Increased endogenous glucose production (EGP) is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes mellitus. While there is evidence for central regulation of EGP by activation of hypothalamic ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels in rodents, whether these central pathways contribute to regulation of EGP in humans remains to be determined. Here we present evidence for central nervous system regulation of EGP in humans that is consistent with complementary rodent studies. Oral administration of the KATP channel activator diazoxide under fixed hormonal conditions substantially decreased EGP in nondiabetic humans and Sprague Dawley rats. In rats, comparable doses of oral diazoxide attained appreciable concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid, and the effects of oral diazoxide were abolished by i.c.v. administration of the KATP channel blocker glibenclamide. These results suggest that activation of hypothalamic KATP channels may be an important regulator of EGP in humans and that this pathway could be a target for treatment of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Preeti Kishore, Laura Boucai, Kehao Zhang, Weijie Li, Sudha Koppaka, Sylvia Kehlenbrink, Anna Schiwek, Yonah B. Esterson, Deeksha Mehta, Samar Bursheh, Ya Su, Roger Gutierrez-Juarez, Radhika Muzumdar, Gary J. Schwartz, Meredith Hawkins
T cells recognize antigens via their cell surface TCR and are classified as either αβ or γδ depending on the variable chains in their TCR, α and β or γ and δ, respectively. Both αβ and γδ TCRs also contain several invariant chains, including CD3δ, which support surface TCR expression and transduce the TCR signal. Mutations in variable chains would be expected to affect a single T cell lineage, while mutations in the invariant chains would affect all T cells. Consistent with this, all CD3δ-deficient patients described to date showed a complete block in T cell development. However, CD3δ-KO mice have an αβ T cell–specific defect. Here, we report 2 unrelated cases of SCID with a selective block in αβ but not in γδ T cell development, associated with a new splicing mutation in the CD3D gene. The patients’ T cells showed reduced CD3D transcripts, CD3δ proteins, surface TCR, and early TCR signaling. Their lymph nodes showed severe T cell depletion, recent thymus emigrants in peripheral blood were strongly decreased, and the scant αβ T cells were oligoclonal. T cell–dependent B cell functions were also impaired, despite the presence of normal B cell numbers. Strikingly, despite the specific loss of αβ T cells, surface TCR expression was more reduced in γδ than in αβ T cells. Analysis of individuals with this CD3D mutation thus demonstrates the contrasting CD3δ requirements for αβ versus γδ T cell development and TCR expression in humans and highlights the diagnostic and clinical relevance of studying both TCR isotypes when a T cell defect is suspected.
Juana Gil, Elena M. Busto, Beatriz Garcillán, Carmen Chean, Maria Cruz García-Rodríguez, Andrea Díaz-Alderete, Joaquín Navarro, Jesús Reiné, Angeles Mencía, Dolores Gurbindo, Cristina Beléndez, Isabel Gordillo, Marlena Duchniewicz, Kerstin Höhne, Félix García-Sánchez, Eduardo Fernández-Cruz, Eduardo López-Granados, Wolfgang W.A. Schamel, Miguel A. Moreno-Pelayo, María J. Recio, José R. Regueiro
Although a relationship between emotional state and feeding behavior is known to exist, the interactions between signaling initiated by stimuli in the gut and exteroceptively generated emotions remain incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the interaction between nutrient-induced gut-brain signaling and sad emotion induced by musical and visual cues at the behavioral and neural level in healthy nonobese subjects undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects received an intragastric infusion of fatty acid solution or saline during neutral or sad emotion induction and rated sensations of hunger, fullness, and mood. We found an interaction between fatty acid infusion and emotion induction both in the behavioral readouts (hunger, mood) and at the level of neural activity in multiple pre-hypothesized regions of interest. Specifically, the behavioral and neural responses to sad emotion induction were attenuated by fatty acid infusion. These findings increase our understanding of the interplay among emotions, hunger, food intake, and meal-induced sensations in health, which may have important implications for a wide range of disorders, including obesity, eating disorders, and depression.
