A P Varki, M F Kagnoff, P A Insel
J E Sadler
B L Kotzin
A new mouse cardiac electrophysiology method was used to study mice harboring an alpha-myosin heavy chain Arg403Gln missense mutation (alpha-MHC403/+), which results in histological and hemodynamic abnormalities characteristic of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) and sudden death of uncertain etiology during exercise. Wild-type animals had completely normal cardiac electrophysiology. In contrast, FHC mice demonstrated (a) electrocardiographic abnormalities including prolonged repolarization intervals and rightward axis; (b) electrophysiological abnormalities including heterogeneous ventricular conduction properties and prolonged sinus node recovery time; and (c) inducible ventricular ectopy. These data identify distinct electrophysiologic abnormalities in FHC mice with a specific alpha-myosin mutation, and also validate a novel method to explore in vivo the relationship between specific genotypes and their electrophysiologic phenotypes.
C I Berul, M E Christe, M J Aronovitz, C E Seidman, J G Seidman, M E Mendelsohn
The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is the most widely studied animal model of essential hypertension. Despite > 30 yr of research, the primary genetic lesions responsible for hypertension in the SHR remain undefined. In this report, we describe the construction and hemodynamic characterization of a congenic strain of SHR (SHR-Lx) that carries a defined segment of chromosome 8 from a normotensive strain of Brown-Norway rats (BN-Lx strain). Transfer of this segment of chromosome 8 from the BN-Lx strain onto the SHR background resulted in substantial reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and cardiac mass. Linkage and comparative mapping studies indicate that the transferred chromosome segment contains a number of candidate genes for hypertension, including genes encoding a brain dopamine receptor and a renal epithelial potassium channel. These findings demonstrate that BP regulatory gene(s) exist within the differential chromosome segment trapped in the SHR-Lx congenic strain and that this region of chromosome 8 plays a major role in the hypertension of SHR vs. BN-Lx rats.
V Kren, M Pravenec, S Lu, D Krenova, J M Wang, N Wang, T Merriouns, A Wong, E St Lezin, D Lau, C Szpirer, J Szpirer, T W Kurtz
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) type 3 is a dominantly inherited form of diabetes, which is often misdiagnosed as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Phenotypic analysis of members from four large Finnish MODY3 kindreds (linked to chromosome 12q with a maximum lod score of 15) revealed a severe impairment in insulin secretion, which was present also in those normoglycemic family members who had inherited the MODY3 gene. In contrast to patients with NIDDM, MODY3 patients did not show any features of the insulin resistance syndrome. They could be discriminated from patients with IDDM by lack of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-Ab). Taken together with our recent findings of linkage between this region on chromosome 12 and an insulin-deficient form of NIDDM (NIDDM2), the data suggest that mutations at the MODY3/NIDDM2 gene(s) result in a reduced insulin secretory response, that subsequently progresses to diabetes and underlines the importance of subphenotypic classification in studies of diabetes.
M Lehto, T Tuomi, M M Mahtani, E Widén, C Forsblom, L Sarelin, M Gullström, B Isomaa, M Lehtovirta, A Hyrkkö, T Kanninen, M Orho, S Manley, R C Turner, T Brettin, A Kirby, J Thomas, G Duyk, E Lander, M R Taskinen, L Groop
Leptin, the product of the ob gene, is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that is known to decrease food intake and increase energy expenditure in ob/ob mice. In humans, variants in the OB gene have not been detected and very little is known about the action of leptin on food intake and energy expenditure, although circulating leptin concentrations are positively correlated to body fat stores. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between fasting plasma leptin concentrations and energy expenditure in 123 5-yr-old Pima Indian children (67 males/76 females). Body composition was assessed by isotopic water dilution (18O) whereas total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured using doubly labeled water and indirect calorimetry, respectively. The physical activity level was calculated as the ratio of TEE:RMR. Plasma leptin concentrations were positively correlated to percent body fat (r = 0.84, P < 0.0001), but were similar in boys and girls after adjusting for percent body fat. Most importantly, we found that, independent of the percentage of body fat, plasma leptin concentrations correlated with TEE (in absolute values, r = 0.37, P < 0.0001, or adjusted for body size r = 0.42; P < 0.0001) and with physical activity level (r = 0.26, P < 0.01), but not RMR. These results suggest that, as in animal models, leptin plays a role in energy expenditure in humans.
A D Salbe, M Nicolson, E Ravussin
Combined Factors V and VIII deficiency is an autosomal recessive bleeding disorder identified in at least 58 families comprising a number of different ethnic groups. Affected patients present with a moderate bleeding tendency and have Factor V and Factor VIII levels in the range of 5-30% of normal. The highest frequency of the mutant gene is found in Jews of Sephardic and Middle Eastern origin living in Israel with an estimated disease frequency of 1:100,000. We sought to identify the gene responsible for combined Factors V and VIII deficiency using a positional cloning approach. Of 14 affected individuals from 8 unrelated Jewish families, 12 were the offspring of first-cousin marriages. After a genome-wide search using 241 highly polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) markers, 13 of the 14 affected patients were homozygous for two closely linked 18q markers. Patients and all available family members were genotyped for 11 additional STRs spanning approximately 11 cM on the long arm of chromosome 18. Multipoint linkage analysis yielded a maximal log of the odds (LOD) score of 13.22. Haplotype analysis identified a number of recombinant individuals and established a minimum candidate interval of 2.5 cM for the gene responsible for combined Factors V and VIII deficiency. The product of this locus is likely to operate at a common step in the biosynthetic pathway for these two functionally and structurally homologous coagulation proteins. Identification of this gene should provide new insight into the biology of Factor V and Factor VIII production.
