IL-4 and IL-13 each act on human endothelial cells (ECs) to induce expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. On hematopoietic cells. IL-4 responses may be mediated either through a pathway involving gc, the common signaling subunit of the IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, and IL-15 receptors, or through a gc-independent pathway that may be alternatively activated by IL-13. We find that human ECs do not express gc, as detected by indirect immunofluorescence and FACS analysis or by a reverse transcription-PCR method. Like IL-4, IL-13 activates a protein tyrosine kinase that phosphorylates the IL-4R binding protein. In addition, we find that IL-4 and IL-13 each induce tyrosine phosphorylation of the JAK2 tyrosine kinase. Furthermore, both IL-4 and IL-13 induce binding of the Stat6 transcription factor to a consensus sequence oligonucleotide. We conclude that the IL-4 response of human ECs involves the IL-13 shared pathway that is independent of gc, and uses JAK2-Stat6 signaling.
R L Palmer-Crocker, C C Hughes, J S Pober
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency constitutes an inborn error in pyrimidine metabolism associated with thymine-uraciluria in pediatric patients and an increased risk of toxicity in cancer patients receiving 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment. The molecular basis for DPD deficiency in a British family having a cancer patient that exhibited grade IV toxicity 10 d after 5-FU treatment was analyzed. A 165-bp deletion spanning a complete exon of the DPYD gene was found in some members of the pedigree having low DPD catalytic activity. Direct sequencing of lymphocyte DNA from these subjects revealed the presence of a G to A point mutation at the 5'-splicing site consensus sequence (GT to AT) that leads to skipping of the entire exon preceding the mutation during pre-RNA transcription and processing. A PCR-based diagnostic method was developed to determine that the mutation is found in Caucasian and Asian populations. This mutation was also detected in a Dutch patient with thymine-uraciluria and completely lacking DPD activity. A genotyping test for the G to A splicing point mutation could be useful in predicting cancer patients prone to toxicity upon administration of potentially toxic 5-FU and for genetic screening of heterozygous carriers and homozygous deficient subjects.
X Wei, H L McLeod, J McMurrough, F J Gonzalez, P Fernandez-Salguero
The newly identified cytokine, IL-15 enhanced antigen-induced proliferation of PBMC obtained from HIV-1-seropositive subjects. When compared to IL-2 which enhanced both spontaneous and antigen-induced lymphocyte proliferative responses, IL-15 rarely increased spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation. Additionally, in cultures of lymphocytes obtained from 15 HIV-1-infected patients with < 300 circulating CD4- lymphocytes/microliter IL-15 induced significant HIV-1 expression (46, 21, and 71 pg/ml) in only 3 of 15 experiments and IL-2 induced significant HIV-1 expression (range 16- > 5000 pg/ml) in 11 of 15 experiments (P < 0.01, Fischer's exact test). Simultaneous assays of cytokine-induced spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation and HIV-1 expression revealed similar dose-response relationships for induction of HIV-1 and lymphocyte proliferation by IL-2. Thus, IL-15 helps to correct the impaired proliferative response of CD4+ lymphocytes from HIV-1-infected persons without the mitogenic effect of IL-2 that also may induce HIV-1 expression.
A H Patki, M E Quiñones-Mateu, D Dorazio, B Yen-Lieberman, W H Boom, E K Thomas, M M Lederman
T cell responses to non-MHC antigens are targeted to a restricted number of immunodominant minor histocompatibility antigens whose identity remains elusive. Here we report isolation and sequencing of a novel immunodominant minor histocompatibility antigen presented by H-2Db on the surface of C57BL/6 mouse cells. This nonapeptide (AAPDNRETF) shows strong biologic activity in cytotoxic T lymphocyte sensitization assays at concentrations as low as 10 pM. C3H.SW mice primed with AAPDNRETF in incomplete Freund's adjuvant generated a potent anti-C57BL/6 T cell-mediated cytotoxic activity, and T lymphocytes from AAPDNRETF-primed mice caused graft-versus-host disease when transplanted in irradiated C57BL/6 recipients. These results (a) provide molecular characterization of a mouse dominant minor histocompatibility antigen, (b) identify this peptide as a potential target of graft-versus-host disease and, (c) more importantly, demonstrate that a single dominant minor antigen can cause graft-versus-host disease. These findings open new avenues for the prevention of graft-versus-host disease and should further our understanding of the mechanisms of immunodominance in T cell responses to minor histocompatibility antigens.
C Perreault, J Jutras, D C Roy, J G Filep, S Brochu
The ability of muscles from Glut 4-null mice to take up and metabolize glucose has been studied in the isolated white EDL and red soleus muscles. In EDL muscles from male or female Glut 4-null mice, basal deoxyglucose uptake was lower than in control muscles and was not stimulated by insulin. In parallel, glycogen synthesis and content were decreased. Soleus muscles from male Glut 4-null mice took up twice more deoxyglucose in the absence of insulin than control muscles, but did not respond to insulin. In females, soleus deoxyglucose uptake measured in the absence of hormone was similar in Glut 4-null mice and in control mice. This uptake was stimulated twofold in Glut 4-null mice and threefold in control mice. Basal glycogen synthesis was increased by 4- and 2.2-fold in male and female null mice, respectively, compared to controls, and insulin had no or small (20% stimulation over basal) effect. These results indicate that while EDL muscles behaved as expected, soleus muscles were able to take up a large amount of glucose in the absence (males) or the presence of insulin (females). Whether this is due to a change in Glut 1 intrinsic activity or targeting and/or to the appearance of another glucose transporter remains to be determined.
