Dietary components responsible for the regulation of somatomedin-C in humans were assessed in five adult volunteers of normal weight who were fasted for 5 d on three occasions, then refed three diets of differing composition. The serum somatomedin-C decreased from a mean prefasting value of 1.85 +/- 0.39 U/ml (+/- 1 SD) to 0.67 +/- 0.16 U/ml at the end of fasting (P less than 0.005). After refeeding for 5 d with a normal diet, the mean serum somatomedin-C increased to 1.26 +/- 0.20 U/ml. A protein-deficient (32% of control), isocaloric diet resulted in a significantly smaller increase, to a mean value of 0.90 +/- 0.24 U/ml (P less than 0.05). A diet deficient in both protein and energy led to a further fall 0.31 +/- 0.06 U/ml. The changes in somatomedin-C during fasting and refeeding correlated significantly with mean daily nitrogen balance (r = 0.90). We conclude that both protein and energy intake are regulators of serum somatomedin-C concentrations in adult humans, and energy intake may be of greater importance. The correlation between changes in somatomedin-C and nitrogen balance suggests that the former are directly related to changes in protein synthesis and may be helpful in assessing the response to nutritional therapy.
W L Isley, L E Underwood, D R Clemmons
Restoration of hemolytic activity was examined in sera from seven unrelated eighth component of complement (C8)-deficient subjects. The sera fell into two groups, depending on whether hemolytic activity was restored by the addition of the beta-chain (group 1) or the alpha-gamma-subunit (group 2) purified from normal human C8. Antigenic analysis of these sera by double-immunodiffusion using anti-human C8 confirmed previous findings of a dysfunctional C8 in the four sera of group 1 and established the presence of a different dysfunctional C8 in one of the sera of group 2 when tested at a high concentration. Further characterization of the dysfunctional C8 molecules in the two sera by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated that group 1 sera were missing the beta-subunit and group 2 sera were missing the alpha-gamma-subunit of the C8 molecule. Sera from either of these two groups alone did not produce hemolysis in hemolytic plates containing sheep erythrocytes coated with antibody and complement components up to C7 (EAC1-7) and C9. When sera from the two groups were added to adjacent wells in the hemolytic plates, a zone of hemolysis developed between the wells. The contribution of C8 alpha-gamma from the sera of group 1 and of C8 beta from those of group 2 to the lysis of EAC1-7 in the presence of C9 was confirmed by the inhibitory effect of specific antibodies against the two C8 subunits. In experiments in which hemolytic activity was reconstituted by mixing sera from group 1 with sera from group 2, the serum source of C8 beta (group 2) was the limiting reagent. The dysfunctional C8 molecule in this serum was able to bind to EAC1-7. Chromatographic analysis demonstrated that the generation of hemolytic activity in the mixture of the two sera resulted from the reconstitution of the C8 molecule rather than the sequential action of the two C8 subunits.
F Tedesco, P Densen, M A Villa, B H Petersen, G Sirchia
We evaluated the interaction of [3H]1,25(OH)2D3 with skin fibroblasts cultured from normal subjects or from affected members of six kindreds with rickets and resistance to 1-alpha, 25(OH)2D [1,25(OH)2D]. We analyzed two aspects of the radioligand interaction; nuclear uptake with dispersed, intact cells at 37 degrees C and binding at 0 degrees C with soluble extract ("cytosol") prepared from cells disrupted in buffer containing 300 mM KCl and 10 mM sodium molybdate. With normal fibroblasts the affinity and capacity of nuclear uptake of [3H]1,25(OH)2D3 were 0.5 nM and 10,300 sites per cell, respectively; for binding with cytosol these were 0.13 nM and 8,900 sites per cell, respectively. The following four patterns of interaction with [3H]1,25(OH)2D3 were observed with cells cultured from affected patients: (a) two kindreds; cytosol binding and whole-cell nuclear uptake both unmeasurable; (b) one kindred, decreased capacity and normal affinity both for binding in cytosol and for nuclear uptake in whole cells; (c) two kindreds, normal or nearly normal capacity and affinity of binding in cytosol but unmeasurable whole-cell nuclear uptake; and (d) one kindred, normal capacity and affinity of both cytosol binding and whole-cell nuclear uptake. In all cases where the radioligand bound with high affinity in nucleus or cytosol, the nucleus- or cytosol-associated radioligand exhibited normal sedimentation velocity on sucrose density gradients. When two kindreds exhibited similar patterns (i.e. pattern a or c) with the analyses of cultured fibroblasts, clinical features in affected members suggested that the underlying genetic defects were not identical. In conclusion: (a) Fibroblasts cultured from human skin manifest nuclear uptake and cytosol binding of [3H]1,25(OH)2D3 that is an expression of the genes determining these processes in target tissues. (b) Based upon data from clinical evaluations and from analyses of cultured fibroblasts, severe resistance to 1,25(OH)2D resulted from five or six distinct genetic mutations in six kindreds.
