The murine/human chimeric monoclonal antibody fragment (c7E3 Fab) blocks GPIIb/IIIa and alpha v beta 3 receptors, inhibits platelet aggregation, and decreases the frequency of ischemic events after coronary artery angioplasty in patients at high risk of suffering such events. Although inhibition of platelet aggregation is likely to be the major mechanism of c7E3 Fab's effects, since activated platelets facilitate thrombin generation, it is possible that c7E3 Fab also decreases thrombin generation. To test this hypothesis, the effects of c7E3 Fab and other antiplatelet agents were tested in a thrombin generation assay triggered by tissue factor. c7E3 Fab produced dose-dependent inhibition of thrombin generation, reaching a plateau of 45-50% inhibition at concentrations > or = 15 micrograms/ml. It also inhibited thrombin-antithrombin complex formation, prothrombin fragment F1-2 generation, platelet-derived growth factor and platelet factor 4 release, incorporation of thrombin into clots, and microparticle formation. Antibody 6D1, which blocks platelet GPIb binding of von Willebrand factor, had no effect on thrombin generation, whereas antibody 10E5, which blocks GPIIb/IIIa but not alpha v beta 3 receptors decreased thrombin generation by approximately 25%. Combining antibody LM609, which blocks alpha v beta 3 receptors, with 10E5 increased the inhibition of thrombin generation to approximately 32-41%. The platelets from three patients with Glanzmann thrombasthenia, who lacked GPIIb/IIIa receptors but had normal or increased alpha v beta 3 receptors, supported approximately 21% less thrombin generation than normal platelets. We conclude that thrombin generation initiated by tissue factor in the presence of platelets is significantly inhibited by c7E3 Fab, most likely in part through both GPIIb/IIIa and alpha v beta 3 blockade, and that this effect may contribute to its antithrombotic properties.
J C Reverter, S Béguin, H Kessels, R Kumar, H C Hemker, B S Coller