A E Stenbit, R Burcelin, E B Katz, T S Tsao, N Gautier, M J Charron, Y Le Marchand-Brustel
Sodium and chloride transport by the macula densa and thick ascending limb of Henle's loop participates importantly in extracellular fluid volume homeostasis, urinary concentration and dilution, control of glomerular filtration, and control of renal hemodynamics. Transepithelial Na and Cl transport across the apical membrane of thick ascending limb (TALH) cells is mediated predominantly by a loop diuretic sensitive Na-K-2Cl cotransport pathway. The corresponding transport protein has recently been cloned. Functional studies suggest that the cotransporter is expressed by macula densa cells as well as by TALH cells. The current studies were designed to identify sites of Na-K-2Cl cotransporter expression along distal nephron in rabbit and rat. Non-isotopic high-resolution in situ hybridization, using an antisense probe for the apical form of the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter identified expression throughout the TALH, from the junction between inner and outer medulla to the transition to distal convoluted tubule. Expression by macula densa cells was confirmed by colocalization using markers specific for macula densa cells. First, Na-K-2Cl cotransporter mRNA was detected in macula densa cells that did not stain with anti-Tamm-Horsfall protein antibodies. Second, Na-K-2Cl cotransporter mRNA was detected in macula densa cells that show positive NADPH-diaphorase reaction, indicating high levels of constitutive nitric oxide synthase activity. In rat, levels of Na-K-2Cl cotransporter mRNA expression were similar in TALH and macula densa cells. In rabbit, expression levels were higher in macula densa cells than in surrounding TALH cells. The present data provide morphological support for a previously established functional concept that Na-K-2Cl cotransport at the TALH is accomplished by the expression of a well-defined cotransporter. At the macula densa, this transporter may establish a crucial link between tubular salt load and glomerular vascular regulation.
N Obermüller, S Kunchaparty, D H Ellison, S Bachmann
The intestinal effects of Clostridium difficile toxin A are inidated by toxin binding to luminal enterocyte receptors. We reported previously that the rabbit ileal brush border (BB) receptor is a glycoprotein with an alpha-d-galactose containing trisaccharide in the toxin-binding domain (1991. J. Clin. Invest. 88:119-125). In this study we characterized the rabbit ileal BB receptor for this toxin. Purified toxin receptor peptides of 19 and 24 amino acids showed 100% homology with rabbit sucrase-isomaltase (SI). Guinea pig receptor antiserum reacted in Western blots with rabbit SI and with the purified toxin receptor. Antireceptor IgG blocked in vitro binding of toxin A to rabbit ileal villus cell BB. Furthermore, anti-SI IgG inhibited toxin A-induced secretion (by 78.1%, P < 0.01), intestinal permeability (by 80.8%, P < 0.01), and histologic injury (P < 0.01) in rabbit ileal loops in vivo. Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with SI cDNA showed increased intracellular calcium increase in response to native toxin (holotoxin) or to a recombinant 873-amino acid peptide representing the receptor binding domain of toxin A. These data suggest that toxin A binds specifically to carbohydrate domains on rabbit ileal SI, and that such binding is relevant to signal transduction mechanisms that mediate in vitro and in vivo toxicity.
C Pothoulakis, R J Gilbert, C Cladaras, I Castagliuolo, G Semenza, Y Hitti, J S Montcrief, J Linevsky, C P Kelly, S Nikulasson, H P Desai, T D Wilkins, J T LaMont
Anticancer therapy with doxorubicin (DOX) and other quinone anthracyclines is limited by severe cardiotoxicity, reportedly because semiquinone metabolites delocalize Fe(II) from ferritin and generate hydrogen peroxide, thereby promoting hydroxyl radical formation and lipid peroxidation. Cardioprotective interventions with antioxidants or chelators have nevertheless produced conflicting results. To investigate the role and mechanism(s) of cardiac lipid peroxidation in a clinical setting, we measured lipid conjugated dienes (CD) and hydroperoxides in blood plasma samples from the coronary sinus and femoral artery of nine cancer patients undergoing intravenous treatments with DOX. Before treatment, CD were unexpectedly higher in coronary sinus than in femoral artery (342 +/- 131 vs 112 +/- 44 nmol/ml, mean +/- SD; P < 0.01), showing that cardiac tissues were spontaneously involved in lipid peroxidation. This was not observed in ten patients undergoing cardiac catheterization for the diagnosis of arrhythmias or valvular dysfunctions, indicating that myocardial lipid peroxidation was specifically increased by the presence of cancer. The infusion of a standard dose of 60 mg DOX/m(2) rapidly ( approximately 5 min) abolished the difference in CD levels between coronary sinus and femoral artery (134 +/- 95 vs 112 +/- 37 nmol/ml); moreover, dose fractionation studies showed that cardiac release of CD and hydroperoxides decreased by approximately 80% in response to the infusion of as little as 13 mg DOX/m(2). Thus, DOX appeared to inhibit cardiac lipid peroxidation in a rather potent manner. Corollary in vitro experiments were performed using myocardial biopsies from patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass grafting. These experiments suggested that the spontaneous exacerbation of lipid peroxidation probably involved preexisting Fe(II) complexes, which could not be sequestered adequately by cardiac isoferritins and became redox inactive when hydrogen peroxide was included to simulate DOX metabolism and hydroxyl radical formation. Collectively, these in vitro and in vivo studies provide novel evidence for a possible inhibition of cardiac lipid peroxidation in DOX-treated patients. Other processes might therefore contribute to the cardiotoxicity of DOX.