U A Liberman, C Eil, S J Marx
During perfusion of a plasma-like solution, colonic absorption rate of chloride was much higher than the secretion rate of bicarbonate (34 vs. 3.5 meq/h, respectively). This might suggest that anion exchange (Cl/HCO3) accounts for only a small fraction of total chloride absorption. However, if the colon absorbs as well as secretes bicarbonate, this reasoning would underestimate the magnitude of the anion exchange. To see if the colon absorbs bicarbonate, we perfused a chloride-free solution (which would eliminate bicarbonate secretion via (Cl/HCO3 exchange) and found that the colon absorbed bicarbonate at a rate of 5.1 meq/h. Calculation of electrochemical gradients and measurement of luminal fluid PCO2 indicated that this bicarbonate absorption was mediated passively in response to electrical gradients, rather than via reversed Cl/HCO3 exchange or acid secretion. The combined results of the plasma-like and chloride-free perfusion experiments suggest Cl/HCO3 exchange at a rate of 8.6 meq/h (the sum of bicarbonate movements, 3.5 and 5.1 meq/h, observed in the two experiments). To obtain a second estimate under different experimental conditions, a choline chloride-choline bicarbonate (sodium-free) solution was perfused; with this solution, chloride and bicarbonate absorption dependent on active sodium transport should be eliminated or markedly reduced, and the magnitude of Cl/HCO3 exchange should be revealed. This experiment suggested a Cl/HCO3 exchange rate of 9.3 meq/h, similar to the first estimate. As chloride was absorbed at a rate of 34 meq/h during perfusion of the plasma-like solution, the Cl/HCO3 exchange provides for approximately one-fourth of total chloride absorption.
G R Davis, S G Morawski, C A Santa Ana, J S Fordtran
We studied the opossum sphincter of Oddi (SO) because in this species the SO is approximately 3 cm in length and its extraduodenal location permits recording of motor activity with negligible interference from duodenal motor activity. The SO segment of 120 animals was evaluated by one or more of the following: (a) intraluminal manometry; (b) electromyography; (c) common bile duct (CBD) flow monitored by a drop counter; (d) cineradiography of intraductal contrast medium; and (e) histologic examination. SO pull-throughs using an infused catheter of 0.6-mm o.d. invariably showed a high pressure zone (HPZ) of 18 +/- 3 SE mm Hg in the terminal 4-5 mm of the SO segment. This HPZ had a narrow lumen, 0.5-0.7 mm in diam, and prominent circular muscle. The HPZ in the terminal SO had both active and passive components. HPZ with minimal amplitude and a paucity of underlying smooth muscle were present inconstantly at the junction of the SO segment with the CBD and pancreatic duct, respectively. The dominant feature of the SO segment was rhythmic peristaltic contractions that originated in the proximal SO and propagated toward the duodenum. These contractions occurred spontaneously at a rate of 2-8/min, ranged up to 200 mm Hg in magnitude, had a duration of approximately 5 s and were not abolished by tetrodotoxin. Concurrent myoelectric and manometric recordings showed that each phasic contraction was immediately preceded by an electrical spike burst. Simultaneous recordings of cineradiography, CBD inflow of contrast medium, SO manometry, and SO electromyography indicated that rhythmic peristaltic contractions stripped contrast medium from the SO into the duodenum. During SO systole, CBD emptying was transiently interrupted, whereas SO filling occurred during the diastolic interval between SO peristaltic contractions. SO distention increased the frequency of SO peristalsis. We conclude that (a) the dominant feature of the opossum SO is rhythmic peristaltic contractions that originate in the proximal SO and propagate toward the duodenum; (b) these forceful SO peristaltic contractions are myogenic in origin and serve as a peristaltic pump that actively empties the SO segment; (c) CBD outflow occurs passively during SO diastole, but is interrupted transiently during each SO peristaltic contraction; and (d) a short HPZ with active as well as passive components exists in the distal SO segment and acts as a variable resistor to SO outflow.
J Toouli, W J Dodds, R Honda, S Sarna, W J Hogan, R A Komarowski, J H Linehan, R C Arndorfer
Alveolar macrophages from nonatopic donors were passively sensitized with allergen-specific IgE antibody from the serum of asthmatic patients. A selective release of 4-8% of the lysosomal beta-glucuronidase of these cells occurred within 30 min of contact with the related allergen or with anti-human IgE antibody, in the absence of any mast or basophil cells. The cell reactivity was dependent on the interaction of macrophages with IgE, as shown by the disappearance of the allergen-induced enzyme release after heating or IgE-immune adsorption of the sensitizing serum, but not after IgG-adsorption. Alveolar macrophages from asthmatic patients behaved similarly to passively sensitized normal macrophages. Contact with the related allergen or with anti-IgE antibody induced the same percentage of enzyme release, demonstrating that these cells possess allergen-specific IgE bound on their surface. 18% of them formed rosettes with anti-IgE-coated sheep erythrocytes, and 15-22% with allergen-coated erythrocytes, but lost this property after preincubation with the specific allergen. The presence of IgE-specific receptors on the macrophage surface was demonstrated both at the ultrastructural level with immunoperoxidase labeling, and at low magnification by the formation of 15-18% rosettes with human IgE-coated erythrocytes. The formation of such rosettes was inhibited after incubation of alveolar phagocytes with aggregated myeloma IgE. On the basis of these observations, the participation of the alveolar macrophages in IgE-mediated pulmonary hypersensitivity must be considered. Its precise involvement requires, however, further investigations.
