Pericyte-mediated capillary constriction decreases cerebral blood flow in stroke after an occluded artery is unblocked. The determinants of pericyte tone are poorly understood. We show that a small rise in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in pericytes activates chloride efflux through the Ca2+-gated anion channel TMEM16A, thus depolarizing the cell and opening voltage-gated calcium channels. This mechanism strongly amplifies the pericyte [Ca2+]i rise and capillary constriction evoked by contractile agonists and ischemia. In a rodent stroke model, TMEM16A inhibition slows the ischemia-evoked pericyte [Ca2+]i rise, capillary constriction and pericyte death, reduces neutrophil stalling and improves cerebrovascular reperfusion. Genetic analysis implicates altered TMEM16A expression in poor patient recovery from ischemic stroke. Thus, pericyte TMEM16A is a crucial regulator of cerebral capillary function, and a potential therapeutic target for stroke and possibly other disorders of impaired microvascular flow, such as Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia.
Nils Korte, Zeki Ilkan, Claire L. Pearson, Thomas Pfeiffer, Prabhav Singhal, Jason R. Rock, Huma Sethi, Dipender Gill, David Attwell, Paolo Tammaro
The striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase (STRIPAK) complexes integrate extracellular stimuli to result in intracellular activities. Previously, we discovered STRIPAK to be a key machinery responsible for loss of the Hippo tumor suppressor signal in cancer. Here, we identified the Hippo-STRIPAK complex to be an essential player for the control of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair and genomic stability. Specifically, the MST1/2 kinases were found, independent of the classical Hippo signaling, to directly phosphorylate ZMYND8 and hence result in suppression of DNA repair in the nucleus. In response to genotoxic stress, the cGAS-STING pathway was determined to relay nuclear DNA damage signals to the dynamic assembly of Hippo-STRIPAK via a TBK1-induced structural stabilization of the SIKE1-SLMAP arm. As such, STRIPAK-mediated MST1/2 inactivation was found to increase the DSB repair capacity of cancer cells and to endow these cells with resistance to radio/chemotherapy and PARP inhibition. Importantly, targeting the STRIPAK assembly with each of three distinct peptide inhibitors efficiently recovered the kinase activity of MST1/2 to suppress DNA repair and re-sensitize cancer cells to PARPi in both animal and patient-derived tumor models. Overall, our findings not only uncovered a previously unrecognized role for STRIPAK in modulating DSB repair, but also provided translational implications of co-targeting STRIPAK and PARP for a new type of synthetic lethality anti-cancer therapy.
Liwei An, Zhifa Cao, Pingping Nie, Hui Zhang, Zhenzhu Tong, Fan Chen, Yang Tang, Yi Han, Wenjia Wang, Zhangting Zhao, Qingya Zhao, Yuqin Yang, Yuanzhi Xu, Gemin Fang, Lei Shi, Huixiong Xu, Haiqing Ma, Shi Jiao, Zhaocai Zhou
Proper myelination of axons is crucial for normal sensory, motor and cognitive function. Abnormal myelination is seen in brain disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD), but the molecular mechanisms connecting demyelination with the pathobiology remain largely unknown. We observed demyelination and synaptic deficits in mice exposed to either chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), two paradigms for inducing depression-like states. Pharmacologically restoring myelination normalized both synaptic deficits and depression-related behaviours. Furthermore, we found increased EphA4 expression in the excitatory neurons of CUMS mice and shRNA knockdown of EphA4 prevented demyelination and depression-like behaviours. These animal data are consistent with the decreased myelin basic protein and increased EphA4 levels we observed in post-mortem brain from patients with MDD. Our results provide novel insights into the etiology of depressive symptoms in some patients and suggest that inhibiting EphA4 or promoting myelination could be a promising and novel strategy for treating depression.
