind loop syndrome.
P G Justus, A Fernandez, J L Martin, C E King, P P Toskes, J R Mathias
Patients with autoantibodies to the insulin receptor (Anti-R) may exhibit either fasting hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia and extreme insulin resistance. Occasionally, both these phenomena are observed in the same patient at different times in the clinical course. In an effort to understand what determines the patient's response to Anti-R, we developed an animal model of these clinical disorders by passive transfer of Anti-R IgG to rats. IgG fractions from the plasma of Anti-R patients and control subjects were prepared by affinity chromatography with staphylococcal protein A-Sepharose. Anti-R IgG, injected into fasting rats, induced severe and persistent hypoglycemia (plasma glucose 30-60 mg/dl). Rats injected with control IgG maintained a plasma glucose within the range of 75 (fasting) to 165 mg/dl (feeding). In comparison with the effects of insulin, the hypoglycemic response to Anti-R IgG had a slower onset (2-4 h) and lasted longer (8-24 h). Similar, dose-dependent hypoglycemic responses were observed in rats whether the Anti-R IgG was derived from an insulin-resistant or hypoglycemic patient. When Anti-R IgG was administered in sufficiently high doses for several days to fed rats, persistent hyperglycemia (plasma glucose 200-400 mg/dl) developed. Based on these in vivo and previous in vitro studies, we attribute the hypoglycemic response to an insulin-like effect of Anti-R, and the hyperglycemic response to a desensitization of host tissues to the effects of insulin, with more prolonged exposure to higher levels of Anti-R.
R F Dons, R Havlik, S I Taylor, K L Baird, S S Chernick, P Gorden
Unconscious rats given intravenous ceruletide (diethylamine salt of the decapeptide caerulein) in large pharmacologic doses consistently developed moderate acute pancreatitis by 3 h and florid pancreatitis by 6 h. Biochemical serum markers of acute pancreatitis tended to parallel the severity of the pancreatic damage. In 50% of the rats, mesenteric fat necrosis was present, free peritoneal fluid containing massive elevations of trypsinogen and amylase were noted in most animals. Intravenous secretion at a low dose given simultaneously with ceruletide exerted a variable protective effect on the pathological process. A high dose of secretin produced a striking macroscopic, microscopic, and biochemical protective effect on ceruletide-induced pancreatitis. High resolution light microscopy and electron microscopy showed a marked cellular disorganization in the acini of animals treated with ceruletide alone. By contrast, there was a striking apical redirection of zymogen granules in acini of the animals treated with secretin. The results of this study suggest that high dose intravenous secretin may exert a beneficial effect on acute pancreatitis.
I G Renner, J R Wisner Jr, H Rinderknecht
Two human monocyte subsets from the peripheral blood of healthy donors have been isolated in greater than 90% purity by countercurrent centrifugal elutration and human serum albumin gradients and their functional capabilities have been assessed. We have demonstrated that one subset ("regular" monocytes, RM) showed intense cytoplasmic peroxidase staining and contained substantial peroxidase activity. In contrast, another subset ("intermediate" monocytes, IM) stained poorly for peroxidase and had low peroxidase activity. By electron microscopic analysis combined with peroxidase localization, it was found that IM had fewer peroxidase-positive granules per cell than did RM. IM coelutriated with some lymphocytes and by cell sizing analysis were shown to be slightly smaller than RM. Functional and cytochemical analysis of these subsets indicated that IM had less activity than RM in assays such as accessory cell function for mitogen-induced T lymphocyte proliferation and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and that fewer IM expressed OKM1 antigen and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) receptors on their membranes than did RM. The subset of IM not bearing either the PWM receptor or the OKM1 antigen had very low peroxidase activity. IM also were found to have a greater sensitivity to polyriboinosinic and polyribocytidilic acid (100 micrograms/ml)-induced secretion of interferon. There was no significant difference in the phagocytic capability, the percentage of Fc receptor-positive cells, 5'-nucleotidase activity, DR antigen expression, or the responsiveness to migration inhibitory factor of IM as compared with RM. Furthermore, it was found that the ratio of IM to RM increased after prolonged cytapheresis, which suggests that IM are more mobilizable than RM from the extravascular reservoirs of human monocytes.