M Joseph, A B Tonnel, G Torpier, A Capron, B Arnoux, J Benveniste
Recent studies have established that some patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism have a deficiency of the adenylate cyclase regulatory protein (the G unit) in plasma membranes from erythrocytes, platelets, and fibroblasts. We have directly measured the activity of the G unit in renal membranes from a patient with pseudohypoparathyroidism who, in addition to parathyroid hormone resistance, has resistance to thyrotropin and gonadotropins. Erythrocyte membrane G unit activity was 57% that of control erythrocyte membranes. Lubrol PX extracts of renal membranes had only 30% of the G unit activity of control renal membrane extracts, whether assayed with sodium fluoride or guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP-gamma-S). In cholate extracts, the G unit activity was 37 and 48% of control with fluoride or GTP-gamma-S, respectively. Cholera toxin-dependent incorporation of [32P]ADP-ribose into the 42,000-Mr subunit of the G unit was decreased in renal membranes from the patient compared with control renal membranes. The data demonstrate that the membrane G unit deficiency in pseudohypoparathyroidism extends to the cells of a clinically relevant parathyroid hormone target tissue.
R W Downs Jr, M A Levine, M K Drezner, W M Burch Jr, A M Spiegel
Previous in vitro studies have shown that immune complexes (IC) that fix complement can bind to the C3b receptor on primate erythrocytes. The in vivo function of this erythrocyte receptor, however, is unknown. This study was undertaken to determine whether the binding of IC to erythrocytes in vivo might play a role in the removal of IC from the circulation. Baboons and rhesus monkeys were prepared with a catheter in the ascending aorta to infuse IC and in the abdominal aorta, renal, hepatic, and portal veins to monitor changes in binding and clearance of IC across kidney, liver, and spleen + gut, respectively. Autologous 51Cr-labeled erythrocytes were infused intravenously and allowed to equilibrate. Preformed IC (125I-labeled bovine serum albumin [BSA] rabbit anti-BSA) were then infused into the ascending aorta at a constant rate for 120 s. Blood samples were drawn at frequent intervals for 30 min from all catheters below the IC injection site. Each blood sample was then centrifuged on percoll to separate IC bound to erythrocytes from IC in plasma or bound to buffy coat cells. This resulted in an "erythrocyte fraction" beneath the percoll that contained the IC bound to erythrocytes, and a "plasma/buffy coat fraction" above the percoll that contained the IC in plasma and IC bound to buffy coat cells. Analysis of these data showed that the majority of the IC infused into the circulation rapidly became bound to erythrocytes. However, by 5 min after beginning the IC infusion, most of this IC load had been removed from the erythrocytes as they traversed the liver. In contrast, IC on erythrocytes did not deposit in kidney. The IC-bearing erythrocytes themselves were not trapped or detained by any organ. IC in the plasma/buffy coat fraction of blood were removed from the circulation but at a relatively low rate and almost entirely by the liver. These findings suggest that primate erythrocytes intercept large complement-fixing IC in the circulation causing the IC to adhere to the erythrocyte until th e IC-bearing erythrocyte traverses liver where the IC is deposited, and the erythrocyte is returned to the circulation. This primate erythrocyte-IC-clearing mechanism may be important in the protection against diseases mediated by deposition of circulating IC.
J B Cornacoff, L A Hebert, W L Smead, M E VanAman, D J Birmingham, F J Waxman
Prepubertal girls and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-deficient females secrete follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) preferentially in response to intravenous GnRH. With continued pulsatile GnRH stimulation, FSH secretion is reduced when plasma estradiol (E2) is increasing. To delineate the mechanisms involved in these changing gonadotropin responses, e studied the effect of low dose (0.025 micrograms/kg) pulsatile injections of GnRH in females with varying degrees and/or duration of endogenous GnRH deficiency (idiopathic panhypopituitarism, PHP; isolated growth hormone deficiency, IGHD; isolated gonadotropin deficiency, IGD; and anorexia nervosa, AN; both at low body weight and after weight regain). In patients presumed to have the most severe GnRH deficiency (PHP), responses of both FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH) were small and delayed, and no increase in plasma estradiol occurred during the 5 d of GnRH injections. In patients previously exposed to prepubertal or adult levels of endogenous GnRH secretion (IGHD, IGD, AN at low body weight), a rapid initial FSH response occurred that subsequently declined when plasma estradiol rose to concentrations greater than 40-50 pg/ml. Prior therapy with estrogen (micronized estradiol, Estrace) abolished FSH responses but LH responses were only slightly impaired. The degree of FSH response was dependent upon the time of initiation of estrogen relative to the onset of GnRH injections. Administration of estrogen after the first GnRH injection inhibited gonadotropin responses, whereas later estrogen therapy (after 1 d of GnRH pulses) blunted the GnRH induced FSH secretion without significantly impairing the LH response. In weight-regained anorexic patients who had spontaneous pulsatile LH secretion and a mean basal plasma estradiol concentration of 53 +/- 15 pg/ml, administration of GnRH pulses did not change plasma LH and a minimal FSH response was seen. The data indicate that the pattern of gonadotropin responses to low dose GnRH injections depends upon the degree of previous exposure of the pituitary to endogenous GnRH. Furthermore, estradiol selectively inhibits FSH secretion by a direct action on the pituitary gland. This action of estradiol provides an explanation for the selective reduction in FSH responses to GnRH seen during pubertal maturation in girls and during the mid-follicular stage of the menstrual cycle.