Yuan Li, Ping Su, Yuxiang Chen, Jing Nie, Ti-Fei Yuan, Albert H.C. Wong, Fang Liu
Patients with heart failure (HF) have augmented vascular tone, which increases cardiac workload, impairing ventricular output and promoting further myocardial dysfunction. The molecular mechanisms underlying the maladaptive vascular responses observed in HF are not fully understood. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) control vasoconstriction via a Ca2+-dependent process, in which the type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R1) on the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) plays a major role. To dissect the mechanistic contribution of intracellular Ca2+ release to the increased vascular tone observed in HF, we analyzed the remodeling of IP3R1 in aortic tissues from patients with HF and from controls. VSMC IP3R1 channels from patients with HF and HF mice were hyperphosphorylated by both serine and tyrosine kinases. VSMCs isolated from IP3R1VSMC–/– mice exhibited blunted Ca2+ responses to angiotensin II (ATII) and norepinephrine compared with control VSMCs. IP3R1VSMC–/– mice displayed significantly reduced responses to ATII, both in vivo and ex vivo. HF IP3R1VSMC–/– mice developed significantly less afterload compared with HF IP3R1fl/fl mice and exhibited significantly attenuated progression toward decompensated HF and reduced interstitial fibrosis. Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation of the MLC by MLCK activated VSMC contraction. MLC phosphorylation was markedly increased in VSMCs from patients with HF and HF mice but reduced in VSMCs from HF IP3R1VSMC–/– mice and HF WT mice treated with ML-7. Taken together, our data indicate that VSMC IP3R1 is a major effector of increased vascular tone, which contributes to increased cardiac afterload and decompensation in HF.
Haikel Dridi, Gaetano Santulli, Jessica Gambardella, Stanislovas S. Jankauskas, Qi Yuan, Jingyi Yang, Steven Reiken, Xujun Wang, Anetta Wronska, Xiaoping Liu, Alain Lacampagne, Andrew R. Marks
The chromosomal t(4;14) (p16;q32) translocation drives high expression of histone methyltransferase nuclear SET domain–containing 2 (NSD2) and plays vital roles in multiple myeloma (MM) evolution and progression. However, the mechanisms of NSD2-driven epigenomic alterations in chemoresistance to proteasome inhibitors (PIs) are not fully understood. Using a CRISPR/Cas9 sgRNA library in a bone marrow–bearing MM model, we found that hepatoma-derived growth factor 2 (HRP2) was a suppressor of chemoresistance to PIs and that its downregulation correlated with a poor response and worse outcomes in the clinic. We observed suppression of HRP2 in bortezomib-resistant MM cells, and knockdown of HRP2 induced a marked tolerance to PIs. Moreover, knockdown of HRP2 augmented H3K27me3 levels, consequentially intensifying transcriptome alterations promoting cell survival and restriction of ER stress. Mechanistically, HRP2 recognized H3K36me2 and recruited the histone demethylase MYC-induced nuclear antigen (MINA) to remove H3K27me3. Tazemetostat, a highly selective epigenetic inhibitor that reduces H3K27me3 levels, synergistically sensitized the anti-MM effects of bortezomib both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these results provide a better understanding of the origin of chemoresistance in patients with MM with the t(4;14) translocation and a rationale for managing patients with MM who have different genomic backgrounds.
Jingjing Wang, Xu Zhu, Lin Dang, Hongmei Jiang, Ying Xie, Xin Li, Jing Guo, Yixuan Wang, Ziyi Peng, Mengqi Wang, Jingya Wang, Sheng Wang, Qian Li, Yafei Wang, Qiang Wang, Lingqun Ye, Lirong Zhang, Zhiqiang Liu
Dysfunction of protein trafficking has been intensively associated with neurological diseases, including neurodegeneration, but whether and how protein transport contributes to oligodendrocyte maturation and myelin repair in white matter injury remains unclear. ER-to-Golgi trafficking of newly synthesized proteins is mediated by the coat protein complex II (COPII) complex. Here we demonstrate that COPII component Sec13 is essential for oligodendrocyte differentiation and postnatal myelination. Ablation of Sec13 in oligodendrocyte lineage prevented OPC differentiation and inhibited myelination and remyelination after demyelinating injury in central nervous system (CNS), while improving protein traffic by tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) or ectopic expression of COPII components accelerated myelination. COPII components were upregulated in oligodendrocyte lineage cells after demyelinating injury. Loss of Sec13 altered the secretome of oligodendrocytes and inhibited the secretion of PTN, which was identified to function as an autocrine factor to promote oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelin repair. These data suggest that Sec13-dependent protein transport is essential for oligodendrocyte differentiation and Sec13-mediated PTN autocrine signaling is required for proper myelination and remyelination.