Y Akiyama, P J Miller, G B Thurman, R H Neubauer, C Oliver, T Favilla, J A Beman, R K Oldham, H C Stevenson
The designing of parathyroid hormone (PTH)-renal dose-response studies in human beings is complicated by the possibility of rapid homologous receptor down-regulation, a phenomenon that is clearly shown to occur in vitro. Large amounts of PTH given to human subjects as serial injections or prolonged infusions cause decreased urinary 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) responses to subsequent PTH doses, but it is uncertain whether lower doses given over shorter periods similarly cause renal tachyphylaxis to PTH action. Thus, in seven water-loaded adults, we infused in ascending order 10, 30, 75, 150, and 300 U of synthetic bovine PTH fragment 1-34 (bPTH 1-34) per 70 kg body wt over 15 min on widely separated days ("separate day administration"). On another day, each subject received all five 15-min doses in ascending order at 75-min intervals ("single day administration"). Urine collection intervals were control, 0-30 min (including the PTH infusion), and 30-60 min. Peak nephrogenous cAMP (NcAMP, nmol/100 ml glomerular filtrate) response was linearly related to the dose of PTH (separate day study, r = 0.94, P less than 0.001; single day study, r = 0.88, P less than 0.001). However, the slope of NcAMP responses plotted against PTH dose for the single day study was only 36% of that derived from separate day administration of the same PTH doses (P less than 0.001). After only 40 U (10 + 30) of bPTH 1-34/70 kg, the NcAMP response to 75 U was reduced 44%, and the effect of 300 U/70 kg, when given as the last of the sequential single day infusions, was 64% less than the response to 300 U of bPTH 1-34 given alone (P less than 0.001). The phosphaturic response (fractional excretion of phosphorus, FEP [percent]) was also linearly related to bPTH 1-34 dose, but combined administration of the PTH infusions on one day increased FEP at each dose identically with the effects of separate day administration. A transient, dose-related, early hypercalciuric response to bPTH 1-34 also occurred, and was of equal magnitude in both protocols. These studies demonstrate that significant blunting of the NcAMP response to bPTH 1-34 occurs rapidly and follows brief exposure to relatively low doses of hormone. In contrast, there is no effect of recent PTH administration on the phosphaturic and early hypercalciuric actions of bPTH 1-34. This seeming dissociation of PTH effects makes unclear the physiologic importance of PTH-induced cAMP tachyphylaxis in the regulation of final PTH actions. In any case, studies of NcAMP responses in which the occurrence of tachyphylaxis would be undesirable should be designed to avoid prolonged or closely spaced administrations of the hormone.
W M Law Jr, H Heath 3rd
The in vivo hepatic metabolism of connecting peptide (C-peptide) in relation to that of insulin has not been adequately characterized. A radioimmunoassay for dog C-peptide was therefore developed and its metabolism studied in conscious mongrel dogs, with sampling catheters chronically implanted in their portal and hepatic veins and femoral artery. The hepatic extraction of endogenous C-peptide under basal conditions was negligible (4.3 +/- 4.5%) and was similar to the hepatic extraction of C-peptide measured during the constant exogenous infusion of C-peptide isolated from dog pancreas. Simultaneously measured hepatic extraction of endogenous and exogenously infused insulin were 43.8 +/- 7.6 and 47.5 +/- 4.4%, respectively. The metabolic clearance rate of infused C-peptide was 11.5 +/- 0.8 ml/kg per min and was constant over the concentration range usually encountered under physiological conditions. In additional experiments, the effect of parenteral glucose administration on the hepatic extraction of C-peptide and insulin was investigated. The hepatic extraction of C-peptide (6.2 +/- 4.0%) was again negligible in comparison with that of insulin (46.7 +/- 3.4%). Parenteral glucose administration did not affect the hepatic extraction of either peptide irrespective of whether it was infused peripherally, intraportally, or together with an intraportal infusion of gastrointestinal inhibitory polypeptide. The fasting C-peptide insulin molar ratio in both the portal vein (1.2 +/- 0.1) and femoral artery (2.1 +/- 0.3) was also unaffected by the glucose stimulus. These results therefore indicate that, since the hepatic extraction of C-peptide is negligible and its clearance kinetics linear, the peripheral C-peptide concentration should accurately reflect the rate of insulin secretion. New approaches to the quantitation of hepatic extraction and secretion of insulin by noninvasive techniques are now feasible.
