The major risk factor for kidney stone disease is idiopathic hypercalciuria. Recent evidence implicates a role for defective calcium reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule. We hypothesized that claudin-2, a paracellular cation channel protein, mediates proximal tubule calcium reabsorption. We found that claudin-2–null mice have hypercalciuria due to a primary defect in renal tubule calcium transport and papillary nephrocalcinosis that resembles the intratubular plugs in kidney stone formers. Our findings suggest that a proximal tubule defect in calcium reabsorption predisposes to papillary calcification, providing support for the vas washdown hypothesis. Claudin-2–null mice were also found to have increased net intestinal calcium absorption, but reduced paracellular calcium permeability in the colon, suggesting that this was due to reduced intestinal calcium secretion. Common genetic variants in the claudin-2 gene were associated with decreased tissue expression of claudin-2 and increased risk of kidney stones in 2 large population-based studies. Finally, we describe a family in which males with a rare missense variant in claudin-2 have marked hypercalciuria and kidney stone disease. Our findings indicate that claudin-2 is a key regulator of calcium excretion and a potential target for therapies to prevent kidney stones.
Joshua N. Curry, Matthew Saurette, Masomeh Askari, Lei Pei, Michael B. Filla, Megan R. Beggs, Peter S.N. Rowe, Timothy Fields, Andre J. Sommer, Chizu Tanikawa, Yoichiro Kamatani, Andrew P. Evan, Mehdi Totonchi, R. Todd Alexander, Koichi Matsuda, Alan S.L. Yu
Hair cells are the mechanosensory receptors of the inner ear, responsible for hearing and balance. Hair cell death and consequent hearing loss are common results of treatment with ototoxic drugs, including the widely-used aminoglycoside antibiotics. Induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs) confers protection against aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death via paracrine signaling that requires extracellular HSP70 (Heat Shock 70 kDa Protein). We investigated the mechanisms underlying this non-cell-autonomous protective signaling in the inner ear. In response to heat stress, inner ear tissue releases exosomes that carry HSP70 in addition to canonical exosome markers and other proteins. Isolated exosomes from heat-shocked utricles were sufficient to improve survival of hair cells exposed to the aminoglycoside antibiotic neomycin, while inhibition or depletion of exosomes from the extracellular environment abolished the protective effect of heat shock. Hair-cell specific expression of the known HSP70 receptor, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), was required for the protective effect of exosomes, and exosomal HSP70 interacted with TLR4 on hair cells. Our results indicate that exosomes are a previously undescribed mechanism of intercellular communication in the inner ear that can mediate non-autonomous hair cell survival. Exosomes may represent a novel class of nano-carriers for delivery of therapeutics against hearing loss.
Andrew M. Breglio, Lindsey A. May, Melanie Barzik, Nora C. Welsh, Shimon P. Francis, Tucker Q. Costain, Lizhen Wang, D. Eric Anderson, Ronald S. Petralia, Ya-Xian Wang, Thomas B. Friedman, Matthew J.A. Wood, Lisa L. Cunningham
Fibroblasts are key-effector cells in tissue remodeling. They remain persistently activated in fibrotic diseases, resulting in progressive deposition of extracellular matrix. Although fibroblast activation maybe initiated by external factors, prolonged activation can induce an “autonomous”, self-maintaining pro-fibrotic phenotype in fibroblasts. Accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations play a central role to establish this persistently activated pathologic phenotype of fibroblasts. We demonstrated that in fibrotic skin of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), a prototypical idiopathic fibrotic disease, transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) induced the expression of DNA-methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) and DNMT1 in fibroblasts in a SMAD-dependent manner to silence the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) by promoter hypermethylation. Downregulation of SOCS3 facilitated activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) to promote fibroblast-to–myofibroblast transition, collagen release and fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. Re-establishment of the epigenetic control of STAT3 signaling by genetic or pharmacological inactivation of DNMT3A reversed the activated phenotype of SSc fibroblasts in tissue culture, inhibited TGFβ-dependent fibroblast activation and ameliorated experimental fibrosis in murine models. These findings identify a novel pathway of epigenetic imprinting of fibroblasts in fibrotic disease with translational implications for the development of new targeted therapies in fibrotic diseases.