W C Nichols, U Seligsohn, A Zivelin, V H Terry, N D Arnold, D R Siemieniak, R J Kaufman, D Ginsburg
The development of the embryo is dependent upon a highly coordinated repertoire of cell division, differentiation, and migration. Protein-tyrosine phosphorylation plays a pivotal role in the regulation of these processes. Vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylated proteins have been identified as ligands for a unique family (Tyro 3 and 7) of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) with transforming ability. The involvement of vitamin K metabolism and function in two well characterized birth defects, warfarin embryopathy and vitamin K epoxide reductase deficiency, suggests that developmental signals from K-dependent pathways may be required for normal embryogenesis. Using a chick embryogenesis model, we now demonstrate the existence of a vitamin K1-dependent protein-tyrosine phosphorylation cascade involving c-Eyk, a member of the Tyro 12 family, and key intracellular proteins, including focal adhesion kinase (pp125FAK), paxillin, and pp60src. This cascade is sensitive to alteration in levels or metabolism of vitamin K1. These findings provide a major clue as to why, in the mammalian (and human) fetus, the K-dependent proteins are maintained in an undercarboxylated state, even to the point of placing the newborn at hemorrhagic risk. The precise regulation of vitamin K1-dependent regulatory pathways would appear to be critical for orderly embryogenesis.
S P Saxena, T Fan, M Li, E D Israels, L G Israels
A serious limitation in the use of the DNA-cleaving, antitumoral-antibiotic, bleomycin during chemotherapy is pulmonary toxicity. Lung injury induced by bleomycin is characterized by an increased deposition of interstitial extracellular matrix proteins in the alveolar wall that compromises respiratory function. Several drugs have been tested in animal models to prevent the pulmonary toxicity of bleomycin, but have not led to a useful clinical treatment because of their adverse effects on other tissues. We have shown that transgenic mice expressing Streptoalloteichus hindustanus (Sh) ble bleomycin resistance protein in pulmonary epithelial cells in the lungs are protected against bleomycin-induced toxicity in lungs. In the present study, we used intranasal administration by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of the bleomycin resistance Sh ble gene to mouse lung for prevention of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. We constructed recombinant adenoviruses Ad.CMVble and Ad.RSVble harboring the bleomycin resistance Sh ble gene under the control of the cytomegalovirus early promoter and the Rous sarcoma virus early promoter, respectively. Transgene expression was detected in epithelia of conducting airways and alveolar septa by immunostaining with a rabbit polyclonal antibody directed against the bleomycin resistance protein and persisted for the duration of drug treatment; i.e., up to 17 d. No toxic effect was seen in adenovirus-treated mice. Pretreatment of mice with Ad.CMVble or Ad.RSVble completely prevented collagen deposition 42-133 d after bleomycin treatment, as measured by lung OH-proline content. Histologic studies indicated that there was little or no lung injury in the adenovirus/bleomycin-treated mice compared with the bleomycin-treated mice. These observations may lead to new approaches for the prevention of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.
P L Tran, J Weinbach, P Opolon, G Linares-Cruz, J P Reynes, A Grégoire, E Kremer, H Durand, M Perricaudet
Prolactin is widely expressed in different tissues, and it is presumed to have both local and systemic actions. In males it is known to influence reproductive functions but the significance and mechanisms of prolactin action in male accessory reproductive tissues are poorly understood. Here we show that prolactin acts as a direct growth and differentiation factor for human prostate, as measured by changes in DNA synthesis and epithelial morphology of organ cultures. Furthermore, we report the expression in human prostate of a short prolactin receptor form in addition to the long form, based upon ligand cross-linking studies and RT-PCR analysis of mRNA expression. The highest density of prolactin receptors was detected in the secretory epithelial cells by immunohistochemistry. Finally, we report that prolactin is locally produced in human prostate epithelium, as evidenced by marked prolactin immunoreactivity in a significant portion of prostate epithelial cells, with parallel expression of prolactin mRNA in human prostate. Collectively, these data provide significant support for the existence of an autocrine/paracrine loop of prolactin in the human prostate and may shed new light on the involvement of prolactin in the etiology and progression of neoplastic growth of the prostate.
M T Nevalainen, E M Valve, P M Ingleton, M Nurmi, P M Martikainen, P L Harkonen
Cocaine-induced cardiovascular emergencies are mediated by excessive adrenergic stimulation. Animal studies suggest that cocaine not only blocks norepinephrine reuptake peripherally but also inhibits the baroreceptors, thereby reflexively increasing sympathetic nerve discharge. However, the effect of cocaine on sympathetic nerve discharge in humans is unknown. In 12 healthy volunteers, we recorded blood pressure and sympathetic nerve discharge to the skeletal muscle vasculature using intraneural microelectrodes (peroneal nerve) during intranasal cocaine (2 mg/kg, n = 8) or lidocaine (2%, n = 4), an internal local anesthetic control, or intravenous phenylephrine (0.5-2.0 microg/kg, n = 4), an internal sympathomimetic control. Experiments were repeated while minimizing the cocaine-induced rise in blood pressure with intravenous nitroprusside to negate sinoaortic baroreceptor stimulation. After lidocaine, blood pressure and sympathetic nerve discharge were unchanged. After cocaine, blood pressure increased abruptly and remained elevated for 60 min while sympathetic nerve discharge initially was unchanged and then decreased progressively over 60 min to a nadir that was only 2+/-1% of baseline (P < 0.05); however, plasma venous norepinephrine concentrations (n = 5) were unchanged up to 60 min after cocaine. Sympathetic nerve discharge fell more rapidly but to the same nadir when blood pressure was increased similarly with phenylephrine. When the cocaine-induced increase in blood pressure was minimized (nitroprusside), sympathetic nerve discharge did not decrease but rather increased by 2.9 times over baseline (P < 0.05). Baroreflex gain was comparable before and after cocaine. We conclude that in conscious humans the primary effect of intranasal cocaine is to increase sympathetic nerve discharge to the skeletal muscle bed. Furthermore, sinoaortic baroreflexes play a pivotal role in modulating the cocaine-induced sympathetic excitation. The interplay between these excitatory and inhibitory neural influences determines the net effect of cocaine on sympathetic discharge targeted to the human skeletal muscle circulation.