K Polonsky, J Jaspan, W Pugh, D Cohen, M Schneider, T Schwartz, A R Moossa, H Tager, A H Rubenstein
Immune T cells proliferate in response to antigen that is recognized in association with self-Ia determinants. T cells from a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency that has been successfully reconstituted with haplotype-mismatched, maternal bone marrow were studied in an attempt to understand the development of Ia restriction of antigen recognition in man. All the patient's T cells were of maternal origin as determined by HLA typing. The patient received a series of three immunizations with tetanus toxoid (TT) antigen between the 6th and 14th week posttransplant. TT-specific T cell lines were established from the patient's peripheral blood at 6 and 8 mo posttransplantation and were maintained in culture in the presence of irradiated monocytes from the patient, TT antigen, and interleukin-2. HLA typing of the two T cell lines revealed them to be exclusively of donor origin. Both T cell lines could proliferate to TT in the presence of monocytes derived from either the patient's mother or father. In contrast, a TT-specific T cell line obtained from the patient's mother proliferated to TT in the presence of autologous monocytes, but not in the presence of monocytes derived from the patient's father. Studies using monocytes from a panel of HLA-typed donors indicated that the patient's T cell lines proliferated to TT in the presence of monocytes that expressed the paternal DR antigen (HLA-DR4) inherited by the patient but not in the presence of monocytes that expressed the paternal DR antigen (HLA-DR1) not inherited by the patient or in the presence of monocytes bearing irrelevant DR antigens. Monocytes that expressed either one of the two maternal DR antigens (HLA-DR3 and DR5) could support the proliferation of the patient's T cell lines in response to TT antigen. HLA typing of the patient's monocytes at 6 mo post-transplant revealed only recipient HLA-DR antigens (HLA-DR3 and DR4). At 12 mo posttransplant, the patient's monocytes expressed recipient HLA-DR antigens as well as the non-shared HLA-DR5 antigen of donor origin. The results of the present study indicate that T cells of human bone marrow chimera recognized antigen in the context of Ia determinants of recipient origin. The apparent recognition of antigen by the chimera's T cells in the context of donor Ia determinants that were not shared with the recipient is discussed.
E Chu, D Umetsu, F Rosen, R S Geha
Genes in the major histocompatibility complex of mice and guinea pigs control immunologic responsiveness to insulins from other animal species. In order to determine if similar genetic control exists in man, we have examined lymphocyte proliferation responses to components of therapeutic insulins by employing lymphocytes from diabetic patients that receive insulin. Distinct groups of individuals demonstrated positive lymphocyte proliferative responses to beef insulin, beef and pork insulin, beef proinsulin, pork proinsulin, and protamine. Lymphocytes from the patient population were typed for the HLA-A, B, C, and DR antigens. An increased frequency of certain HLA antigens was found in those individuals that responded to the following therapeutic insulin components: beef, HLA-DR4; beef and pork, HLA-DR3; beef proinsulin, HLA-BW4, CW2, CW5, DR2, and DR5; protamine, HLA-CW3, CW5, and DR7. The results demonstrate that the human immune system recognized the structural differences between human and beef and/or pork insulin. These differences are two amino acids in the A chain, alpha loop, of beef insulin and the single terminal amino acid, alanine, which is common to pork and beef insulins. Positive responses to both beef proinsulin and pork proinsulin demonstrated the capability of restricted recognition of more complex proteins represented by the C-peptide in these insulin preparations. Lymphocyte proliferative responses to protamine were also restricted, which suggests a genetic control to this antigen. The association of these responses with HLA alloantigens strongly suggests that genes within the human major histocompatibility complex control recognition and lymphocyte response to therapeutic insulin components.
D L Mann, N Mendell, C R Kahn, A H Johnson, A Rosenthal
Three siblings with intense jaundice and hemolytic anemia at birth were found to excrete a high level of coproporphyrin in their urine and feces; the pattern of fecal porphyrin excretion was atypical for hereditary coproporphyria because the major porphyrin was harderoporphyrin (greater than 60%; normal value is less than 20%). The lymphocyte coproporphyrinogen III oxidase activity of each patient was 10% of control values, which suggests a homozygous state. Both parents showed only mild abnormalities in porphyrin excretion and lymphocyte coproporphyrinogen III oxidase activity decreased to 50% of normal values, as is expected in heterozygous cases of hereditary coproporphyria. Kinetic parameters of coproporphyrinogen III oxidase from these patients were clearly modified, with a Michaelis constant 15-20-fold higher than normal values when using coproporphyrinogen or harderoporphyrinogen as substrates. Maximal velocity was half the normal value, and we also observed a marked sensitivity to thermal denaturation. The possibility that a mutation affecting the enzyme on the active center which is specifically involved in the second decarboxylation (from harderoporphyrinogen to protoporphyrinogen) was eliminated by experiments on rat liver that showed that coproporphyrinogen and harderoporphyrinogen were metabolized at the same active center. The pattern of porphyrin excretion and the coproporphyrinogen oxidase from the three patients exhibited abnormalities that were different from the abnormalities found in another recently described homozygous case of hereditary coproporphyria. We suggest naming this variant of coproporphyrinogen oxidase defect "harderoporphyria."