G Minotti, C Mancuso, A Frustaci, A Mordente, S A Santini, A M Calafiore, G Liberi, N Gentiloni
cGMP-based regulatory systems are vital for counteracting the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) which promotes volume expansion and high blood pressure. Natriuretic peptides and nitric oxide acting through their second messenger cGMP normally increase natriuresis and diuresis, and regulate renin release; however, the severe pathological state of cardiac heart failure is characterized by elevated levels of atrial natriuretic peptide that are no longer able to effectively oppose exaggerated RAS effects. There is presently limited information on the intracellular effectors of cGMP actions in the kidney. Recently we reported the cloning of the cDNA for type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK II), which is highly enriched in intestinal mucosa but was also detected for the first time in kidney. In the present study, cGK II was localized to juxtaglomerular (JG) cells, the ascending thin limb (ATL), and to a lesser extent the brush border of proximal tubules. An activator of renin gene expression, the angiotensin II type I receptor inhibitor, losartan, increased cGK II mRNA and protein three to fourfold in JG cells. In other experiments, water deprivation increased cGK II mRNA and protein three to fourfold in the inner medulla where both cGK II, and a kidney specific CI- channel shown by others to be regulated by dehydration, are localized in the ATL. Whereas additional data suggest that cGK I may primarily mediate cGMP-related changes in renal hemodynamics, cGK II may regulate renin release and ATL ion transport.
S Gambaryan, C Häusler, T Markert, D Pöhler, T Jarchau, U Walter, W Haase, A Kurtz, S M Lohmann
Captopril, an inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme, is widely used clinically to manage hypertension and congestive heart failure. Here captopril is shown to be an inhibitor of angiogenesis able to block neovascularization induced in the rat cornea. Captopril acted directly and specifically on capillary endothelial cells, inhibiting their chemotaxis with a biphasic dose-response curve showing an initial decrease at clinically achievable doses under 10 microM and a further slow decline in the millimolar range. Captopril inhibition of endothelial cell migration was not mediated by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, but was suppressed by zinc. Direct inhibition by captopril of zinc-dependent endothelial cell-derived 72-and 92-kD metalloproteinases known to be essential for angiogenesis was also seen. When used systemically on rats captopril inhibited corneal neovascularization and showed the antitumor activity expected of an inhibitor of angiogenesis, decreasing the number of mitoses present in carcinogen-induced foci of preneoplastic liver cells and slowing the growth rate of an experimental fibrosarcoma whose cells were resistant to captopril in vitro. These data define this widely used drug as a new inhibitor of neovascularization and raise the possibility that patients on long term captopril therapy may derive unexpected benefits from its antiangiogenic activities.
O V Volpert, W F Ward, M W Lingen, L Chesler, D B Solt, M D Johnson, A Molteni, P J Polverini, N P Bouck
The aim of this study was to determine the role of increased plasma cortisol levels in the pathogenesis of hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure. Experiments were carried out on 16 lean, healthy, overnight fasted male subjects. One group (n = 8) underwent two separate, 2-d randomized experiments separated by at least 2 mo. On day 1 insulin was infused at a rate of 1.5 mU/kg per min and 2 h clamped hypoglycemia (53 +/- 2 mg/dl) or euglycemia (93 +/- 3 mg/dl) was obtained during morning and afternoon. The next morning subjects underwent a 2-h hyperinsulinemic (1.5 mU/kg per min) hypoglycemic (53 +/- 2 mg/dl) clamp study. In the other group (n = 8), day 1 consisted of morning and afternoon 2-h clamped hyperinsulinemic euglycemia with cortisol infused to stimulate levels of plasma cortisol occurring during clamped hypoglycemia (53 mg/dl). The next morning (day 2) subjects underwent a 2-h hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamp identical to the first group. Despite equivalent day 2 plasma glucose and insulin levels, steady state epinephrine, norepinephrine, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon, ACTH and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) values were significantly (R < 0.01) blunted after day 1 cortisol infusion compared to antecedent euglycemia. Compared to day 1 cortisol, antecedent hypoglycemia produced similar blunted day 2 responses of epinephrine, norepinephrine, pancreatic polypeptide and MSNA compared to day 1 cortisol. Antecedent hypoglycemia, however, produced a more pronounced blunting of plasma glucagon, ACTH, and hepatic glucose production compared to day 1 cortisol. We conclude that in healthy overnight fasted men (a) antecedent physiologic increases of plasma cortisol can significantly blunt epinephrine, norepinephrine, glucagon, and MSNA responses to subsequent hypoglycemia and (b) these data suggest that increased plasma cortisol is the mechanism responsible for antecedent hypoglycemia causing hypoglycemia associated autonomic failure.
S N Davis, C Shavers, F Costa, R Mosqueda-Garcia
Very little is known about the regulation of protein metabolism in adipose tissue. In this study systemic, adipose tissue, and forearm phenylalanine kinetics were determined in healthy postabsorptive volunteers before and during a 2-h glucose infusion (7 mg.kg-1.min-1). [3H]Phenylalanine was infused and blood was sampled from a radial artery, a subcutaneous abdominal vein, and a deep forearm vein. Adipose tissue and forearm blood flow were measured with 133Xe and plethysmography, respectively, and body fat mass was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. During glucose infusion, glucose concentration increased from 86 +/- 2 to 228 +/- 13 mg/dl and insulin concentration increased from 6.6 +/- 0.6 to 35.0 +/- 3.9 mU/liter, both P < 0.001. Systemic phenylalanine appearance decreased from 40.3 +/- 1.9 to 37.0 +/- 1.6 mumol/min during glucose infusion (P < 0.05). Baseline whole body adipose tissue phenylalanine release (5.2 +/- 1.4 mumol/min) was approximately 12% of systemic phenylalanine appearance and decreased (P < 0.05) to 2.3 +/- 0.9 mumol/min during glucose infusion. In contrast, phenylalanine release from the forearm did not change during glucose infusion. These results indicate that adipose tissue is a small but significant contributor to systemic phenylalanine appearance. Phenylalanine release from adipose tissue like lipolysis, is relatively sensitive to hyperinsulinemia.