T N Jacobsen, P A Grayburn, R W Snyder 2nd, J Hansen, B Chavoshan, C Landau, R A Lange, L D Hillis, R G Victor
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the main physiological stimulus for human skin pigmentation. Within the epidermal-melanin unit, melanocytes synthesize and transfer melanin to the surrounding keratinocytes. Keratinocytes produce paracrine factors that affect melanocyte proliferation, dendricity, and melanin synthesis. In this report, we show that normal human keratinocytes secrete nitric oxide (NO) in response to UVA and UVB radiation, and we demonstrate that the constitutive isoform of keratinocyte NO synthase is involved in this process. Next, we investigate the melanogenic effect of NO produced by keratinocytes in response to UV radiation using melanocyte and keratinocyte cocultures. Conditioned media from UV-exposed keratinocytes stimulate tyrosinase activity of melanocytes. This effect is reversed by NO scavengers, suggesting an important role for NO in UV-induced melanogenesis. Moreover, melanocytes respond to NO-donors by decreased growth, enhanced dendricity, and melanogenesis. The rise in melanogenesis induced by NO-generating compounds is associated with an increased amount of both tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1. These observations suggest that NO plays an important role in the paracrine mediation of UV-induced melanogenesis.
C Roméro-Graillet, E Aberdam, M Clément, J P Ortonne, R Ballotti
Stunted growth is a major complication of chronic inflammation and recurrent infections in children. Systemic juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by markedly elevated circulating levels of IL-6 and stunted growth. In this study we found that NSE/hIL-6 transgenic mouse lines expressing high levels of circulating IL-6 since early after birth presented a reduced growth rate that led to mice 50-70% the size of nontransgenic littermates. Administration of a monoclonal antibody to the murine IL-6 receptor partially reverted the growth defect. In NSE/hIL-6 transgenic mice, circulating IGF-I levels were significantly lower than those of nontransgenic littermates; on the contrary, the distribution of growth hormone pituitary cells, as well as circulating growth hormone levels, were normal. Treatment of nontransgenic mice of the same strain with IL-6 resulted in a significant decrease in IGF-I levels. Moreover, in patients with systemic juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, circulating IL-6 levels were negatively correlated with IGF-I levels. Our findings suggest that IL-6-mediated decrease in IGF-I production represents a major mechanism by which chronic inflammation affects growth.
F De Benedetti, T Alonzi, A Moretta, D Lazzaro, P Costa, V Poli, A Martini, G Ciliberto, E Fattori
We report evidence of a dose responsive effect of enzyme replacement therapy in mucopolysaccharidosis type VI cats from birth, at the clinical, biochemical, and histopathological level. Cats treated with weekly, intravenous recombinant human N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase at 1 and 5 mg/kg, were heavier, more flexible, had greatly reduced or no spinal cord compression, and had almost normal urinary glycosaminoglycan levels. There was near normalization or complete reversal of lysosomal storage in heart valve, aorta, skin, dura, liver, and brain perivascular cells. No reduction in lysosomal vacuolation was observed in cartilage or cornea; however, articular cartilage was thinner and external ear pinnae were larger in some treated cats. Degenerative joint changes were not obviously delayed in treated cats. Skeletal pathology was reduced, with more normalized bone dimensions and with more uniform bone density and trabecular pattern clearly visible on radiographs by 5 to 6 mo; however, differences between 1 and 5 mg/kg dose rates were not clearly distinguishable. At a dose of 0.2 mg/kg, disease was not significantly altered in the majority of parameters examined. Lysosomal storage was present in all tissues examined in the midterm mucopolysaccharidosis type VI fetus and increased rapidly in extent and severity from birth.
A C Crawley, K H Niedzielski, E L Isaac, R C Davey, S Byers, J J Hopwood
It has been postulated that HIV-infected patients undergo an active production of virus and CD4+ T cell destruction from the early stages of the disease, and that an extensive postthymic expansion of CD4+ T cells prevents a precipitous decline in CD4+ T cell number. Based on the rebound of the CD4+ T cell number observed in patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy with protease inhibitors, it has been calculated that, on average, 5% of T cells are replaced every day in HIV-infected patients. To obtain an independent estimate of the recycling rate of T cells in the patients, we measured the frequency of cells carrying a loss-of-function mutation at the hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus. Assuming a recycling rate of 5%/d, an accumulation of 2.6 mutations/10(6)/yr over the physiological accumulation was predicted. Indeed, we observed an elevated frequency of HPRT mutants in the CD4+ T cells of most patients with < 300 CD4+ T cells/mm3 of blood and in the CD8+ T cells of most patients with < 200 CD4+ T cells/mm3, consistent with an elevated and protracted increased division rate in both subsets. However, in earlier stages of the disease the mutant frequency in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was lower than in healthy controls. The cytokine production profile of most HPRT mutant CD4+ T cell clones from both healthy and HIV-infected patients was typical of T helper cells type 2 (high IL-4 and IL-10, low IFN-gamma), whereas the cytokine production pattern of wild-type clones was heterogeneous. The cytokine profile of CD8+ clones was indistinguishable between HPRT mutants and wild type. Our data provide evidence of increased CD4+ and CD8+ T cell recycling in the HIV-infected patients.