J C Marshall, G D Case, T W Valk, K P Corley, S E Sauder, R P Kelch
GSH plays an important role in cellular defense against a wide variety of toxic electrophiles via the formation of thioether conjugates. We studied the role of GSH in murine tumor cell defense against a novel class of sulfhydryl-reactive antineoplastics, the sesquiterpene lactones (SL). Incubation of P815 mastocytoma cells with any of the four SL tested (vernolepin, helenalin, elephantopin, and eriofertopin) for 1 h resulted in 70-97% depletion of GSH. The importance of GSH resynthesis upon exposure of tumor cells to SL was evaluated with the use of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), a selective, nontoxic inhibitor of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Inhibition of GSH synthesis with 0.2 mM BSO markedly enhanced SL-mediated cytolysis of four murine tumor cell lines. A 6- to 34-fold reduction in the amount of SL causing 50% lysis was obtained with BSO. Addition of BSO to P815cells either during or immediately after a 1-h pulse with 10 micrograms/ml of vernolepin increased cytolysis from less than 3% to 78-82%. However, a 1.5-h delay in the addition of BSO to such cells, which allowed for substantial resynthesis of GSH, reduced cytolysis to 30%. Recovery of GSH synthetic capacity after BSO treatment correlated with loss of the synergistic effect of BSO on lysis by vernolepin. BSO did not augment cytolysis by six other antineoplastics (doxorubicin, mitomycin C, vinblastine, cytosine arabinoside, maytansine, and 1,3-bis-[2-chloroethyl]-1-nitrosourea [BCNU]). Of these, only BCNU depleted cellular GSH. Lysis by jatrophone, another GSH-depleting antitumor agent, was increased 21-fold by BSO. Since prolonged incubation with BSO alone results in near-complete GSH depletion without loss of cell viability, SL-mediated cytolysis is probably not a result of GSH depletion. We have demonstrated, however, a critical role for GSH synthetic capacity as a determinant of tumor cell susceptibility to cytolysis by SL. GSH also plays an important role in cellular defense against oxidative injury. Vernolepin, acting as a GSH-depleting agent, markedly sensitized tumor cells to lysis by H2O2 (greater than 6.5-fold increase with 20 micrograms/ml of vernolepin). These findings suggest the possibility that the coordinated deployment of sulfhydryl-reactive antitumor agents, BSO, and oxidative injury might constitute an effective chemotherapeutic strategy.
B A Arrick, C F Nathan, Z A Cohn
The effect of peritubular protein removal on passive NaCl transport was examined in the isolated rabbit proximal convoluted tubule (PCT). Three modes of passive NaCl transport were tested: (a) paracellular backflux of NaCl, (b) convective flow of NaCl through junctional complexes, and (c) anion gradient-dependent NaCl transport. The effect of peritubular protein removal on the paracellular permeability to NaCl was examined using transepithelial specific resistance. Eight PCT were perfused with ultrafiltrate (UF) and bathed in either serum or UF. Transepithelial specific resistance averaged 14.5 +/- 1.9 in the presence and 13.7 +/- 1.7 omega cm2 in the absence of peritubular protein. The effect of peritubular protein removal on the convective flow of a NaCl solution across functional complexes was examined in the absence of active transport by using colloid osmotic pressure (COP) gradients. 12 PCT were perfused with simple salt solutions in Donnan equilibrium with and without protein at 20 degrees C. A COP gradient of 60.1 and -60.1 mmHg drove only 0.06 and -0.23 nl/min, respectively. These values are approximately 10% of the value predicted for an effect of peritubular protein on NaCl solution flow (1.98 nl/min) and are approximately equal to the value predicted for pure water equilibration for the small osmotic pressure difference between solutions in Donnan equilibrium (0.17-0.18 nl/min). The effect of peritubular protein removal on the passive absorption of NaCl driven by anion concentration gradients was examined in seven PCT perfused with a high chloride solution simulating late proximal tubular fluid and bathed in either serum or UF at 20 degrees C. Volume absorption averaged 0.34 +/- 0.20 in the presence and 0.39 +/- 0.20 nl/mm min in the absence of peritubular protein. In conclusion, peritubular protein removal did not significantly affect any of the three distinct modes of passive NaCl transport tested. The lack of effect of peritubular protein removal on passive paracellular NaCl transport suggests that protein modulates an active transcellular NaCl transport process.