S W Coppack, M Persson, J M Miles
Bisphosphonates are used with increasing frequency in the management of skeletal complications in patients with breast cancer. In this paper, we have investigated whether bisphosphonates, besides their known beneficial effects on tumor-associated osteoclastic resorption, are capable of inhibiting breast cancer cell adhesion to bone matrix. For that we used two in vitro models for bone matrix (cortical bone slices and cryostat sections of trabecular bone from neonatal mouse tails). Four bone matrix-bound nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (pamidronate, olpadronate, alendronate, and ibandronate) inhibited adhesion and spreading of breast cancer cells to bone dose-dependently, whereas etidronate and clodronate had little or no effect. Strikingly, the relative order of potency of the bisphosphonates in inhibiting the adhesion of cancer cells to cortical and trabecular bone corresponded to their relative antiresorptive potencies in vivo as well as their ranking in in vitro bone resorption assays with predictive value for their clinical efficacy. It appears that nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates alter selectively the adhesive properties of the extracellular bone matrix preventing the attachment of breast cancer cells to it. Besides the beneficial effects of bisphosphonates on tumor-induced osteoclastic resorption, the previously unrecognized effect presented in this paper makes these agents suitable for earlier pharmacologic intervention in patients with breast cancer at risk of developing bone metastases.
G van der Pluijm, H Vloedgraven, E van Beek, L van der Wee-Pals, C Löwik, S Papapoulos
The anti-viral T cell response is believed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus infection. Since chronic evolution occurs in > 50% of HCV infections, the sequential analysis of the T cell response from the early clinical stages of disease may contribute to define the features of the T cell response associated with recovery or chronic viral persistence. For this purpose, 21 subjects with acute hepatitis C virus infection were sequentially followed for an average time of 44 wk. Twelve patients normalized transaminase values that remained normal throughout the follow-up period; all but two cleared hepatitis C virus-RNA from serum. The remaining nine patients showed persistent viremia and elevated transaminases. Analysis of the peripheral blood T cell proliferative response to core, E1, E2, NS3, NS4, and NS5 recombinant antigens and synthetic peptides showed that responses to all hepatitis C virus antigens, except E1, were significantly more vigorous and more frequently detectable in patients who normalized transaminase levels than in those who did not. By sequential evaluation of the T cell response, a difference between the two groups of patients was already detectable at the very early stages of acute infection and then maintained throughout the follow-up period. The results suggest that the vigor of the T cell response during the early stages of infection may be a critical determinant of disease resolution and control of infection.
G Missale, R Bertoni, V Lamonaca, A Valli, M Massari, C Mori, M G Rumi, M Houghton, F Fiaccadori, C Ferrari
CD8+ cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are important mediators for resistance to infections and malignant diseases. IL-12 enhances proliferative and cytolytic responses by killer cells, but its function in the generation of human antiviral CD8+ T cell responses has not been defined. We therefore evaluated the role of IL-12 in the generation of CTLs to influenza-infected dendritic cells. IL-12 was not detectable in supernatants of infected-dendritic cells, or during CTL generation. Furthermore, anti-IL-12 antibody did not block CTL generation. However, exogenous IL-12 (30-300 pg/ml) enhanced CD8+ T cell proliferative and cytolytic responses. The effect was greatest in individuals with weak reactivity to influenza virus or at antigen-presenting cell (APC):T cell ratios of 1:100 or less. IL-12 augmented interferon-gamma production during CTL generation. The CTL enhancing effects of the cytokine, however, could not be blocked by neutralizing anti-interferon-gamma antibody. Together with IL-12, antigen-pulsed dendritic cells may be a useful approach for boosting CTL responses against infectious agents and malignancies.
N Bhardwaj, R A Seder, A Reddy, M V Feldman
Na-K-Cl cotransport plays an important role in the kidney in NaCl reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of Henle and a less well defined role in the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD). Two Na-K-Cl cotransporters encoded by different genes have been identified in the mammalian kidney: BSC1/NKCC2 which localizes to the apical thick ascending limb of Henle and BSC2/NKCC1 which was isolated from a mouse IMCD cell line (mIMCD-3) but its localization has not been determined. In this study we generated a polyclonal antibody (anti-mBSC2) against the mouse BSC2/NKCC1 protein in order to characterize and localize this protein in mouse kidney. Western blot analysis with affinity-purified anti-mBSC2 showed a protein doublet of 140 and 150 kD which was most abundant in the renal papilla but also seen in cortex and outer medulla. The 140-150-kD bands were not seen with preimmune serum or with anti-mBSC2 preabsorbed with specific antigen. Immunolocalization confirmed expression of mBSC2 protein on the basolateral surface of terminal IMCD segments and demonstrated expression in the papillary surface epithelium. Immunofluorescence also revealed the unexpected presence of the BSC2 protein at the juxtaglomerular afferent arteriole, in a juxtaglomerular structure probably representing the extraglomerular mesangium, and throughout the glomerular mesangium.
M R Kaplan, M D Plotkin, D Brown, S C Hebert, E Delpire
To investigate the association of antigen specific CD4 T cell activation with HIV disease progression and AIDS-related central nervous system damage, T cell proliferation responses to HIV, CMV, and HSV were evaluated in infected individuals. CD4 T cell loss and neurocognitive impairment were assessed at 6-mo intervals. Individuals with known times of seroconversion who responded to more HIV peptides were at greater risk of progressing to < 200 CD4 T cells (P = 0.04) and dying (P = 0.03) than those with responses to fewer peptides. A positive correlation (0.52) was seen between the breadth of the HIV proliferation response and HIV plasma RNA levels. Higher proliferation responses to CMV and HSV were also associated with more rapid CD4 loss (P = 0.05). HLA phenotyped individuals (n = 150) with two HLA-DR alleles associated with response to more HIV peptides and CMV (DR-2,5,w6,10) were less likely to develop neurocognitive (P = 0.002) and neurologic impairment (P = 0.04), but were not protected from CD4 loss and death. Thus, the ability to generate a greater T cell proliferation response to HIV and opportunistic herpes viruses may lead to resistance to central nervous system damage, but also risk of more rapid HIV disease progression.