C Paganin, D S Monos, J D Marshall, I Frank, G Trinchieri
New World primates (NWP) exhibit a form of compensated resistance to vitamin D and other steroid hormones, including 17beta-estradiol. One postulated cause of resistance is that NWP cells overexpress one or more proteins which block hormone action by competing with hormone for its cognate hormone response element. Here we report that both nuclear and postnuclear extracts from NWP, but not Old World primate, cells contained a protein(s) capable of binding directly to the estrogen response element (ERE). This ERE binding protein(s) (ERE-BP) was dissociated from the ERE by excess of either unlabeled ERE or excess of the ERE half-site motif AGGTCAcag. DNA affinity chromatography using concatamers of the latter resulted in > 20,000-fold purification of the ERE-BP. The intensity of the ERE-BP-ERE complex in electromobility shift assay was indirectly related to the amount of wild-type Old World primate estrogen receptor (ER) but not affected when potential ligands, including 17beta-estradiol (up to 100 nM), or anti-ER antibody was added to the binding reaction. We conclude that vitamin D-resistant and gonadal steroid-resistant NWP cells contain a protein(s) that may "silence" ER action by interacting directly with the ERE and interfering with ER binding.
H Chen, J E Arbelle, M A Gacad, E A Allegretto, J S Adams
The adenosine producing enzyme ecto-5'-nucleotidase (5'-NT) is not normally expressed during thymocyte development until the medullary stage. To determine whether earlier expression would lead to adenosine accumulation and/or be deleterious for thymocyte maturation, thymic purine metabolism, and T cell differentiation were studied in lckNT transgenic mice overexpressing 5'-NT in cortical thymocytes under the control of the lck proximal promoter. In spite of a 100-fold elevation in thymic 5'-NT activity, transgenic adenosine levels were unchanged and T cell immunity was normal. Inosine, the product of adenosine deamination, was elevated more than twofold, however, indicating that adenosine deaminase (ADA) can prevent the accumulation of adenosine, even with a dramatic increase in 5'-NT activity, and demonstrating the availability of 5'-NT substrates in the thymus for the first time. Thymic adenosine concentrations of mice treated with the ADA inhibitor 2'-deoxycoformycin (dCF) were elevated over 30-fold, suggesting that high ADA activity, rather than an absence of 5'-NT, is mainly responsible for low thymic adenosine levels. The adenosine concentrations in dCF-treated mice are sufficient to cause adenosine receptor-mediated thymocyte apoptosis in vitro, suggesting that adenosine accumulation could play a role in ADA-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency.
R Resta, S W Hooker, A B Laurent, S M Jamshedur Rahman, M Franklin, T B Knudsen, N L Nadon, L F Thompson
Peroxynitrite (ONOO-) anion, formed by the interaction of superoxide with nitric oxide (NO), has previously been implicated as a cytotoxic agent. However, the effects of this free radical species on neutrophil (PMN)-endothelial cell interactions is largely unknown. We investigated the direct actions of ONOO- on PMN adhesion to endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo, as well as the effects of ONOO- on PMN-mediated myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. In vitro, peroxynitrite (100-1,000 nM) inhibited the adhesion of rat PMNs to the endothelium of isolated thrombin- or H2O2-stimulated rat mesenteric artery (P < 0.01 vs. thrombin or H2O2 alone). In vivo, in the rat mesentery, thrombin (0.5 U/ml) or N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (50 microM) significantly increased venular leukocyte rolling and adherence, which were also significantly (P < 0.01) attenuated by ONOO (800 nM) accompanied by reduced P-selectin expression on the endothelial cell surface. Isolated perfused rat hearts were subjected to global ischemia and reperfusion with rat PMNs (10(8) cells), which resulted in profound cardiac depression (i.e., a marked reduction in left ventricular developed pressure and maximal rate of development of left ventricular pressure). Infusion of ONOO- reversed the myocardial contractile dysfunction of ischemic-reperfused rat hearts to near baseline levels, and markedly attenuated the accumulation of PMNs in the postischemic heart. The present study provides strong evidence that nanomolar concentrations of ONOO- both inhibit leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions and exert cytoprotective effects in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Furthermore, our results suggest that the inhibition of P-selectin expression by peroxynitrite is a key mechanism of the modulatory actions of ONOO- on leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions.