Clara Dees, Sebastian Pötter, Yun Zhang, Christina Bergmann, Xiang Zhou, Markus Luber, Thomas Wohlfahrt, Emmanuel Karouzakis, Andreas Ramming, Kolja Gelse, Akihiko Yoshimura, Rudolf Jaenisch, Oliver Distler, Georg Schett, Jörg H.W. Distler
While the Western-diet and dysbiosis are the most prominent environmental factors associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), the corresponding host factors and cellular mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here we report that the TSC1-mTOR pathway in the gut epithelium represents a metabolic and innate immune checkpoint for intestinal dysfunction and inflammation. mTOR hyperactivation triggered by the Western-diet or Tsc1-ablation led to epithelium necroptosis, barrier disruption, and predisposition to DSS (dextran sulfate sodium)-induced colitis and inflammation-associated colon cancer. Mechanistically, our results uncovered a critical role for TSC1-mTOR in restraining the expression and activation of RIPK3 in the gut epithelium through Trim11-mediated ubiquitination and autophagy-dependent degradation. Notably, microbiota-depletion by antibiotics or gnotobiotics attenuated RIPK3 expression and activation, thereby alleviating epithelial necroptosis and colitis driven by mTOR hyperactivation. mTOR primarily impinged on RIPK3 to potentiate TNF- and microbial PAMP-induced necroptosis, and hyperactive mTOR and aberrant necroptosis were intertwined in human IBDs. Together, our data reveal a previously unsuspected link between the Western-diet, microbiota and necroptosis, and identify the mTOR-RIPK3-necroptosis axis as a driving force for intestinal inflammation and cancer.
Yadong Xie, Yifan Zhao, Lei Shi, Wei Li, Kun Chen, Min Li, Xia Chen, Haiwei Zhang, Tiantian Li, Matsuzawa-Ishimoto Yu, Xiaomin Yao, Dianhui Shao, Zunfu Ke, Jian Li, Yan Chen, Xiaoming Zhang, Jun Cui, Shuzhong Cui, Qibin Leng, Ken Cadwell, Xiaoxia Li, Hong Wei, Haibing Zhang, Huabin Li, Hui Xiao
After trauma, regeneration of adult CNS axons is abortive causing devastating neurologic deficits. Despite progress in rehabilitative care, there is no effective treatment stimulating axon growth following injury. Using models with different regenerative capacities, followed by gain- and loss-of-function analysis, we identified profilin1 (Pfn1) as a coordinator of actin and microtubules (MTs), powering axon growth and regeneration. In growth cones, Pfn1 increased actin retrograde flow, MT growth speed and invasion of filopodia by MTs, orchestrating cytoskeleton dynamics towards axon growth. In vitro, active Pfn1 promoted MT growth in a formin-dependent manner, whereas localization of MTs to growth cone filopodia was facilitated by direct MT binding and interaction with formins. In vivo, Pfn1 ablation limited regeneration of growth-competent axons after sciatic nerve and spinal cord injury. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) delivery of constitutively active Pfn1 to rodents promoted axon regeneration, neuromuscular junction maturation and functional recovery of injured sciatic nerves, and increased the ability of regenerating axons to penetrate the inhibitory spinal cord glial scar. Thus, we identify Pfn1 as an important regulator of axon regeneration and suggest that AAV-mediated delivery of constitutively active Pfn1, together with the identification of modulators of Pfn1 activity, should be considered to treat the injured nervous system.