Zhixiong Liu, Minbiao Yan, Wanying Lei, Rencai Jiang, Wenxiu Dai, Jialin Chen, Chaomeng Wang, Li Li, Mei Wu, Ximing Nian, Daopeng Li, Di Sun, Xiaoqi Lv, Chaoying Wang, Changchuan Xie, Luming Yao, Caiming Wu, Jin Hu, Naian Xiao, Wei Mo, Zhanxiang Wang, Liang Zhang
Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domains are positively charged crescent-shaped modules that shape negatively charged curved lipid membranes during membrane remodeling processes. The BAR domain proteins ICA69, PICK1 and arfaptins have recently been demonstrated to coordinate the budding and formation of immature secretory granules (ISGs) at the trans-Golgi network. Here, we identify four coding variants in the PICK1 gene from a Danish whole-exome screening of diabetic patients, that all involve change of positively charged residues in the PICK1 BAR domain. All four coding variants failed to rescue the insulin content in INS-1E cells upon KD of endogenous PICK1. Moreover, two variants showed dominant negative properties. Interestingly, in vitro assays addressing the BAR domain function suggest that the coding variants accentuated capacity to cause fission of small liposomes. Live confocal microscopy and super-resolution microscopy further revealed that PICK1 resides transiently on ISGs before egress via vesicular budding events. Interestingly, this egress of PICK1 was accelerated in the coding variants. We propose that PICK1 assists or complements the removal of excess membrane and generic membrane trafficking proteins, and possibly also insulin from ISGs during the maturation process and that the coding variants may cause premature budding possibly explaining their dominant negative function.
Rita C. Andersen, Jan H. Schmidt, Joscha Rombach, Matthew D. Lycas, Nikolaj R. Christensen, Viktor K. Lund, Donald S. Stapleton, Signe S. Pedersen, Mathias A. Olsen, Mikkel Stoklund, Gith Noes-Holt, Tommas T.E. Nielsen, Mark P. Keller, Anna M. Jansen, Rasmus Herlo, Massimo Pietropaolo, Jens B. Simonsen, Ole Kjærulff, Birgitte Holst, Alan D. Attie, Ulrik Gether, Kenneth L. Madsen
Despite being the first homolog of the bacterial RecQ helicase to be identified in humans the function of RECQL1 remains poorly characterised. Furthermore, unlike other members of the human RECQ family of helicases, mutations in RECQL1 have not been associated with a genetic disease. Here we identify two families with a novel genome instability disorder, named RECON (RECql ONe) Syndrome caused by biallelic mutations in the RECQL gene. The affected individuals exhibit short stature, progeroid facial features, a hypoplastic nose, xeroderma and skin photosensitivity. Affected individuals were homozygous for the same missense mutation in RECQL1 (p.Ala459Ser) located within its zinc binding domain. Biochemical analysis of the mutant RECQL1 protein revealed that the p.A459S missense mutation compromised its ATPase, helicase and fork restoration activity, whilst its capacity to promote single-strand DNA annealing was largely unaffected. At the cellular level, this mutation in RECQL1 gave rise to a defect in the ability to repair DNA damage induced by exposure to topoisomerase poisons and a failure of DNA replication to progress efficiently in the presence of abortive topoisomerase lesions. Taken together, RECQL1 is the fourth member of the RecQ family of helicases to be associated with a human genome instability disorder.