D J Lefer, R Scalia, B Campbell, T Nossuli, R Hayward, M Salamon, J Grayson, A M Lefer
To assess whether liver transplantation (LTx) can correct the metabolic alterations of chronic liver disease, 14 patients (LTx-5) were studied 5+/-1 mo after LTx, 9 patients (LTx-13) 13+/-1 mo after LTx, and 10 patients (LTx-26) 26+/-2 months after LTx. Subjects with chronic uveitis (CU) and healthy volunteers (CON) were also studied. Basal plasma leucine and branched-chain amino acids were reduced in LTx-5, LTx-13, and LTx-26 when compared with CU and CON (P < 0.01). The basal free fatty acids (FFA) were reduced in LTx-26 with respect to CON (P < 0.01). To assess protein metabolism, LTx-5, LTx-13, and LTx-26 were studied with the [1-14C]leucine turnover combined with a 40-mU/m2 per min insulin clamp. To relate changes in FFA metabolism to glucose metabolism, eight LTx-26 were studied with the [1-14C]palmitate and [3-3H]glucose turnovers combined with a two-step (8 and 40 mU/m2 per min) euglycemic insulin clamp. In the postabsorptive state, LTx-5 had lower endogenous leucine flux (ELF) (P < 0.005), lower leucine oxidation (LO) (P < 0.004), and lower non-oxidative leucine disposal (NOLD) (P < 0.03) with respect to CON (primary pool model). At 2 yr (LTx-26) both ELF (P < 0.001 vs. LTx-5) and NOLD (P < 0.01 vs. LTx-5) were normalized, but not LO (P < 0.001 vs. CON) (primary and reciprocal pool models). Suppression of ELF by insulin (delta-reduction) was impaired in LTx-5 and LTx-13 when compared with CU and CON (P < 0.01), but normalized in LTx-26 (P < 0.004 vs. LTx-5 and P = 0.3 vs. CON). The basal FFA turnover rate was decreased in LTx-26 (P < 0.01) and CU (P < 0.02) vs. CON. LTx-26 showed a lower FFA oxidation rate than CON (P < 0.02). Tissue glucose disposal was impaired in LTx-5 (P < 0.005) and LTx-13 (P < 0.03), but not in LTx-26 when compared to CON. LTx-26 had normal basal and insulin-modulated endogenous glucose production. In conclusion, LTx have impaired insulin-stimulated glucose, FFA, and protein metabolism 5 mo after surgery. Follow-up at 26 mo results in (a) normalization of insulin-dependent glucose metabolism, most likely related to the reduction of prednisone dose, and, (b) maintenance of some alterations in leucine and FFA metabolism, probably related to the functional denervation of the graft and to the immunosuppressive treatment.
L Luzi, G Perseghin, E Regalia, L P Sereni, A Battezzati, D Baratti, E Bianchi, I Terruzzi, H Hilden, L C Groop, A Pulvirenti, M R Taskinen, L Gennari, V Mazzaferro
Macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP) is an 80-kD serum protein with homology to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Its receptor, RON tyrosine kinase, is a new member of the HGF receptor family. The MSP-RON signaling pathway has been implicated in the functional regulation of mononuclear phagocytes. However, the function of this pathway in other types of cells has not been elucidated. Here we show that in contrast to the HGF receptor, which was expressed at the basolateral surface, RON was localized at the apical surface of ciliated epithelia in the airways and oviduct. In addition, MSP was found in the bronchoalveolar space at biologically significant concentrations. MSP bound to RON on normal human bronchial epithelial cells with a high affinity (Kd = 0.5 nM) and induced autophosphorylation of RON. Activation of RON by MSP led to a significant increase in ciliary beat frequency of human nasal cilia. These findings indicate that the ciliated epithelium of the mucociliary transport apparatus is a novel target of MSP. Ciliary motility is critical for mucociliary transport. Our findings suggest that the MSP-RON signaling pathway is a novel regulatory system of mucociliary function and might be involved in the host defense and fertilization.
O Sakamoto, A Iwama, R Amitani, T Takehara, N Yamaguchi, T Yamamoto, K Masuyama, T Yamanaka, M Ando, T Suda
Metastatic melanoma patients treated with an autologous DNP-modified tumor cell vaccine develop inflammatory responses in metastatic tumors characterized by infiltration of CD8+ T cells. To further define this immune response, we analyzed T cell receptor beta-chain variable (TCRBV) region repertoire in biopsy specimens and peripheral blood lymphocytes of six patients. After administration of DNP vaccine, a restricted set of TCRBV gene families was found to be expanded compared with prevaccine metastases. In several postvaccine lesions of one patient, obtained over a 2-yr period, TCRBV14+ T cells were clonally expanded and identical T cell clonotypes could be detected. Two major recurring clones were biased toward the use of TCRBJ1S5. Furthermore, T cell lines derived from two such infiltrated skin lesions and, enriched in TCRBV14+ T cells, displayed HLA-class I-restricted lysis of the autologous melanoma cells. Clonal expansion of T cells was demonstrated in the T cell-infiltrated, postvaccine metastasis of a second patient as well. These results indicate that vaccination with autologous, DNP-modified melanoma cells can expand selected clones of T cells at the tumor site and that such clones are potentially destructive to the tumor.
M Sensi, C Farina, C Maccalli, R Lupetti, G Nicolini, A Anichini, G Parmiani, D Berd
Cux-1 is a murine homeobox gene that is highly and transiently expressed in the developing kidney. To further evaluate the role of Cux-1 in mammalian kidney development, organotypic cultures of embryonic mouse kidney were incubated with phosphorothioate-coupled antisense Cux-1 oligonucleotides (ODNs) in the presence of cationic liposomes. Inhibition of Cux-1 expression by antisense ODNs was verified by reverse transcription-PCR. Metanephroi that were incubated with antisense Cux-1 ODNs were 23% smaller than metanephroi that were incubated with sense Cux-1 ODNs. Morphologic analysis of metanephroi that were treated with antisense Cux-1 ODNs revealed that ureteric buds and induced epithelial structures were present. However, extensive areas of cell death containing shrunken cells with pyknotic nuclei were also evident. The presence of increased apoptosis was verified by ultrastructural and terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling analyses. Two different antisense Cux-1 ODNs targeting either the translation start codon or the homeobox produced increased apoptosis. In contrast, metanephroi incubated with sense ODNs exhibited only occasional apoptotic cells. We conclude that the presence of antisense Cux-1 ODNs does not block nephron induction, but results instead in increased apoptosis. Proper regulation of Cux-1 expression may be necessary for normal kidney development.