R D Schrier, C A Wiley, C Spina, J A McCutchan, I Grant
Suppression of hepatic glucose output (HGO) has been shown to be primarily mediated by peripheral rather than portal insulin concentrations; however, the mechanism by which peripheral insulin suppresses HGO has not yet been determined. Previous findings by our group indicated a strong correlation between free fatty acids (FFA) and HGO, suggesting that insulin suppression of HGO is mediated via suppression of lipolysis. To directly test the hypothesis that insulin suppression of HGO is causally linked to the suppression of adipose tissue lipolysis, we performed euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic glucose clamps in conscious dogs (n = 8) in which FFA were either allowed to fall or were prevented from falling with Liposyn plus heparin infusion (LI; 0.5 ml/min 20% Liposyn plus 25 U/min heparin with a 250 U prime). Endogenous insulin and glucagon were suppressed with somatostatin (1 microgram/min/kg), and insulin was infused at a rate of either 0.125 or 0.5 mU/min/kg. Two additional experiments were performed at the 0.5 mU/min/kg insulin dose: a double Liposyn infusion (2 x LI; 1.0 ml/min 20% Liposyn, heparin as above), and a glycerol infusion (19 mg/min). With the 0.125 mU/min/kg insulin infusion, FFA fell 40% and HGO fell 33%; preventing the fall in FFA with LI entirely prevented this decline in HGO. With 0.5 mU/min/kg insulin infusion, FFA levels fell 64% while HGO declined 62%. Preventing the fall in FFA at this higher insulin dose largely prevented the fall in HGO; however, steady state HGO still declined by 18%. Doubling the LI infusion did not further affect HGO, suggesting that the effect of FFA on HGO is saturable. Elevating plasma glycerol levels did not alter insulin's ability to suppress HGO. These data directly support the concept that insulin suppression of HGO is not direct, but rather is mediated via insulin suppression of adipose tissue lipolysis. Thus, resistance to insulin control of hepatic glucose production in obesity and/or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus may reflect resistance of the adipocyte to insulin suppression of lipolysis.
K Rebrin, G M Steil, S D Mittelman, R N Bergman
The nature of brain edema in dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS) was investigated by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI). DWI was performed on normal or bilaterally nephrectomized rats before, and immediately after, hemodialysis. Hemodialysis was performed with a custom-made dialyzer (surface area 150 cm2) against a bicarbonate-buffered bath for 90 min with or without 70 mM urea. Hemodialysis with non-urea bath decreased plasma urea by 21 mM, and plasma osmolality by 22 mosmol/kg H2O, and increased brain water content by 8.0% (all < 0.05), while hemodialysis with urea bath did not affect plasma urea, osmolality, or brain water content. Three sets of axial DWI images of the brain were obtained at different gradient weighing factors with an in-plane resolution of 0.39 mm2. The apparent diffusion coefficient (Dapp) of the brain water was not affected by bilateral nephrectomy, or by hemodialysis in normal rats. In nephrectomized rats, brain Dapp was significantly increased after dialysis with non-urea bath (1.15 +/- 0.08 vs 0.89 +/- 0.07 x 10(-9)m2/sec, P < 0.01). No significant changes of brain water Dapp could be observed after dialysis with urea bath. The increased Dapp associated with DDS indicates that brain extracellular water increases and/or intracellular water decreases after hemodialysis. Our results strongly suggest that the brain edema induced by hemodialysis in uremic rats is due to interstitial edema rather than cytotoxic edema. Furthermore, our results support a primary role for the "reverse urea effect" in the pathogenesis of brain edema in DDS.DWI may be a useful diagnostic tool for DDS in patients with end-stage renal disease.
J P Galons, T Trouard, A F Gmitro, Y H Lien
Low levels of alpha tocopherol are related to a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease and increased intake appears to afford protection against cardiovascular disease. In addition to decreasing LDL oxidation, alpha tocopherol may exert intracellular effects on cells crucial in atherogenesis, such as monocytes. Hence, the aim of this study was to test the effect of alpha tocopherol supplementation on monocyte function relevant to atherogenesis. Monocyte function was assessed in 21 healthy subjects at baseline, after 8 wk of supplementation with d-alpha tocopherol (1,200 IU/d) and after a 6-wk washout phase. The release of reactive oxygen species (superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide), lipid oxidation, release of the potentially atherogenic cytokine, interleukin 1 beta, and monocyte-endothelial adhesion were studied in the resting state and after activation of the monocytes with lipopolysaccharide at 0, 8, and 14 wk. There was a 2.5-fold increase in plasma lipid-standardized and monocyte alpha tocopherol levels in the supplemented phase. After alpha tocopherol supplementation, there were significant decreases in release of reactive oxygen species, lipid oxidation, IL-1 beta secretion, and monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion, both in resting and activated cells compared with baseline and washout phases. Studies with the protein kinase C inhibitor, Calphostin C, suggest that the inhibition of reactive oxygen species release and lipid oxidation is due to an inhibition of protein kinase C activity by alpha tocopherol. Thus, this study provides novel evidence for an intracellular effect of alpha tocopherol in monocytes that is antiatherogenic.