C A Berry
The pathogenesis of the immunoglobulin deficiency of 20 patients with ataxia telangiectasia was studied using an in vitro immunoglobulin biosynthesis system. 10 patients had no detectable IgA in their serum as assessed by radial diffusion in agar and 3 had a reduced serum IgA concentration. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 17 of the patients and 17 normal controls were cultured with pokeweed mitogen for 12 d and the immunoglobulin in the supernatants measured. The immunoglobulin synthesis was below the lower limit of the normal 95% confidence interval for IgM in 5 patients, for IgG in 8, and for IgA in 14. The mononuclear cells from 9 of the 10 patients with a serum IgA concentration less than 0.1 mg/ml failed to synthesize IgA in vitro. None of the patients manifested excessive suppressor cell activity. All patients had reduced but measurable helper T cell activity for immunoglobulin synthesis by co-cultured normal pokeweed mitogen-stimulated B cells (geometric mean 22% of normal). Furthermore, the addition of normal irradiated T cells to patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells led to an augmentation of IgM synthesis in 15 of 17 and to increased IgG synthesis in 9 of the 17 patients studied, including 9 of the 12 patients who had synthesized IgG before the addition of the irradiated T cells. In addition, IgA synthesis was increased in all eight patients examined that had serum IgA concentrations greater than 0.1 mg/ml. These studies suggest that a helper T cell defect contributes to the diminished immunoglobulin synthesis. However, a helper T cell defect does not appear to be the sole cause since there was no IgA synthesis by the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 9 of the 10 patients with a profoundly reduced serum IgA even when co-cultured with normal T cells. Furthermore, the cells of the nine patients with profoundly reduced IgA levels examined also failed to produce IgA when stimulated with the relatively helper T cell-independent polyclonal activators, Nocardia water soluble mitogen or Epstein-Barr virus. Taken together these data support the view that the reduced immunoglobulin synthesis of these patients is due to defects of both B cells and helper T cells. Such a broad defect in lymphocyte maturation taken in conjunction with our demonstration of persistent alpha fetoprotein production by ataxia telangiectasia patients provides support for the proposal that these patients exhibit a generalized defect in tissue differentiation.
T A Waldmann, S Broder, C K Goldman, K Frost, S J Korsmeyer, M A Medici
Autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction (AMLR) and T cell subsets defined with monoclonal antibodies were analyzed in the peripheral blood of homosexual males with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). All seven patients demonstrated decreased AMLR (P less than 0.001) when compared with age- and sex-matched simultaneously studied controls. These patients also showed decreased proportions of Leu-3+ (helper/inducer phenotype) and an increase in the proportion of Leu-2+ (suppressor/cytotoxic phenotype) T cells. Leu-3+ T cells were purified from two patients by depleting Leu-2+ T cells in complement-dependent cytotoxicity. Leu-3+ T cells from both patients demonstrated poor proliferative response in the AMLR. In allogeneic MLR, patients' T cells were poor responders and their non-T cells were poor stimulators against healthy controls. This study demonstrates deficiency of both AMLR and allogeneic MLR in patients with KS. The decreased AMLR is associated with qualitative and functional deficiency of Leu-3+ responder T cells. Whether the functional deficiency of Leu-3+ responder T cells in the AMLR is a general phenomena or a feature of a subset of patients with KS remains to be determined.
S Gupta, B Safai
We have explored the relationship among immunoglobulin gene rearrangement, cytoplasmic immunoglobulin production, and cell surface antigen expression within 37 cases of acute lymphocytic leukemia. All 12 cases of the T cell type had germ-line kappa and lambda genes and 11 of 12 had germ-line heavy chain genes. In contrast, all 25 cases of the "non-T, non-B" classification, which lacked both definitive T cell markers and surface immunoglobulin, had rearranged immunoglobulin genes, indicating that they represent precursor cells already committed to the B cell lineage at the gene level. 14 had rearranged heavy chain genes, yet retained germ-line light chain genes, whereas 11 cases had both heavy and light chain gene reorganizations. All patterns of immunoglobulin gene rearrangement predicted by a model that proceeds from heavy chain gene recombination to light chain genes were observed. Despite the uniform presence of rearranged immunoglobulin genes, only five cases produced cytoplasmic mu-chain, one exceptional case produced gamma-chain, and another produced only lambda-chain. The cases of B cell precursor type that do not produce immunoglobulin may represent cells that frequently possess ineffectively rearranged immunoglobulin genes. Included in this group may be a set of cells trapped within the B cell precursor series because their ineffective rearrangements have eliminated certain gene subsegments necessary for the assemblage of an effective heavy chain gene. All seven cases of the non-T, non-B subgroup that bore HLA-DR but lacked CALLA (the common acute lymphocytic leukemia-associated antigen) represented the earliest recognizable stage of B cell precursors with rearranged heavy chain genes but germ-line light chain genes. Correlations here suggest that cells entering B cell development express HLA-DR and rearrange heavy chain genes before the expression of a B cell-associated antigen recognized by the antibody BA-1, the antigen CALLA, and any subsequent light chain gene rearrangements.
S J Korsmeyer, A Arnold, A Bakhshi, J V Ravetch, U Siebenlist, P A Hieter, S O Sharrow, T W LeBien, J H Kersey, D G Poplack, P Leder, T A Waldmann
Naturally occurring antibodies to left-handed Z-DNA have been shown to be present in the sera of human patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). These antibodies are of two types. One type reacts with both denatured DNA and Z-DNA. The other type is specific for Z-DNA and remained in the serum after removal of the cross-reactive antibody by extensive absorption on a denatured DNA affinity column. The antibodies appear to be specific for SLE and do not appear frequently in other rheumatic diseases. The presence of the antibody in SLE is correlated with the clinical manifestations of the disease, in parallel with antibodies to native and denatured DNA.