S E Quaggin, H Yeger, P Igarashi
Genetic susceptibility confers significant risk for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The MHC region and other polymorphic loci have been associated with SLE. Because more compelling evidence for an involvement of a genetic locus includes linkage, we tested a candidate region homologous to a murine SLE susceptibility region in 52 SLE-affected sibpairs from three ethnic groups. We analyzed seven microsatellite markers from the human chromosome 1q31-q42 region corresponding to the telomeric end of mouse chromosome 1, the region where specific manifestations of murine lupus, including glomerulonephritis and IgG antichromatin, have been mapped. Comparing the mean allele sharing in affected sibpairs of each of these seven markers to their expected values of 0.50, only the five markers located at 1q41-q42 showed evidence for linkage (P = 0.0005-0.08). Serum levels of IgG antichromatin also showed evidence for linkage to two of these five markers (P = 0.04), suggesting that this phenotype is conserved between mice and humans. Compared to the expected random distribution, the trend of increased sharing of haplotypes was observed in affected sibpairs from three ethnic groups (P < 0.01). We concluded that this candidate 1q41-q42 region probably contains a susceptibility gene(s) that confers risk for SLE in multiple ethnic groups.
B P Tsao, R M Cantor, K C Kalunian, C J Chen, H Badsha, R Singh, D J Wallace, R C Kitridou, S L Chen, N Shen, Y W Song, D A Isenberg, C L Yu, B H Hahn, J I Rotter
Cast nephropathy is a severe complication of multiple myeloma. Binding of filtered monoclonal light chains (LC) with Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein (THP) triggers heterotypic aggregation of these two proteins to form casts in the distal nephron of the kidney. To localize the LC binding site on THP, human THP was deglycosylated and underwent limited trypsin digestion in the presence or absence of a nephrotoxic LC known to bind THP. A 29.6-kD band was protected from trypsin digestion by the addition of LC. NH2-terminal amino acid sequence and amino acid analyses revealed this band was located between the 6th and 287th amino acid residues of THP. Six peptides located within this 29.6-kD fragment were synthesized and used as potential inhibitors of binding or aggregation of five different nephrotoxic LCs with THP. Peptide AHWSGHCCL (from amino acid 225 to 233) completely inhibited binding and aggregation of these proteins. Optimal inhibition required a cystine residue in this peptide. Truncation experiments demonstrated the entire sequence was necessary for ideal inhibition and the histidine residue explained the effects of pH on binding. These studies provided a basis for further study of LC-THP interaction and a potential approach toward the prevention of cast nephropathy.
Z Q Huang, P W Sanders
Using flow channel, we report that the application of a laminar shear stress induced a transient increase of tissue factor (TF) procoagulant activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), which was accompanied by a rapid and transient induction of the TF mRNA in the HUVEC. Functional analysis of the 2.2 kb TF 5' promoter indicated that a GC-rich region containing three copies each of the EGR-1 and Sp1 sites was required for induction. Mutation of the Sp1 sites, but not the EGR-1 sites, attenuated the response of TF promoter to shear stress. Thus, Sp1 is a newly defined shear stress responsive element. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed there was no increase in binding of nuclear extracts from sheared cells to an Sp1 consensus site. In contrast, immunoblotting of these nuclear extracts with antibody against transcription factor Sp1 demonstrated that shear stress increased the phosphorylation of Sp1. We also showed that shear stress, like the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid, increased the transcriptional activity of Sp1. These findings suggest that the shear stress induction of TF gene expression is mediated through an increased Sp1 transcriptional activity with a concomitant hyperphosphorylation of Sp1.
M C Lin, F Almus-Jacobs, H H Chen, G C Parry, N Mackman, J Y Shyy, S Chien
Sarcomere relaxation depends on dissociation of actin and myosin, which is regulated by a number of factors, including intracellular [MgATP] as well as MgATP hydrolysis products [MgADP] and inorganic phosphate [Pi], pHi, and cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]c). To distinguish the contribution of MgADP from the other regulators in the development of diastolic dysfunction, we used a strategy to increase free [MgADP] without changing [MgATP], [Pi], or pHi. This was achieved by applying a low dose of iodoacetamide to selectively inhibit the creatine kinase activity in isolated perfused rat hearts. [MgATP], [MgADP], [Pi], and [H+] were determined using 31P NMR spectroscopy. The [Ca2+]c and the glycolytic rate were also measured. We observed an approximately threefold increase in left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) and 38% increase in the time constant of pressure decay (P < 0.05) in these hearts, indicating a significant impairment of diastolic function. The increase in LVEDP was closely related to the increase in free [MgADP]. Rate of glycolysis was not changed, and [Ca2+]c increased by 16%, which cannot explain the severity of diastolic dysfunction. Thus, our data indicate that MgADP contributes significantly to diastolic dysfunction, possibly by slowing the rate of cross-bridge cycling.
