Worse outcomes occur in aged compared with young populations after infections with respiratory viruses, including pathogenic coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2), and are associated with a suboptimal lung milieu (“inflammaging”). We previously showed that a single inducible phospholipase, PLA2G2D, is associated with a proresolving/antiinflammatory response in the lungs, and increases with age. Survival was increased in naive Pla2g2d–/– mice infected with SARS-CoV resulting from augmented respiratory dendritic cell (rDC) activation and enhanced priming of virus-specific T cells. Here, in contrast, we show that intranasal immunization provided no additional protection in middle-aged Pla2g2d–/– mice infected with any of the 3 pathogenic human coronaviruses because virtually no virus-specific antibodies or follicular helper CD4+ T (Tfh) cells were produced. Using MERS-CoV–infected mice, we found that these effects did not result from T or B cell intrinsic factors. Rather, they resulted from enhanced, and ultimately, pathogenic rDC activation, as manifested most prominently by enhanced IL-1β expression. Wild-type rDC transfer to Pla2g2d–/– mice in conjunction with partial IL-1β blockade reversed this defect and resulted in increased virus-specific antibody and Tfh responses. Together, these results indicate that PLA2G2D has an unexpected role in the lungs, serving as an important modulator of rDC activation, with protective and pathogenic effects in respiratory coronavirus infections and immunization, respectively.
Jian Zheng, David Meyerholz, Lok-Yin Roy Wong, Michael Gelb, Makoto Murakami, Stanley Perlman
Usage data is cumulative from June 2021 through June 2021.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.