Bassam Abu-Libdeh, Satpal S. Jhujh, Srijita Dhar, Joshua A. Sommers, Arindam Datta, Gabriel M.C. Longo, Laura J. Grange, John J. Reynolds, Sophie L. Cooke, Gavin S. McNee, Robert Hollingworth, Beth L. Woodward, Anil N. Ganesh, Stephen J. Smerdon, Claudia M. Nicolae, Karina Durlacher-Betzer, Vered Molho-Pessach, Abdulsalam Abu-Libdeh, Vardiella Meiner, George-Lucian Moldovan, Vassilis Roukos, Tamar Harel, Robert M. Brosh Jr., Grant S. Stewart
Mutations in TAB2 (transforming growth factor β activated kinase 1 binding protein 2) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy and/or congenital heart disease in humans, but the underlying mechanisms are currently unknown. Here we identified an indispensable role for TAB2 in regulating myocardial homeostasis and remodeling by suppressing RIPK1 (receptor-interacting protein kinase 1) activation and RIPK1-dependent apoptosis and necroptosis. Cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Tab2 in mice triggered dilated cardiomyopathy with massive apoptotic and necroptotic cell death. Moreover, Tab2-deficient mice were also predisposed to myocardial injury and adverse remodeling following pathological stress. In cardiomyocytes, deletion of TAB2, but not its close homologue TAB3, promoted TNFα-induced apoptosis and necroptosis, which was rescued by forced activation of TAK1 or inhibition of RIPK1 kinase activity. Mechanistically, TAB2 critically mediates RIPK1 phosphorylation at Ser321 via a TAK1-dependent mechanism, which prevents RIPK1 kinase activation and the formation of RIPK1-FADD-caspase-8 apoptotic complex or RIPK1-RIPK3 necroptotic complex. Strikingly, genetic inactivation of RIPK1 with Ripk1-K45A knock-in effectively rescued cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in Tab2-deficient mice. Together, these data demonstrate that TAB2 is a key regulator of myocardial homeostasis and remodeling by suppressing RIPK1-dependent apoptosis and necroptosis. Our results also suggest that targeting RIPK1-mediated cell death signaling may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for TAB2 deficiency-induced dilated cardiomyopathy.
Haifeng Yin, Xiaoyun Guo, Yi Chen, Yachang Zeng, Xiaoliang Mo, Siqi Hong, Hui He, Jing Li, Rachel Steinmetz, Qinghang Liu
Activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway is a pervasive event in tumorigenesis due to PI3K mutation and dysfunction of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN). Pharmacological inhibition of PI3K has resulted in variable clinical outcomes, however, raising questions regarding the possible mechanisms of unresponsiveness and resistance to treatment. WWP1 is an oncogenic HECT-type ubiquitin E3 ligase frequently amplified and mutated in multiple cancers, as well as in the germ lines of patients predisposed to cancer, and was recently found to activate PI3K signaling through PTEN inactivation. Here, we demonstrate that PTEN dissociated from the plasma membrane upon treatment with PI3K inhibitors through WWP1 activation, whereas WWP1 genetic or pharmacological inhibition restored PTEN membrane localization, synergizing with PI3K inhibitors to suppress tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate that WWP1 inhibition attenuated hyperglycemia and the consequent insulin feedback, which is a major tumor-promoting side effect of PI3K inhibitors. Mechanistically, we found that AMPKα2 was ubiquitinated and, in turn, inhibited in its activatory phosphorylation by WWP1, whereas WWP1 inhibition facilitated AMPKα2 activity in the muscle to compensate for the reduction in glucose uptake observed upon PI3K inhibition. Thus, our identification of the cell-autonomous and systemic roles of WWP1 inhibition expands the therapeutic potential of PI3K inhibitors and reveals new avenues of combination cancer therapy.
Takahiro Kishikawa, Hiroshi Higuchi, Limei Wang, Nivedita Panch, Valerie Maymi, Sachem Best, Samuel Lee, Genso Notoya, Alex Toker, Lydia E. Matesic, Gerburg M. Wulf, Wenyi Wei, Motoyuki Otsuka, Kazuhiko Koike, John G. Clohessy, Yu-Ru Lee, Pier Paolo Pandolfi
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