E M Lafer, R P Valle, A Möller, A Nordheim, P H Schur, A Rich, B D Stollar
We studied the action of a glucocorticoid (GC, dexamethasone) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] on transepithelial calcium (Ca) transport in rat distal colon. GC 1.2 mg or 1,25(OH)2D3 270 ng were given daily for 4 d and Ca fluxes were measured in vitro in the absence of electrochemical gradients (Ussing technique). Results: (a) Both 1,25(OH)2D3 and GC increased Ca absorptive flux from 24 +/- 3 (SEM) to 50 +/- 1 and from 23 +/- 1 to 38 +/- 4 nmol/cm2 per h, respectively (in each case n = 9, P less than 0.01); both steroid hormones had no effect on Ca secretory flux. (b) GC, but not 1,25(OH)2D3 increased the short-circuit current Isc) from 30 +/- 5; to 111 +/- 13 microA/cm2 (P less than 0.01), reflecting stimulation of electrogenic sodium (Na) transport. Choline replacement of Na in the bathing buffer abolished both the Isc and the active Ca transport induced by GC, but has no effect on the 1,25(OH)2D3-stimulated active Ca absorption. (c) When the buffer Ca concentration ([Ca]) on both sides of the epithelium was reduced from 1.25 to 1.25 X 10(-2) mM, the GC-induced, but not the 1,25(OH)2D3-induced, stimulation in Ca absorption was abolished. This suggests that the GC-stimulated Ca absorption may require a "threshold" Ca gradient across the luminal membrane through which Ca influx occurs. Thus, contrary to the current consensus, this study demonstrates that GC stimulates active Ca transport and that this action is mediated through a mechanism dependent on the presence of Na and a critical [Ca] in the ambient medium.
D B Lee
We have observed low-molecular weight carboxyterminal fragments of the human choriogonadotropin (hCG) beta-subunit in the urines of several women with choriocarcinoma, and we have characterized one fragment in detail. Its apparent molecular weight by gel chromatography on Sephadex G-100 was 14,200. The fragment was not adsorbed to concanavalin A-Sepharose, indicating that it lacked the asparagine-linked carbohydrate groups of intact hCG beta. It was active in radioimmunoassays (RIA) using antisera either to the hCG beta carboxyterminal peptide (CTP) or to the desialylated hCG beta CTP (hCG beta as-CTP), indicating the presence of not only the hCG beta carboxyterminus but also desialylated O-serine-linked carbohydrate side chains on the fragment. It lacked luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin radioreceptor activity and hCG beta conformational immunoreactivity (SB6 RIA). On Sephadex G-100 gel chromatography, the elution profiles of this fragment and the hCG beta as-CTP(115-145) prepared by trypsin digestion of as-hCG were essentially indistinguishable (apparent molecular weights 14,200 and 14,000, respectively). The immunological characteristics of the fragment in both hCG beta CTP and hCG beta as-CTP RIA were indistinguishable from those of the hCG beta as-CTP(115-145) glycopeptide. Carboxyterminal fragments of hCG beta were evident in urine specimens obtained from 10 of 11 patients with choriocarcinoma but not in those obtained from normal subjects who were given an intravenous infusion of highly purified hCG. Of six pregnant women, only the one at term excreted carboxyterminal fragments of hCG beta and then only in trace amounts. We conclude that hCG beta carboxyterminal fragments, including one that is indistinguishable from the tryptic glycopeptide hCG beta as-CTP(115-145), can occur naturally in the urine of patients with choriocarcinoma.
S Amr, R E Wehmann, S Birken, R E Canfield, B C Nisula
Neonatal skin fibroblasts were cultured in supernatants of peripheral blood monocytes that had been cultured with and without lactoferrin. Granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating activity (CSA) was measured in supernatants of the fibroblast cultures with normal T lymphocyte-depleted, phagocyte-depleted, low density bone marrow target cells in colony growth (colony-forming unit granulocyte/macrophage) assays. Monocyte-conditioned medium contained a nondialyzable factor that enhanced by 17-50-fold the production of CSA by fibroblasts. The addition of lactoferrin to monocyte cultures reduced the activity of this monokine by 75-100%. Lactoferrin did not inhibit CSA production by monokine-stimulated fibroblasts. We conclude that under appropriate conditions human fibroblasts are potent sources of CSA, that the production of CSA by these cells is regulated by a stimulatory monokine, and that the production and or release of the monokine is inhibited by lactoferrin, a neutrophil-derived putative feedback inhibitor of granulopoiesis. We propose that the major role of mononuclear phagocytes in granulopoiesis is played not by producing CSA, but by recruiting other cells to do so, and that in the steady state, feedback regulation of neutrophil production may occur as a result of a mechanism that inhibits the recruitment phenomenon.
G C Bagby Jr, E McCall, D L Layman
In this study we examined the effect of age and various age-related environmental factors on maximal glucose-stimulated insulin release by the intact perfused pancreas. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained from 40 d to 12 mo of age on standard chow, or on a sucrose-rich or calorie-restricted diet. At 12 mo, studies were carried out on the isolated pancreas of each animal to determine maximal (300 mg/ml) glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. After these studies were completed, each pancreas was perfused with formalin fixative and processed for morphometric estimation of the mass of the endocrine pancreas. Data from these older animals were compared with data from 2-mo-old control rats. The results indicate that maximal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion per unit endocrine pancreas was markedly reduced in all three groups of 12-mo-old rats, and was only 25-33% of that of 2-mo-old rats. Thus, aging led to a decline in insulin secretion per beta cell that was not modifiable by environmental manipulation. On the other hand, environmental factors can influence the development of endocrine tissue within the pancreas, and in so doing, modify total pancreatic insulin secretion. The mass of the endocrine pancreas of 12-mo-old rats fed either sucrose or chow was between three and four times that of 2-mo-old control rats, and these older rats were able to maximally secrete as much insulin per total pancreas as the young rats. In contrast, the endocrine cell mass of the calorie-restricted rats had not enlarged to this extent, and the maximally stimulated perfused pancreas from these rats secreted less insulin. These data suggest that the aging animal, challenged in vivo to secrete insulin, can overcome the loss of the beta cell response by expanding its pancreatic pool of beta cells. Although this compensation is successful in the 12-mo-old, obese, middle-aged rat, it is not yet clear what effect further aging would have on these events.
