Oligodendrocytes express low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) to endocytose cholesterol for the maintenance of adulthood myelination. However, the potential role of LDLR in chronic cerebral ischemia–related demyelination remains unclear. We used bilateral carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) to induce sustained cerebral ischemia in mice. This hypoxic-ischemic injury caused a remarkable decrease in oligodendroglial LDLR, with impaired oligodendroglial differentiation and survival. Oligodendroglial cholesterol levels, however, remained unchanged. Mouse miR-344e-3p and the human homolog miR-410-3p, 2 miRNAs directly targeting Ldlr, were identified in experimental and clinical leukoaraiosis and were thus implicated in the LDLR reduction. Lentiviral delivery of LDLR ameliorated demyelination following chronic cerebral ischemia. By contrast, Ldlr–/– mice displayed inadequate myelination in the corpus callosum. Ldlr–/– oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) exhibited reduced ability to differentiate and myelinate axons in vitro. Transplantation with Ldlr–/– OPCs could not rescue the BCAS-induced demyelination. Such LDLR-dependent myelin restoration might involve a physical interaction of the Asn-Pro-Val-Tyr (NPVY) motif with the phosphotyrosine binding domain of Shc, which subsequently activated the MEK/ERK pathway. Together, our findings demonstrate that the aberrant oligodendroglial LDLR in chronic cerebral ischemia impairs myelination through intracellular signal transduction. Preservation of oligodendroglial LDLR may provide a promising approach to treat ischemic demyelination.
Yi Xie, Xiaohao Zhang, Pengfei Xu, Nana Zhao, Ying Zhao, Yunzi Li, Ye Hong, Mengna Peng, Kang Yuan, Ting Wan, Rui Sun, Deyan Chen, Lili Xu, Jingjing Chen, Hongquan Guo, Wanying Shan, Juanji Li, Rongrong Li, Yunyun Xiong, Dezhi Liu, Yuhui Wang, George Liu, Ruidong Ye, Xinfeng Liu