Rita Pinto-Costa, Sara Castro Sousa, Sérgio C. Leite, Joana Nogueira-Rodrigues, Tiago Ferreira da Silva, Diana Machado, Joana Beatriz Moreira Marques, Ana Catarina Costa, Márcia A. Liz, Francesca Bartolini, Pedro Brites, Mercedes Costell, Reinhard Fässler, Monica M. Sousa
Severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) is a deadly liver disease without an effective medical therapy. Although SAH mortality is known to correlate with hepatic accumulation of immature liver cells, why this occurs, and how it causes death is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that expression of epithelial splicing regulatory protein-2 (ESRP2), an RNA splicing factor that maintains the non-proliferative, mature phenotype of adult hepatocytes, was suppressed in both human SAH and various mouse models of SAH in parallel with the severity of alcohol consumption and liver damage. Inflammatory cytokines released by excessive alcohol ingestion reprogrammed adult hepatocytes into proliferative, fetal-like cells by suppressing ESRP2. Sustained loss of ESRP2 permitted re-emergence of a fetal RNA splicing program that attenuates the Hippo signaling pathway and thus, allows fetal transcriptional regulators to accumulate in adult liver. We further showed that depleting ESRP2 in mice exacerbated alcohol-induced steatohepatitis, enabling surviving hepatocytes to shed adult hepatocyte functions and become more regenerative but threatens overall survival by populating the liver with functionally-immature hepatocytes. Our findings revealed a novel mechanism that explains why liver failure develops in patients with the clinical syndrome of SAH, suggesting that recovery from SAH might be improved by limiting adult-to-fetal reprogramming in hepatocytes.
Jeongeun Hyun, Zhaoli Sun, Ali Reza Ahmadi, Sushant Bangru, Ullas V. Chembazhi, Kuo Du, Tianyi Chen, Hidekazu Tsukamoto, Ivan Rusyn, Auinash Kalsotra, Anna Mae Diehl
Oncogene-targeted and immune checkpoint therapies have revolutionized the clinical management of malignant melanoma and now offer hope to patients with advanced disease. Intimately connected to patients’ overall clinical risk is whether the initial primary melanoma lesion will metastasize and cause advanced disease, but underlying mechanisms are not entirely understood. A subset of melanomas display heightened peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC1α) expression that maintains cell survival cues by promoting mitochondrial function, but also suppresses metastatic spread. Here, we show that PGC1α expression in melanoma cells was silenced by chromatin modifications that involve promoter H3K27 trimethylation. Pharmacological EZH2 inhibition diminished H3K27me3 histone markers, increased PGC1α expression, and functionally suppressed invasion within PGC1α-silenced melanoma cells. Mechanistically, PGC1α silencing activated transcription factor 12 (TCF12), to increase expression of WNT5A, which in turn stabilized YAP protein levels to promote melanoma migration and metastasis. Accordingly, inhibition of components of this transcription-signaling axis, including TCF12, WNT5A, or YAP, blocked melanoma migration in vitro and metastasis in vivo. These results indicate that epigenetic control of melanoma metastasis involved altered expression of PGC1α and an association with the inherent metabolic state of the tumor.
Chi Luo, Eduardo Balsa, Elizabeth A. Perry, Jiaxin Liang, Clint D. Tavares, Francisca Vazquez, Hans R. Widlund, Pere Puigserver
Aberrant expression of the cardiac gap junction protein connexin-43 (Cx43) has been suggested to play a role in the development of cardiac disease in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), however a mechanistic understanding of this association is lacking. Here, we identified a reduction of phosphorylation of Cx43 serines S325/S328/S330 in human and mouse DMD hearts. We hypothesized that hypo-phosphorylation of Cx43 serine-triplet triggers pathological Cx43 redistribution to the lateral sides of cardiomyocytes (remodeling). Therefore, we generated knock-in mdx mice in which the Cx43 serine-triplet was replaced with either phospho-mimicking glutamic acids (mdxS3E) or non-phosphorylatable alanines (mdxS3A). The mdxS3E but not mdxS3A mice were resistant to Cx43 remodeling with a corresponding reduction of Cx43 hemichannel activity. MdxS3E cardiomyocytes displayed improved intracellular Ca2+ signaling and a reduction of NOX2/reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Furthermore, mdxS3E mice were protected against inducible arrhythmias, related lethality and the development of cardiomyopathy. Inhibition of microtubule polymerization by colchicine reduced both NOX2/ROS and oxidized CaMKII, increased S325/S328/S330 phosphorylation and prevented Cx43 remodeling in mdx hearts. Together, these results demonstrate a mechanism of dystrophic Cx43-remodeling and suggest that targeting Cx43 may be a therapeutic strategy to prevent heart dysfunction and arrhythmias in DMD patients.