E Reaven, D Curry, J Moore, G Reaven
Macrophages, neutrophils, and platelets may play a role in acute edematous lung injury, such as that seen in the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but their potential actions and interactions are unclear. Because stimulated human macrophages and neutrophils can release acetyl glyceryl ether phosphorylcholine (AGEPC), a potent platelet activator, we hypothesized that in ARDS, leukocyte release of AGEPC might stimulate platelets to release thromboxane A2 (TXA2), which then produces pulmonary hypertension and lung edema. In support of this premise, we found that pulmonary hypertension and edema occurred in isolated rabbit lungs perfused with human platelets and AGEPC, but not with platelets or AGEPC alone. Infusion of a vasodilator (nitroglycerin) to maintain base-line pulmonary artery pressures in lungs perfused with platelets and AGEPC prevented the development of lung edema suggesting that platelet and AGEPC-induced edema was hydrostatic in nature. Additional experiments suggested that the increased pressure was a result of TXA2 release from platelets stimulated by AGEPC. Specifically, preincubation of platelets with imidazole, a thromboxane synthetase blocker, prior to infusion with AGEPC significantly diminished pulmonary hypertension and prevented lung edema. Furthermore, pretreating lung preparations with 13-azaprostanoic acid, a TXA2 antagonist, before infusion of AGEPC and untreated platelets also reduced the pulmonary hypertension and blocked the lung edema. The role of TXA2 was further suggested when perfusates from lungs infused with platelets and AGEPC developed high levels of TXA2, whereas perfusates from controls did not. These results suggest that platelet aggregation induced by AGEPC may contribute to ARDS by releasing TXA2, which raises microvascular pressure and increases edema formation, especially when an underlying permeability defect is present.
J E Heffner, S A Shoemaker, E M Canham, M Patel, I F McMurtry, H G Morris, J E Repine
We have studied the relative contributions of monomeric (m-) and polymeric IgA (p-IgA) and of IgA1 and IgA2 to total serum IgA in healthy adults and patients with liver disease (LD) or with other diseases and high serum IgA. Serum concentration of total secretory component (SC) was also determined. In addition, fractional catabolic rates (FCR) and synthetic rates for both m- and p-IgA were measured in nine controls and nine cirrhotics. Our results support four main conclusions: (a) In healthy adults, intravascular p-IgA contributes to only 4-22% (mean 12%) of serum IgA, because its FCR and synthetic rate are approximately two times higher and four times smaller, respectively, than those of intravascular m-IgA. (b) in LD, biliary obstruction does not result in a significant increase in serum p-IgA unlike in rats and rabbits, indicating that in humans the SC-dependent biliary transport of p-IgA plays a much less significant role in selective removal of p-IgA from plasma than in rats and rabbits. (c) In contrast to biliary obstruction, parenchymal LD results in a significant and preferential increase in serum p-IgA, which in cirrhotics correlates with a selective reduction of the p-IgA-FCR. This supports a role for the human liver in selective removal of p-IgA from plasma, but another mechanism than the SC-dependent biliary transport should be considered. (d) Total SC, p-IgA, and IgA2 in serum are unlinked parameters, not necessarily reflecting mucosal events. A marked increase in serum SC occurs almost selectively in LD. Although a shift to IgA2 is suggested in Crohn's disease and alcoholic cirrhosis, a shift to IgA1 frequently associated to a shift to p-IgA occurs in chronic active LD, primary Sicca, and connective tissue diseases.
D L Delacroix, K B Elkom, A P Geubel, H F Hodgson, C Dive, J P Vaerman
A simple venous thrombosis model in rabbits was used for the quantitative evaluation of the thrombolytic effect of human extrinsic (tissue-type) plasminogen activator as compared with urokinase.
D. Collen, J. M. Stassen, M. Verstraete
Prior studies of the effect of hemodialysis on left ventricular function have not distinguished between the removal of uremic toxins and the change in cardiac filling volume. To separate these effects, left ventricular function was examined by serial echocardiography in five stable hemodialysis patients before and after three different dialysis procedures: (a) hemodialysis with volume Loss, (b) ultrafiltration (volume loss only), and (c) hemodialysis without volume loss. The patients were similarly studied under control conditions and after increased (5 degrees of head-down tilt for 90 min) and decreased (lower body negative pressure) cardiac filling volume. After hemodialysis with volume loss, end-diastolic volume (EDV) decreased from 167 to 128 ml (P less than 0.001) and end-systolic volume (ESV) decreased from 97 to 51 ml (P less than 0.001) without a change in stroke volume (SV). Ejection fraction increased from 42 to 52% (P less than 0.001) and mean velocity of circumferential fiber shortening (VCF) increased from 0.61 to 1.04 circumferences (circ)/s (P less than 0.001). After ultrafiltration, EDV decreased from 167 ml to 124 ml (P less than 0.001) and SV from 73 ml to 39 ml (P less than 0.001), without significant changes in ESV or VCF. In contrast to the maneuvers in which volume loss occurred, after hemodialysis without volume loss ESV decreased from 95 to 66 ml (P less than 0.001) and SV increased from 74 ml to 97 ml (P less than 0.001) without changes in EDV. EF increased from 44 to 59% (P less than 0.001) and VCF increased from 0.64 to 1.26 circ/s (P less than 0.001). Ventricular function curves plotted from data obtained under conditions of altered cardiac filling volume before and after the three dialysis maneuvers demonstrate that ultrafiltration produced a pure Frank-Starling effect, while hemodialysis with or without volume loss produced a shift in the ventricular function curves, which demonstrated an increase in the contractile state of the left ventricle. The changes in left ventricular function produced by regular hemodialysis are the combined effects of a decrease in EDV and an increase in the contractile state of the left ventricle.