Lukas Van Oudenhove, Shane McKie, Daniel Lassman, Bilal Uddin, Peter Paine, Steven Coen, Lloyd Gregory, Jan Tack, Qasim Aziz
Atopic asthma is a chronic disease of the airways that has taken on epidemic proportions in the industrialized world. The increase in asthma rates has been linked epidemiologically to the rapid disappearance of Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial pathogen that persistently colonizes the human stomach, from Western societies. In this study, we have utilized mouse models of allergic airway disease induced by ovalbumin or house dust mite allergen to experimentally examine a possible inverse correlation between H. pylori and asthma. H. pylori infection efficiently protected mice from airway hyperresponsiveness, tissue inflammation, and goblet cell metaplasia, which are hallmarks of asthma, and prevented allergen-induced pulmonary and bronchoalveolar infiltration with eosinophils, Th2 cells, and Th17 cells. Protection against asthma was most robust in mice infected neonatally and was abrogated by antibiotic eradication of H. pylori. Asthma protection was further associated with impaired maturation of lung-infiltrating dendritic cells and the accumulation of highly suppressive Tregs in the lungs. Systemic Treg depletion abolished asthma protection; conversely, the adoptive transfer of purified Treg populations was sufficient to transfer protection from infected donor mice to uninfected recipients. Our results thus provide experimental evidence for a beneficial effect of H. pylori colonization on the development of allergen-induced asthma.
Isabelle C. Arnold, Nina Dehzad, Sebastian Reuter, Helen Martin, Burkhard Becher, Christian Taube, Anne Müller
Type 1 diabetes is characterized by destruction of insulin-producing β cells in the pancreatic islets by effector T cells. Tregs, defined by the markers CD4 and FoxP3, regulate immune responses by suppressing effector T cells and are recruited to sites of action by the chemokine CCL22. Here, we demonstrate that production of CCL22 in islets after intrapancreatic duct injection of double-stranded adeno-associated virus encoding CCL22 recruits endogenous Tregs to the islets and confers long-term protection from autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. In addition, adenoviral expression of CCL22 in syngeneic islet transplants in diabetic NOD recipients prevented β cell destruction by autoreactive T cells and thereby delayed recurrence of diabetes. CCL22 expression increased the frequency of Tregs, produced higher levels of TGF-β in the CD4+ T cell population near islets, and decreased the frequency of circulating autoreactive CD8+ T cells and CD8+ IFN-γ–producing T cells. The protective effect of CCL22 was abrogated by depletion of Tregs with a CD25-specific antibody. Our results indicate that islet expression of CCL22 recruits Tregs and attenuates autoimmune destruction of β cells. CCL22-mediated recruitment of Tregs to islets may be a novel therapeutic strategy for type 1 diabetes.
Joel Montane, Loraine Bischoff, Galina Soukhatcheva, Derek L. Dai, Gijs Hardenberg, Megan K. Levings, Paul C. Orban, Timothy J. Kieffer, Rusung Tan, C. Bruce Verchere
A ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate metabolic regimen; its effectiveness in the treatment of refractory epilepsy suggests that the mechanisms underlying its anticonvulsive effects differ from those targeted by conventional antiepileptic drugs. Recently, KD and analogous metabolic strategies have shown therapeutic promise in other neurologic disorders, such as reducing brain injury, pain, and inflammation. Here, we have shown that KD can reduce seizures in mice by increasing activation of adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs). When transgenic mice with spontaneous seizures caused by deficiency in adenosine metabolism or signaling were fed KD, seizures were nearly abolished if mice had intact A1Rs, were reduced if mice expressed reduced A1Rs, and were unaltered if mice lacked A1Rs. Seizures were restored by injecting either glucose (metabolic reversal) or an A1R antagonist (pharmacologic reversal). Western blot analysis demonstrated that the KD reduced adenosine kinase, the major adenosine-metabolizing enzyme. Importantly, hippocampal tissue resected from patients with medically intractable epilepsy demonstrated increased adenosine kinase. We therefore conclude that adenosine deficiency may be relevant to human epilepsy and that KD can reduce seizures by increasing A1R-mediated inhibition.
Susan A. Masino, Tianfu Li, Panos Theofilas, Ursula S. Sandau, David N. Ruskin, Bertil B. Fredholm, Jonathan D. Geiger, Eleonora Aronica, Detlev Boison
Joubert syndrome (JBTS) is characterized by a specific brain malformation with various additional pathologies. It results from mutations in any one of at least 10 different genes, including NPHP1, which encodes nephrocystin-1. JBTS has been linked to dysfunction of primary cilia, since the gene products known to be associated with the disorder localize to this evolutionarily ancient organelle. Here we report the identification of a disease locus, JBTS12, with mutations in the KIF7 gene, an ortholog of the Drosophila kinesin Costal2, in a consanguineous JBTS family and subsequently in other JBTS patients. Interestingly, KIF7 is a known regulator of Hedgehog signaling and a putative ciliary motor protein. We found that KIF7 co-precipitated with nephrocystin-1. Further, knockdown of KIF7 expression in cell lines caused defects in cilia formation and induced abnormal centrosomal duplication and fragmentation of the Golgi network. These cellular phenotypes likely resulted from abnormal tubulin acetylation and microtubular dynamics. Thus, we suggest that modified microtubule stability and growth direction caused by loss of KIF7 function may be an underlying disease mechanism contributing to JBTS.
