How phosphate levels are detected in mammals is unknown. The bone-derived hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) lowers blood phosphate levels by reducing kidney phosphate reabsorption and 1,25(OH)2D production, but phosphate does not directly stimulate bone FGF23 expression. Using PET scanning and LC-MS, we found that phosphate increases kidney-specific glycolysis and synthesis of glycerol-3-phosphate (G-3-P), which then circulates to bone to trigger FGF23 production. Further, we found that G-3-P dehydrogenase 1 (Gpd1), a cytosolic enzyme that synthesizes G-3-P and oxidizes NADH to NAD+, is required for phosphate-stimulated G-3-P and FGF23 production and prevention of hyperphosphatemia. In proximal tubule cells, we found that phosphate availability is substrate-limiting for glycolysis and G-3-P production and that increased glycolysis and Gpd1 activity are coupled through cytosolic NAD+ recycling. Finally, we show that the type II sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter Npt2a, which is primarily expressed in the proximal tubule, conferred kidney specificity to phosphate-stimulated G-3-P production. Importantly, exogenous G-3-P stimulated FGF23 production when Npt2a or Gpd1 were absent, confirming that it was the key circulating factor downstream of glycolytic phosphate sensing in the kidney. Together, these findings place glycolysis at the nexus of mineral and energy metabolism and identify a kidney-bone feedback loop that controls phosphate homeostasis.
Wen Zhou, Petra Simic, Iris Y. Zhou, Peter Caravan, Xavier Vela Parada, Donghai Wen, Onica L. Washington, Maria Shvedova, Kerry A. Pierce, Clary B. Clish, Michael Mannstadt, Tatsuya Kobayashi, Marc N. Wein, Harald Jüppner, Eugene P. Rhee