J V Nixon, J H Mitchell, J J McPhaul Jr, W L Henrich
Two hereditary platelet disorders, Bernard-Soulier syndrome and Glanzmann's thrombasthenia, are characterized by selective deficiencies of platelet membrane glycoproteins. Murine monoclonal antibodies were developed against platelet membrane glycoprotein Ib and against the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa complex. A rapid whole blood assay for the deficiency of these glycoproteins was developed and used to study whole blood samples from six patients with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia and three patients with Bernard-Soulier syndrome. Patients with type I and type II Glanzmann's thrombasthenia were easily detectable with this assay. This permits the diagnosis of these disorders on 200 microliters of whole blood within 2 h of blood sampling.
R R Montgomery, T J Kunicki, C Taves, D Pidard, M Corcoran
To elucidate the role of proteinase inhibitors in the regulation of protein breakdown in vivo, we measured the effect of leupeptin on the rate of appearance of leucine in the plasma compartment in overnight-fasted conscious dogs. Two groups of dogs were studied. The control group (I) received saline infusion, and the experimental group (II) was rendered hypercatabolic with daily administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) (500 U/d) for 4 d.
Ben McCallister, William W. Lacy, Phillip E. Williams, Naji N. Abumrad
Fluorescence of hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) has been used clinically to localize malignant neoplasms because of its selective accumulation in these tissues. We tested the hypothesis that HPD may also be selectively concentrated within atheromatous plaques. 48 h after HPD injection in a variety of species, selective fluorescence of atheromatous plaques of the aorta was seen in each animal (rabbits and Patas monkey) exhibiting such lesions. No fluorescence could be demonstrated in aortic segments free of atheromatous involvement. Since the efficacy of photodynamic destruction of malignant tumors with HPD has been demonstrated in clinical studies, the observations of the present study may have therapeutic implications in atheromatosis.
J R Spears, J Serur, D Shropshire, S Paulin
Abnormal vitamin D metabolism has been suspected in patients with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) and X-linked hypophosphatemic mice (Hyp-mice), the murine homologue of the human disease. We compared 25(OH)D-1 alpha-hydroxylase activity in the Hyp-mouse kidney to that in normal and phosphate-depleted mouse kidney. Weanling normal and Hyp-mice were fed a 0.6% phosphorus diet; phosphate-depleted mice received a 0.02% phosphorus diet. At 8-10 wk of age the serum phosphorus values in Hyp (3.35 +/- 0.12 mg/dl) and phosphate-depleted mice (3.83 +/- 0.56) were not significantly different. Despite the similar magnitude of phosphate depletion, however, the maximum levels of 25(OH)D-1 alpha-hydroxylase activity were disparate: phosphate-depleted mouse kidney had profoundly increased activity compared to normal (17.04 +/- .104 vs. 4.96 +/- 0.23 fmol 1,25(OH)2D3 produced/mg kidney per min) while Hyp-mouse kidney had a fourfold lesser increment (8.18 +/- 0.62). These data indicate that phosphate depletion is a potent stimulus of 25(OH)D-1 alpha-hydroxylase activity in the (C57BL6J) mouse. Moreover, the results show that abnormal regulation of 25(OH)D-1 alpha-hydroxylase activity is manifest in the Hyp-mouse.
B Lobaugh, M K Drezner
No cell type practicably obtainable in vivo, such as blood cells, is known to contain parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptors; this deficiency has hampered investigation of receptor regulation. Second, PTH in vivo is among the potent stimulators of osteoclastic activity, although no direct hormonal effects on these cells have been identified. Several lines of evidence suggest that cells of the immune system may mediate PTH effects on osteoclasts. We, therefore, studied bovine blood cells for the presence of PTH receptors and PTH-stimulated adenylate cyclase. Using an analogue of bovine PTH, 125I-labeled [Nle8,Nle18,Tyr34]bPTH-(1--34)amide, we found PTH-specific binding to intact, nonadherent mononuclear cells (lymphocytes) and PTH-stimulated adenylate cyclase in plasma membranes prepared from these cells, and not with cells or membranes from other blood cells. Lymphocytes may serve to study the effects of physiologic and pathologic perturbations on PTH-receptor function in vivo. Exploration of PTH-related lymphocyte responses may help define the relation between cells of the immune system and osteoclastic bone resorption.
Itsuo Yamamoto, John T. Potts Jr., Gino V. Segre