Claudia Dafinger, Max Christoph Liebau, Solaf Mohamed Elsayed, Yorck Hellenbroich, Eugen Boltshauser, Georg Christoph Korenke, Francesca Fabretti, Andreas Robert Janecke, Inga Ebermann, Gudrun Nürnberg, Peter Nürnberg, Hanswalter Zentgraf, Friederike Koerber, Klaus Addicks, Ezzat Elsobky, Thomas Benzing, Bernhard Schermer, Hanno Jörn Bolz
Insulin, growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor–1 (IGF-1) play key roles in the regulation of β cell growth and function. Although β cells express the GH receptor, the direct effects of GH on β cells remain largely unknown. Here we have employed a rat insulin II promoter–driven (RIP-driven) Cre recombinase to disrupt the GH receptor in β cells (βGHRKO). βGHRKO mice fed a standard chow diet exhibited impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion but had no changes in β cell mass. When challenged with a high-fat diet, βGHRKO mice showed evidence of a β cell secretory defect, with further deterioration of glucose homeostasis indicated by their altered glucose tolerance and blunted glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Interestingly, βGHRKO mice were impaired in β cell hyperplasia in response to a high-fat diet, with decreased β cell proliferation and overall reduced β cell mass. Therefore, GH receptor plays critical roles in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and β cell compensation in response to a high-fat diet.
Yingjie Wu, Chengyu Liu, Hui Sun, Archana Vijayakumar, Pejman Raeisi Giglou, Ruifang Qiao, Joshua Oppenheimer, Shoshana Yakar, Derek LeRoith
Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. It has thus been suggested that primary and/or genetic abnormalities in mitochondrial function may lead to accumulation of toxic lipid species in muscle and elsewhere, impairing insulin action on glucose metabolism. Alternatively, however, defects in insulin signaling may be primary events that result in mitochondrial dysfunction, or there may be a bidirectional relationship between these phenomena. To investigate this, we examined mitochondrial function in patients with genetic defects in insulin receptor (INSR) signaling. We found that phosphocreatine recovery after exercise, a measure of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in vivo, was significantly slowed in patients with INSR mutations compared with that in healthy age-, fitness-, and BMI-matched controls. These findings suggest that defective insulin signaling may promote mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, consistent with previous studies of mouse models of mitochondrial dysfunction, basal and sleeping metabolic rates were both significantly increased in genetically insulin-resistant patients, perhaps because mitochondrial dysfunction necessitates increased nutrient oxidation in order to maintain cellular energy levels.
Alison Sleigh, Philippa Raymond-Barker, Kerrie Thackray, David Porter, Mensud Hatunic, Alessandra Vottero, Christine Burren, Catherine Mitchell, Martin McIntyre, Soren Brage, T. Adrian Carpenter, Peter R. Murgatroyd, Kevin M. Brindle, Graham J. Kemp, Stephen O’Rahilly, Robert K. Semple, David B. Savage
α1-Antitrypsin deficiency is an inherited condition that causes liver disease and emphysema. The normal function of this protein, which is synthesized by the liver, is to inhibit neutrophil elastase, a protease that degrades connective tissue of the lung. In the classical form of the disease, inefficient secretion of a mutant α1-antitrypsin protein (AAT-Z) results in its accumulation within hepatocytes and reduced protease inhibitor activity, resulting in liver injury and pulmonary emphysema. Because mutant protein accumulation increases hepatocyte cell stress, we investigated whether transplanted hepatocytes expressing wild-type AAT might have a competitive advantage relative to AAT-Z–expressing hepatocytes, using transgenic mice expressing human AAT-Z. Wild-type donor hepatocytes replaced 20%–98% of mutant host hepatocytes, and repopulation was accelerated by injection of an adenovector expressing hepatocyte growth factor. Spontaneous hepatic repopulation with engrafted hepatocytes occurred in the AAT-Z–expressing mice even in the absence of severe liver injury. Donor cells replaced both globule-containing and globule-devoid cells, indicating that both types of host hepatocytes display impaired proliferation relative to wild-type hepatocytes. These results suggest that wild-type hepatocyte transplantation may be therapeutic for AAT-Z liver disease and may provide an alternative to protein replacement for treating emphysema in AAT-ZZ individuals.
Jianqiang Ding, Govardhana R. Yannam, Namita Roy-Chowdhury, Tunda Hidvegi, Hesham Basma, Stephen I. Rennard, Ronald J. Wong, Yesim Avsar, Chandan Guha, David H. Perlmutter, Ira J. Fox, Jayanta Roy-Chowdhury
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