R Tian, M E Christe, M Spindler, J C Hopkins, J M Halow, S A Camacho, J S Ingwall
Characterization of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against HIV-1 has been limited by the use of target cells expressing viral proteins from laboratory isolates of HIV-1. This approach has favored identification of group-specific CTL responses and precluded assessment of the extent of type-specific CTL responses directed against HIV-1. Using cells expressing viral proteins from the HIV-1 IIIB strain, we performed a detailed characterization of HIV-1-specific CTL response in three laboratory workers accidentally infected with HIV-1 IIIB. Eight of the epitopes identified were group specific, lying in relatively conserved regions of Gag, reverse transcriptase, and envelope. Three type-specific epitopes were identified, two of them in highly variable regions of envelope. In longitudinal studies in one subject, seven different epitopes and five different restricting HLA class I alleles were identified, with a progressive increase in the number of CTL epitopes recognized by this subject over time. Our data demonstrate that type-specific CTL responses make up a significant proportion of the host cellular immune response against HIV-1 and that a broadening of epitope specificity may occur.
N V Sipsas, S A Kalams, A Trocha, S He, W A Blattner, B D Walker, R P Johnson
The activation of endothelial cells is a recurrent phenomenon linked to pathologic conditions such as inflammation, chronic arthritis, allo- and xenograft rejection. To inhibit endothelial cell activation we have constructed a transactivation-deficient derivative of the p65/RelA subunit of NF-kappa B, a transcription factor known to be crucial for the induction of adhesion molecules, cytokines and procoagulants in activated endothelial cells. This protein (p65RHD) comprises the Rel homology domain of the RelA subunit, retaining dimerization, DNA binding, and nuclear localization functions, but is deficient in transcriptional activation, and acts as a competitive inhibitor of NF-kappa B. Our data demonstrate that p65RHD is a potent and specific inhibitor of NF-kappa B-mediated induction of a number of genes, such as I kappa B alpha, IL-8, E-selectin, P-selectin, and tissue factor in endothelial cells. Furthermore, tetracycline-inducible expression of p65RHD in stably transfected primary endothelial cells inhibits the induction of gene expression equally well. This regulated system of gene expression provides the basis for a novel therapeutic approach to the pathologic effects of endothelial cell activation, especially in delayed xenograft rejection, by using transgenic animals as organ donors.
J Anrather, V Csizmadia, C Brostjan, M P Soares, F H Bach, H Winkler
Low concentrations of cyclodextrins (< 1.0 mM) added to serum act catalytically, accelerating the exchange of cholesterol between cells and lipoproteins. J774 macrophages incubated with serum and 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (< or = 1 mM) released fivefold more labeled cholesterol than with serum alone. Increased efflux was not accompanied by a change in cell cholesterol mass; thus, cyclodextrin functioned as a cholesterol shuttle, enhancing cholesterol bidirectional flux without changing the equilibrium cholesterol distribution between cells and medium. The addition of phospholipid vesicles to serum and cyclodextrin shifted the equilibrium distribution to favor the medium, producing rapid and extensive depletion of cell cholesterol mass. The combination of serum, phospholipid vesicles, and cyclodextrin also stimulated the rapid clearance of both free and esterified cholesterol from mouse peritoneal macrophages loaded with free and esterified cholesterol. This study: (a) demonstrates that a compound can function as a catalyst to enhance the movement of cholesterol between cells and serum, (b) illustrates the difference between cholesterol exchange and net transport in a cell/serum system, (c) demonstrates how net movement of cholesterol is linked to concentration gradients established by phospholipids, (d) provides a basis for the development of the shuttle/sink model for the first steps in reverse cholesterol transport, (e) validates the model using artificial shuttles (cyclodextrins) and sinks (large unilamellar vesicles), and (f) suggests that cyclodextrin-like cholesterol shuttles might be of pharmacological significance in treating unstable atherosclerotic plaques.
V M Atger, M de la Llera Moya, G W Stoudt, W V Rodrigueza, M C Phillips, G H Rothblat
The concept that leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion (LECA) is a major determinant of the tissue injury elicited by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is largely based on studies employing adhesion molecule-specific monoclonal antibodies. The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of LECA to I/R injury using mutant mice (all on a C57B1 background) that are deficient in either intracellular adhesion molecule-1, P-selectin, or CD11/CD18. The accumulation of fluorescently labeled leukocytes and the number of nonperfused sinusoids in livers of control and adhesion molecule-deficient mice were monitored by intravital microscopy for 1 h after release of the occluded (for 15 min) superior mesenteric artery. Autofluorescence of pyridine nucleotide (NADH) was measured as an indicator of mitochondrial O2 consumption and redox status. The number of stationary leukocytes in the liver after gut I/R was significantly elevated compared with baseline values in C57B1 (control) mice. Autofluorescence of NADH was also significantly increased (indicating hypoxia) after I/R in these mice, especially in the pericentral region. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1-, CD11/CD18-, and P-selectin-deficient mice all exhibited a blunted leukosequestration response to I/R and smaller increments in nonperfused sinusoids, relative to C57B1 mice. All adhesion molecule-deficient mice also exhibited an attenuated increment in NADH autofluorescence in the pericentral region, relative to control mice. These results from adhesion molecule-deficient mice provide additional support for the view that LECA is an important determinant of the liver dysfunction induced by gut I/R.