Eric Himelman, Mauricio A. Lillo, Julie Nouet, J. Patrick Gonzalez, Qingshi Zhao, Lai-Hua Xie, Hong Li, Tong Liu, Xander H.T. Wehrens, Paul D. Lampe, Glenn I. Fishman, Natalia Shirokova, Jorge E. Contreras, Diego Fraidenraich
Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) attrition is considered the key event underlying progressive bone marrow failure (BMF) in Fanconi anemia (FA), the most frequent inherited BMF disorder in humans. However, despite major advances, how the cellular, biochemical and molecular alterations reported in FA lead to HSC exhaustion remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated in human and mouse cells that loss-of-function of FANCA or FANCC, products of two genes affecting more than 80% of FA patients worldwide, is associated with constitutive expression of the transcription factor Microphthalmia (MiTF) through the cooperative, unscheduled activation of several stress signaling pathways, including the SMAD2/3, p38MAPK, NF-kB and AKT cascades. We validated the unrestrained Mitf expression downstream of p38 in Fanca-/- mice, which display hallmarks of hematopoietic stress, including loss of HSC quiescence, DNA damage accumulation in HSCs and reduced HSC repopulation capacity. Importantly, we demonstrated that shRNA-mediated downregulation of Mitf expression or inhibition of p38 signaling rescued HSC quiescence and prevented DNA damage accumulation. Our data support the hypothesis that HSC attrition in FA is the consequence of defects in the DNA damage response combined with chronic activation of otherwise transiently activated signaling pathways, which jointly prevent the recovery of HSC quiescence.
Alessia Oppezzo, Julie Bourseguin, Emilie Renaud, Patrycja Pawlikowska, Filippo Rosselli
Genomics of primary prostate cancer differs from that of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We studied genomic aberrations in primary prostate cancer biopsies from patients who developed mCRPC, also studying matching, same patient, diagnostic and mCRPC biopsies following treatment. We profiled 470 treatment-naïve, prostate cancer diagnostic biopsies and for 61 cases, mCRPC biopsies using targeted and low-pass whole genome sequencing (n = 52). Descriptive statistics were used to summarize mutation and copy number profile. Prevalence was compared using Fisher's exact test. Survival correlations were studied using log-rank test. TP53 (27%) and PTEN (12%) and DDR gene defects (BRCA2 7%; CDK12 5%; ATM 4%) were commonly detected. TP53, BRCA2, and CDK12 mutations were significantly commoner than described in the TCGA cohort. Patients with RB1 loss in the primary tumour had a worse prognosis. Among 61 men with matched hormone-naïve and mCRPC biopsies, differences were identified in AR, TP53, RB1, and PI3K/AKT mutational status between same-patient samples. In conclusion, the genomics of diagnostic prostatic biopsies acquired from men who develop mCRPC differs to that of the primary prostatic cancers. RB1/TP53/AR aberrations are enriched in later stages, but the prevalence of DDR defects in diagnostic samples is similar to mCRPC.
Joaquin Mateo, George Seed, Claudia Bertan, Pasquale Rescigno, David Dolling, Ines Figueiredo, Susana Miranda, Daniel Nava Rodrigues, Bora Gurel, Matthew Clarke, Mark Atkin, Rob Chandler, Carlo Messina, Semini Sumanasuriya, Diletta Bianchini, Maialen Barrero, Antonella Petremolo, Zafeiris Zafeiriou, Mariane Sousa Fontes, Raquel Perez-Lopez, Nina Tunariu, Ben A. Fulton, Robert Jones, Ursula B. McGovern, Christy Ralph, Mohini Varughese, Omi Parikh, Suneil Jain, Tony Elliott, Shahneen Sandhu, Nuria Porta, Emma Hall, Wei Yuan, Suzanne Carreira, Johann S. de Bono
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