S Devaraj, D Li, I Jialal
Post-rest contractile behavior of isolated myocardium indicates the capacity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) to store and release Ca2+. We investigated post-rest behavior in isolated muscle strips from nonfailing (NF) and endstage failing (dilated cardiomyopathy [DCM]) human hearts. At a basal stimulation frequency of 1 Hz, contractile parameters of the first twitch after increasing rest intervals (2-240 s) were evaluated. In NF (n = 9), steady state twitch tension was 13.7 +/- 1.8 mN/mm2. With increasing rest intervals, post-rest twitch tension continuously increased to maximally 29.9 +/- 4.1 mN/mm2 after 120s (P < 0.05) and to 26.7 +/- 4.5 mN after 240 s rest. In DCM (n = 22), basal twitch tension was 10.0 +/- 1.5 mN/mm2 and increased to maximally 13.6 +/- 2.2 mN/mm2 after 20 s rest (P < 0.05). With longer rest intervals, however, post-rest twitch tension continuously declined (rest decay) to 4.7 +/- 1.0 mN/mm2 at 240 s (P < 0.05). The rest-dependent changes in twitch tension were associated with parallel changes in intracellular Ca2- transients in NF and DCM (aequorin method). The relation between rest-induced changes in twitch tension and aequorin light emission was similar in NF and DCM, indicating preserved Ca(2-)-responsiveness of the myofilaments. Ryanodine (1 microM) completely abolished post-rest potentiation. Increasing basal stimulation frequency (2 Hz) augmented post-rest potentiation, but did not prevent rest decay after longer rest intervals in DCM. The altered post-rest behavior in failing human myocardium indicates disturbed intracellular Ca2- handling involving altered function of the SR.
B Pieske, M Sütterlin, S Schmidt-Schweda, K Minami, M Meyer, M Olschewski, C Holubarsch, H Just, G Hasenfuss
Uterine leiomyomas are a major health problem for women of reproductive age. The molecular biology of these tumors is poorly understood partly because of the lack of relevant animal models. We have produced transgenic mice expressing the simian virus 40 T antigen driven by the promoter of the Calbindin-D9K (CaBP9K) gene and either -1,000 or -117 bp of regulatory sequences so as to establish in vivo, uterine smooth muscle tumor models. Six transgenic mouse lines were obtained. Leiomyomas developed in all of them, with an almost complete penetrance of the phenotype. The smooth muscle tumors arose in different parts of the female reproductive tract. Leiomyomas usually developed in the corpus of the uterus, but one mouse line developed leiomyomas in the horn of the uterus, and another in the vagina. The CaBP9K regulatory sequences directing the expression of the Tag gene possess an estradiol responsive element, and accordingly, development of the tumors was strictly under the control of estrogen. Expression of the Tag gene is not only necessary for the initiation of the tumor but also for its development and maintenance. These transgenic mouse models should be useful for studying the pathobiology of uterine leiomyomas and could be instrumental in designing new therapeutic approaches to this disease.
B Romagnolo, T Molina, G Leroy, C Blin, A Porteux, M Thomasset, A Vandewalle, A Kahn, C Perret
The mechanism that may cause degenerative fibrotic skin lesions was studied in situ using skin biopsies from patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), localized scleroderma, or keloids, and at the initial disease stage in the University of California at Davis (UCD) lines 200/206 chickens, which develop a hereditary systemic connective tissue disease resembling human SSc and permit study of disease stages not accessible in humans. Frozen skin sections were analyzed simultaneously for apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated FITC-dUTP nick end labeling and indirect immunofluorescence staining of cell markers with tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate conjugates. The results showed that endothelial cells are clearly the first cells to undergo apoptosis in the skin of UCD-200/206 chickens, a process that seems to be induced by anti-endothelial cell antibodies. In human fibrotic skin diseases, apoptotic endothelial cells could only be detected in early inflammatory disease stages of SSc and localized scleroderma.
R Sgonc, M S Gruschwitz, H Dietrich, H Recheis, M E Gershwin, G Wick
Pain treatment with centrally acting opiates is limited by tolerance. Tolerance is a decreasing effect of a drug with prolonged administration of that drug or of a related (e.g., endogenous) compound acting at the same receptor. This is often associated with a downregulation of receptors. In peripheral inflamed tissue, both locally expressed opioid peptides and morphine can produce powerful analgesia mediated by similar populations of opioid receptors. We hypothesized that the chronic presence of endogenous opioids in inflamed joints might convey downregulation of peripheral opioid receptors and tolerance to the analgesic effects of intraarticular morphine. We assessed these effects after arthroscopic surgery in patients with and without histologically verified synovial cellular infiltration, and we examined synovial opioid peptides and opioid receptors by immunocytochemistry and autoradiography, respectively. We found that, despite an abundance of opioid-containing cells in pronounced synovitis, morphine is at least as effective as in patients without such cellular infiltrations, and there is no major downregulation of peripheral opioid receptors. Thus, opioids expressed in inflamed tissue do not produce tolerance to peripheral morphine analgesia. Tolerance may be less pronounced for peripherally than for centrally acting opioids, which provides a promising perspective for the treatment of chronic pain in arthritis and other inflammatory conditions.