Y Horie, R Wolf, D C Anderson, D N Granger
Somatostatin (SRIF), a hypothalamic inhibitor of pituitary growth hormone (GH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion, binds to five distinct receptor (SSTR) subtypes. We therefore tested SSTR subtype-specific SRIF analogs in primary human fetal pituitary cultures (23-25-wk gestation) to elucidate their role in regulating human pituitary function. Using reverse transcription-PCR, mRNA expression of SSTR2 and SSTR5 were detected in fetal pituitary by 25 wk. SRIF analog affinities were determined by membrane radioligand binding in cells stably expressing the human SSTR forms. GH secretion was suppressed equally (40-60%, P < 0.005) by analogs preferential for either SSTR2 (IC50 for receptor binding affinity, 0.19-0.42 nM) or SSTR5 (IC50, 0.37 nM), and compounds with enhanced affinity for SSTR2 were more potent (EC50 for GH suppression, 0.05-0.09 nM) than Lanreotide (EC50, 2.30 nM) and SRIF (EC50, 0.19 nM). Similarly, analogs with high affinity for SSTR2 or SSTR5 decreased TSH secretion (30-40%, P < 0.005). However, prolactin was effectively inhibited only by compounds preferentially bound to SSTR2 (20-30%, P < 0.05). Luteinizing hormone was modestly decreased (15-20%) by SSTR2- or SSTR5-specific analogs. An SSTR5-specific analog also exclusively inhibited GH in acromegalic tumor cells. Thus, SRIF regulation of GH and TSH in primary human fetal pituitary cells is mediated by both SSTR2 and SSTR5, both of which are abundantly expressed by 25 wk. In contrast, suppression of prolactin is mediated mainly by SSTR2. These results indicate that SSTR5 is critical for physiologic regulation of GH and TSH. SRIF analogs with selective affinity for this receptor may therefore be more effective in the treatment of hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas.
I Shimon, J E Taylor, J Z Dong, R A Bitonte, S Kim, B Morgan, D H Coy, M D Culler, S Melmed
Previous studies showed that gammaIFN decreases metastatic hepatic tumor growth by stimulating Kupffer cells (KC). The present studies examine whether lymphocyte stimulation via cells engineered to secrete GM-CSF or IL-2 decreases hepatic tumor growth, and whether stimulation of both macrophages and lymphocytes is more effective than either individually. Rats were immunized with irradiated hepatoma cells transduced by herpes viral amplicon vectors containing the genes for GM-CSF, IL-2 or LacZ. On day 18, half of each group was treated with 5 x 10(4) U gammaIFN, or saline intraperitoneally for 3 d. On day 21, all rats received 5 x 10(5) hepatoma cells intrasplenically. On day 41, rats were killed and tumor nodules were counted. Separate rats underwent splenocyte and KC harvest for assessment of lymphocyte- and macrophage-mediated tumor cell kill in vitro. GM-CSF or IL-2 vaccines or gammaIFN decreased tumor nodules significantly (GM-CSF 13+/-4, IL-2 14+/-6 vs. control 75+/-24, P < 0.001). Combination therapy was more effective, and completely eliminated tumor in 4 of 12 IFN-GM-CSF and 8 of 11 IFN-IL-2 animals. Additional rats underwent partial hepatectomy, an immunosuppressive procedure known to accelerate the growth of hepatic tumor, following tumor challenge. Therapy was equally effective in this immunosuppressive setting. Vaccination is associated with enhancement of splenocyte-mediated tumoricidal activity, whereas the effect of gammaIFN is mediated by KC. GM-CSF and IL-2 vaccine therapy and pretreatment with gammaIFN represent effective strategies in reducing hepatic tumor. Combination therapy targets both lymphocytes and macrophages, and is more effective in reducing tumor than either therapy alone.
H M Karpoff, M D'Angelica, S Blair, M D Brownlee, H Federoff, Y Fong
Defining the mechanism for regulation of arachidonic acid (AA) release is important for understanding cellular production of AA metabolites, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Here we have investigated the differential roles of protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in the regulation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2)-mediated AA release by P2U-purinergic receptors in MDCK-D1 cells. Treatment of cells with the P2U receptor agonists ATP and UTP increased PLA2 activity in subsequently prepared cell lysates. PLA2 activity was inhibited by the cPLA2 inhibitor AACOCF3, as was AA release in intact cells. Increased PLA2 activity was recovered in anti-cPLA2 immunoprecipitates of lysates derived from nucleotide-treated cells, and was lost from the immunodepleted lysates. Thus, cPLA2 is responsible for AA release by P2U receptors in MDCK-D1 cells. P2U receptors also activated MAP kinase. This activation was PKC-dependent since phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) promoted down-regulation of PKC-eliminated MAP kinase activation by ATP or UTP. Treatment of cells with the MAP kinase cascade inhibitor PD098059, the PKC inhibitor GF109203X, or down-regulation of PKC by PMA treatment, all suppressed AA release promoted by ATP or UTP, suggesting that both MAP kinase and PKC are involved in the regulation of cPLA2 by P2U receptors. Differential effects of GF109203X on cPLA2-mediated AA release and MAP kinase activation, however, were observed: at low concentrations, GF109203X inhibited AA release promoted by ATP, UTP, or PMA without affecting MAP kinase activation. Since GF109203X is more selective for PKCalpha, PKCalpha may act independently of MAP kinase to regulate cPLA2 in MDCK-D1 cells. This conclusion is further supported by data showing that PMA-promoted AA release, but not MAP kinase activation, was suppressed in cells in which PKCalpha expression was decreased by antisense transfection. Based on these data, we propose a model whereby both MAP kinase and PKC are required for cPLA2-mediated AA release by P2U receptors in MDCK-D1 cells. PKC plays a dual role in this process through the utilization of different isoforms: PKCalpha regulates cPLA2-mediated AA release independently of MAP kinase, while other PKC isoforms act through MAP kinase activation. This model contrasts with our recently demonstrated mechanism (J. Clin. Invest. 99:1302-1310.) whereby alpha1-adrenergic receptors in the same cell type regulate cPLA2-mediated AA release only through sequential activation of PKC and MAP kinase.
M Xing, B L Firestein, G H Shen, P A Insel