Y Nordmann, B Grandchamp, H de Verneuil, L Phung, B Cartigny, G Fontaine
The distribution of adipose tissue thickness, fat cell weight (FCW), and number (FCN) were studied in four regions in randomly selected middle-aged men and women and in 930 obese individuals. Both the obese and the randomly selected men were found to have the largest adipose tissue thickness in the abdominal region. Women, however, showed a relative preponderance for the gluteal and femoral regions. FCW increased with expanding body fat up to a maximal size of approximately 0.7-0.8 micrograms/cell in each region. After this increase in FCW, a more rapid increase in FCN was found. For the same degree of relative overweight, men had higher triglyceride, fasting glucose, and insulin levels; higher sums of glucose and insulin levels during an oral glucose tolerance test; and higher blood pressure. Furthermore, elevated fasting glucose levels (greater than 7.4 mM) occurred twice as often in the males. These differences between males and females persisted even after body fat matching. A male risk profile was seen in women characterized by abdominal obesity (high waist/hip circumference ratio) as compared to women with the typical peripheral obesity. Stepwise multiple regression analyses in both women and men showed the obesity complications to be associated in a first step to waist/hip circumference or body fat and in a second to abdominal fat cell size. It may thus be concluded that: (a) In both obese and nonobese subjects, regional differences exist between the sexes with regard to adipose tissue distribution. (b) Moderate expansion of body fat is mainly due to FCW enlargement, which is subsequently followed by increased FCN. (c) Men and women with a male abdominal type of obesity are more susceptible to the effect of excess body fat on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.
M Krotkiewski, P Björntorp, L Sjöström, U Smith
Both the mammalian thick ascending limb of Henle's loop and the shark rectal gland actively transport Cl against an electrochemical gradient by mechanisms involving hormone-sensitive NaCl transport. In contrast to mammalian renal tubules, individual tubules of the shark rectal gland previously have not been perfused in vitro. Using a combination of renal slice and microdissection techniques we were able to isolate and perfuse single rectal gland tubules without the use of enzyme treatment. Single tubules consistently generated lumen-negative transepithelial voltages (Vt) of -1.8 mV when perfused and bathed with identical shark Ringer's solution. The addition of cyclic AMP, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and adenosine to the bath increased Vt to -7.5, -9.0, and -4.3 mV, respectively (all P less than 0.02 compared with paired controls). Each stimulation could be reversed by addition by furosemide to the bath. The adenosine response was inhibited by theophylline, a specific inhibitor of adenosine receptors. The tubules had a low transepithelial electrical resistance of 12-26 omega X cm2 and exhibited a transepithelial permselectivity for small cations. These results indicate that tubules of the rectal gland can be perfused in vitro and have receptors for VIP and adenosine. Cyclic AMP and secretagogues hyperpolarize the membrane consistent with electrogenic chloride transport, and these effects are reversed by furosemide, an inhibitor of coupled sodium-potassium-chloride co-transport. The response of Vt to cyclic AMP and furosemide, the transepithelial electrical resistance, and the cation selective permeability of tubules are remarkably similar to measurements in perfused mammalian thick ascending limbs.
J N Forrest Jr, F Wang, K W Beyenbach
Although enterococci are relatively resistant to penicillin, the mechanism of resistance is largely unknown and enzymatic inactivation does not play a role. In this study, an isolate of Streptococcus faecalis was found to have beta lactamase activity resulting in complete inactivation of penicillin. With a high inoculum, this strain was resistant to greater than 1,000 micrograms/ml of penicillin. Penicillin resistance and beta lactamase activity were transferred by conjugation at a high frequency to an enterococcal laboratory recipient strain together with two plasmids of molecular size 34 X 10(6) and 56 X 10(6), thus demonstrating the emergence of plasmid-mediated penicillin resistance in the genus Streptococcus.
B E Murray, B Mederski-Samaroj