C Stein, M Pflüger, A Yassouridis, J Hoelzl, K Lehrberger, C Welte, A H Hassan
Many reactive products may be formed when LDL undergoes lipid peroxidation, which in turn can react with lipids, apoproteins, and proteins, generating immunogenic neoepitopes. Autoantibodies recognizing model epitopes of oxidized low density lipoprotein, such as malondialdehydelysine, occur in plasma and in atherosclerotic lesions of humans and animals. Because apo E-deficient mice develop particularly high titers of such autoantibodies, we used their spleens to clone 13 monoclonal antibodies to various epitopes of oxidized LDL ("E0 antibodies"). Binding and competitive RIAs demonstrated significant differences in fine specificity even between E0 antibodies initially selected for binding to the same screening antigen. For example, some E0 antibodies selected for binding to malondialdehyde-LDL also recognized copper oxidized LDL, acrolein-LDL, or LDL modified by arachidonic or linoleic acid oxidation products. Circulating IgG and IgM autoantibodies binding to copper-oxidized LDL, 4-hydroxynonenal-LDL, acrolein-LDL, and LDL modified with arachidonic or linoleic acid oxidation products were found in apo E-deficient mice, suggesting that the respective antigens are formed in vivo. Epitopes recognized by some of the E0 monoclonal antibodies were also found on human circulating LDL. Each of the E0 monoclonal antibodies immunostained rabbit and human atherosclerotic lesions, and some of them yielded distinct staining patterns in advanced lesions. Together, this suggests that the natural monoclonal antibodies recognize different epitopes of complex structures formed during oxidation of lipoproteins, or epitopes formed independently at different lesion sites. Our data demonstrate that a profound immunological response to a large number of different epitopes of oxidized lipoproteins occurs in vivo. The availability of "natural" monoclonal autoantibodies should facilitate the identification of specific epitopes inducing this response.
W Palinski, S Hörkkö, E Miller, U P Steinbrecher, H C Powell, L K Curtiss, J L Witztum
The optimal clinical management of patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is uncertain because of a lack of an underlying hypothesis to explain why antiphospholipid autoantibodies (aPL) form to such ubiquitous compounds as phospholipids (PL). In this paper, we demonstrate that many, if not most, aPL are actually directed at neoepitopes of oxidized PL, or neoepitopes generated by adduct formation between breakdown products of oxidized PL and associated proteins. Each cardiolipin (CL) molecule contains four unsaturated fatty acids and is highly susceptible to oxidation, particularly upon exposure to air. Yet, standard anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) immunoassays routinely bind CL to microtiter wells by evaporation of the ethanol solvent overnight at 4 degrees C. Using a variety of techniques, we demonstrated that rapid oxidation occurs when CL is plated and exposed to air. Sera from apo E-deficient mice, which have high autoantibody titers to oxidized low density lipoprotein, showed a striking time-dependent increase in binding to CL that was exposed to air for increasing periods of time. Monoclonal antibodies to oxidized LDL, cloned from the apo E-deficient mice, also bound to oxidized CL. Both sera and affinity-purified aCL-IgG from APS patients bound to CL progressively as it was oxidized. However, the monoclonal antibodies from apo E-deficient mice, or sera or aCL-IgG from APS patients did not bind to a reduced CL analog that was unable to undergo peroxidation. These data demonstrate that many aPL are directed at neoepitopes of oxidized phospholipids, and suggest that oxidative events may be important in the pathophysiology of APS. In turn, this suggests new therapeutic strategies, possibly including intensive antioxidant therapy.
S Hörkkö, E Miller, E Dudl, P Reaven, L K Curtiss, N J Zvaifler, R Terkeltaub, S S Pierangeli, D W Branch, W Palinski, J L Witztum
The specificity of T cell help for B cell activation and differentiation is maintained by the brief expression on the T cell surface, following T cell receptor-mediated triggering, of CD40 ligand (CD40L). Interaction of T helper (Th) cell CD40L with B cell CD40 induces B cell activation, cell surface expression of activation antigens, proliferation, and initiation of immunoglobulin isotype switch. We predicted that in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), in whom Th cell-dependent production of autoantibodies results in immune complex-mediated tissue damage, CD40L expression might be augmented, prolonged, or abnormally regulated. Baseline expression of CD40L was increased in some SLE patients studied, when compared with control subjects. While Th cells from normal subjects (n = 14) and rheumatic disease control patients (n = 9) showed maximal expression of CD40L, after in vitro activation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin, at 6 h of culture with diminished levels observed at 24 and 48 h, Th cells from SLE patients (n = 19) maintained high level cell surface expression of CD40L through 24 and 48 h of culture. The prolonged expression of CD40L was functionally significant, as 24 h-activated SLE T cells, when cocultured with target B cells, induced greater B cell surface CD80 (B7-1) expression than did 24 h-activated normal T cells. These results document impaired regulation of CD40L expression in SLE T cells and identify an important potential target for therapy in this systemic autoimmune disease.
M Koshy, D Berger, M K Crow
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) produced by aortic valve plication leads to increased myocardial cyclic GMP. We tested whether this was a result of increased soluble guanylate cyclase activity or nitric oxide (NO) synthase and its functional consequences. We used the nitric oxide donor 3-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1) or the NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in 12 control and 12 LVH anesthetized open-chest mongrel dogs. L-NAME (6 mg/kg) or SIN-1 (1 microgram/kg per min) was infused into the left anterior descending coronary artery and regional segment work and cyclic GMP levels were determined. In vitro myocardial guanylate cyclase sensitivity (0.43 +/- 0.04 to 0.28 +/- 0.04 mM [EC50]) and maximal activity (10.1 +/- 2.9 to 25.5 +/- 6.5 pmol/mg protein per min) were significantly increased in LVH as compared with control animals in response to nitroprusside stimulation, but cyclic GMP-phosphodiesterase activity was similar. In LVH dogs, basal cyclic GMP was significantly elevated in vivo when compared with controls. Treatment of dogs with SIN-1 resulted in a significant increase in cyclic GMP in control (1.09 +/- 0.12 to 1.48 +/- 0.19 pmol/gram) and a greater increase in the LVH group (1.78 +/- 0.16 to 3.58 +/- 0.71 pmol/g). L-NAME had no effect on myocardial cyclic GMP levels in control or LVH dogs. Segment work decreased in the control group after SIN-1 (1,573 +/- 290 to 855 +/- 211 grams x mm/min). LVH dogs showed no decrement in work as a result of treatment with SIN-1. L-NAME did not cause significant changes in myocardial cyclic GMP, O2 consumption, or work in either control or LVH dogs, but vascular effects were evident. SIN-1 increased cyclic GMP, and with greater effect on LVH; however, this resulted in a decrement in function only in the control group. The greater increased cyclic GMP in LVH dogs is not related to increased NO production, but is related to significantly higher sensitivity and maximal activity of soluble myocardial guanylate cyclase.
J D Sadoff, P M Scholz, J Tse, H R Weiss
We have generated transgenic mice over-expressing human apolipoprotein CI (apo CI) using the native gene joined to the downstream 154-bp liver-specific enhancer that we defined for apo E. Human apo CI (HuCI)-transgenic mice showed elevation of plasma triglycerides (mg/dl) compared to controls in both the fasted (211 +/- 81 vs 123 +/- 52, P = 0.0001) and fed (265 +/- 105 vs 146 +/- 68, P < 0.0001) states. Unlike the human apo CII (HuCII)- and apo CIII (HuCIII)-transgenic mouse models of hypertriglyceridemia, plasma cholesterol was disproportionately elevated (95 +/- 23 vs 73 +/- 23, P = 0.002, fasted and 90 +/- 24 vs 61 +/- 14, P < 0.0001, fed). Lipoprotein fractionation showed increased VLDL and IDL + LDL with an increased cholesterol/triglyceride ratio (0.114 vs 0.065, P = 0.02, in VLDL). The VLDL apo E/apo B ratio was decreased 3.4-fold (P = 0.05) and apo CII and apo CIII decreased in proportion to apo E. Triglyceride and apo B production rates were normal, but clearance rates of VLDL triglycerides and postlipolysis lipoprotein "remnants" were significantly slowed. Plasma apo B was significantly elevated. Unlike HuCII- and HuCIII-transgenic mice, VLDL from HuCI transgenic mice bound heparin-Sepharose, a model for cell-surface glycosaminoglycans, normally. In summary, apo CI overexpression is associated with decreased particulate uptake of apo B-containing lipoproteins, leading to increased levels of several potentially atherogenic species, including cholesterol-enriched VLDL, IDL, and LDL.
N S Shachter, T Ebara, R Ramakrishnan, G Steiner, J L Breslow, H N Ginsberg, J D Smith
The frequent coincidence of hypertension and dyslipidemia suggests that related genetic factors might underlie these common risk factors for cardiovascular disease. To investigate whether quantitative trait loci (QTLs) regulating lipid levels map to chromosomes known to contain genes regulating blood pressure, we used a genome scanning approach to map QTLs influencing cholesterol and phospholipid phenotypes in a large set of recombinant inbred strains and in congenic strains derived from the spontaneously hypertensive rat and normotensive Brown-Norway (BN.Lx) rat fed normal and high cholesterol diets. QTLs regulating lipid phenotypes were mapped by scanning the genome with 534 genetic markers. A significant relationship (P < 0.00006) was found between basal HDL2 cholesterol levels and the D19Mit2 marker on chromosome 19. Analysis of congenic strains of spontaneously hypertensive rat indicated that QTLs regulating postdietary lipid phenotypes exist also on chromosomes 8 and 20. Previous studies in the recombinant inbred and congenic strains have demonstrated the presence of blood pressure regulatory genes in corresponding segments of chromosomes 8, 19, and 20. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that blood pressure and certain lipid subfractions can be modulated by linked genes or perhaps even the same genes.
A Bottger, H A van Lith, V Kren, D Krenová, V Bílá, J Vorlícek, V Zídek, A Musilová, M Zdobinská, J M Wang, B F van Zutphen, T W Kurtz, M Pravenec
The murine/human chimeric monoclonal antibody fragment (c7E3 Fab) blocks GPIIb/IIIa and alpha v beta 3 receptors, inhibits platelet aggregation, and decreases the frequency of ischemic events after coronary artery angioplasty in patients at high risk of suffering such events. Although inhibition of platelet aggregation is likely to be the major mechanism of c7E3 Fab's effects, since activated platelets facilitate thrombin generation, it is possible that c7E3 Fab also decreases thrombin generation. To test this hypothesis, the effects of c7E3 Fab and other antiplatelet agents were tested in a thrombin generation assay triggered by tissue factor. c7E3 Fab produced dose-dependent inhibition of thrombin generation, reaching a plateau of 45-50% inhibition at concentrations > or = 15 micrograms/ml. It also inhibited thrombin-antithrombin complex formation, prothrombin fragment F1-2 generation, platelet-derived growth factor and platelet factor 4 release, incorporation of thrombin into clots, and microparticle formation. Antibody 6D1, which blocks platelet GPIb binding of von Willebrand factor, had no effect on thrombin generation, whereas antibody 10E5, which blocks GPIIb/IIIa but not alpha v beta 3 receptors decreased thrombin generation by approximately 25%. Combining antibody LM609, which blocks alpha v beta 3 receptors, with 10E5 increased the inhibition of thrombin generation to approximately 32-41%. The platelets from three patients with Glanzmann thrombasthenia, who lacked GPIIb/IIIa receptors but had normal or increased alpha v beta 3 receptors, supported approximately 21% less thrombin generation than normal platelets. We conclude that thrombin generation initiated by tissue factor in the presence of platelets is significantly inhibited by c7E3 Fab, most likely in part through both GPIIb/IIIa and alpha v beta 3 blockade, and that this effect may contribute to its antithrombotic properties.
J C Reverter, S Béguin, H Kessels, R Kumar, H C Hemker, B S Coller