Various conventional chemotherapeutic drugs can block angiogenesis or even kill activated, dividing endothelial cells. Such effects may contribute to the antitumor efficacy of chemotherapy in vivo and may delay or prevent the acquisition of drug-resistance by cancer cells. We have implemented a treatment regimen that augments the potential antivascular effects of chemotherapy, that is devoid of obvious toxic side effects, and that obstructs the development of drug resistance by tumor cells. Xenografts of 2 independent neuroblastoma cell lines were subjected to either continuous treatment with low doses of vinblastine, a monoclonal neutralizing antibody (DC101) targeting the flk-1/KDR (type 2) receptor for VEGF, or both agents together. The rationale for this combination was that any antivascular effects of the low-dose chemotherapy would be selectively enhanced in cells of newly formed vessels when survival signals mediated by VEGF are blocked. Both DC101 and low-dose vinblastine treatment individually resulted in significant but transient xenograft regression, diminished tumor vascularity, and direct inhibition of angiogenesis. Remarkably, the combination therapy resulted in full and sustained regressions of large established tumors, without an ensuing increase in host toxicity or any signs of acquired drug resistance during the course of treatment, which lasted for >6 months.
Giannoula Klement, Sylvain Baruchel, Janusz Rak, Shan Man, Katherine Clark, Daniel J. Hicklin, Peter Bohlen, Robert S. Kerbel
Macrophage scavenger receptors have been implicated as key players in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. To assess the role of the class B scavenger receptor CD36 in atherogenesis, we crossed a CD36-null strain with the atherogenic apo E–null strain and quantified lesion development. There was a 76.5% decrease in aortic tree lesion area (Western diet) and a 45% decrease in aortic sinus lesion area (normal chow) in the CD36-apo E double-null mice when compared with controls, despite alterations in lipoprotein profiles that often correlate with increased atherogenicity. Macrophages derived from CD36-apo E double-null mice bound and internalized more than 60% less copper-oxidized LDL and LDL modified by monocyte-generated reactive nitrogen species. A similar inhibition of in vitro lipid accumulation and foam cell formation after exposure to these ligands was seen. These results support a major role for CD36 in atherosclerotic lesion development in vivo and suggest that blockade of CD36 can be protective even in more extreme proatherogenic circumstances.
Maria Febbraio, Eugene A. Podrez, Jonathan D. Smith, David P. Hajjar, Stanley L. Hazen, Henry F. Hoff, Kavita Sharma, Roy L. Silverstein
Recent observations suggest that immune response is involved in the development of pancreatitis. However, the exact pathogenesis underlying this immune-mediated response is still under debate. TGF-β has been known to be an important regulating factor in maintaining immune homeostasis. To determine the role of TGF-β in the initiation or progression of pancreatitis, TGF-β signaling was inactivated in mouse pancreata by overexpressing a dominant-negative mutant form of TGF-β type II receptor in the pancreas, under control of the pS2 mouse trefoil peptide promoter. Transgenic mice showed marked increases in MHC class II molecules and matrix metalloproteinase expression in pancreatic acinar cells. These mice also showed increased susceptibility to cerulein-induced pancreatitis. This pancreatitis was characterized by severe pancreatic edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, T- and B-cell hyperactivation, IgG-type autoantibodies against pancreatic acinar cells, and IgM-type autoantibodies against pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. Therefore, TGF-β signaling seems to be essential either in maintaining the normal immune homeostasis and suppressing autoimmunity or in preserving the integrity of pancreatic acinar cells.
Ki-Baik Hahm, Young-Hyuck Im, Cecile Lee, W. Tony Parks, Yung-Jue Bang, Jeffrey E. Green, Seong-Jin Kim
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and alcoholic liver disease have similar pathological features. Because CYP2E1 plays a key role in alcoholic liver disease with its ability to stimulate lipid peroxidation, we tested the proposal that CYP2E1 could also be a factor in the development of NASH. In a dietary model — mice fed a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet — liver injury was associated with both induction of CYP2E1 and a 100-fold increase in hepatic content of lipid peroxides. Microsomal NADPH-dependent lipid oxidases contributed to the formation of these lipid peroxides, and in vitro inhibition studies demonstrated that CYP2E1 was the major catalyst. To further define the role of CYP2E1 as an initiator of oxidative stress in NASH, Cyp2e1–/–mice were administered the MCD diet. CYP2E1 deficiency neither prevented the development of NASH nor abrogated the increased microsomal NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation, indicating the operation of a non-CYP2E1 peroxidase pathway. In Cyp2e1–/– mice with NASH (but not in wild-type mice), CYP4A10 and CYP4A14 were upregulated. Furthermore, hepatic microsomal lipid peroxidation was substantially inhibited by anti-mouse CYP4A10 antibody in vitro. These results show that experimental NASH is strongly associated with hepatic microsomal lipid peroxidation. CYP2E1, the main enzyme associated with that process in wild-type mice, is not unique among P450 proteins in catalyzing peroxidation of endogenous lipids. We have now identified CYP4A enzymes as alternative initiators of oxidative stress in the liver.
Isabelle A. Leclercq, Geoffrey C. Farrell, Jaqueline Field, David R. Bell, Frank J. Gonzalez, Graham R. Robertson
Heart failure leads to marked suppression of the Ca2+-independent transient outward current (Ito1), but it is not clear whether Ito1 downregulation suffices to explain the concomitant action potential prolongation. To investigate the role of Ito1 in cardiac repolarization while circumventing culture-related action potential alterations, we injected adenovirus vectors in vivo to overexpress or to suppress Ito1 in guinea pigs and rats, respectively. Myocytes were isolated 72 hours after intramyocardial injection and stimulation of the ecdysone-inducible vectors with intraperitoneal injection of an ecdysone analog. Kv4.3-infected guinea pig myocytes exhibited robust transient outward currents. Increasing density of Ito1 progressively depressed the plateau potential in Kv4.3-infected guinea pig myocytes and abbreviated action potential duration (APD). In vivo infection with a dominant-negative Kv4.3-W362F construct suppressed peak Ito1 in rat ventriculocytes, elevated the plateau height, significantly prolonged the APD, and resulted in a prolongation by about 30% of the QT interval in surface electrocardiogram recordings. These results indicate that Ito1 plays a crucial role in setting the plateau potential and overall APD, supporting a causative role for suppression of this current in the electrophysiological alterations of heart failure. The electrocardiographic findings indicate that somatic gene transfer can be used to create gene-specific animal models of the long QT syndrome.
Uta C. Hoppe, Eduardo Marbán, David C. Johns
Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), an important modulator of cartilage and bone growth and differentiation, is expressed and regulated in osteoblastic cells. To investigate the role of FGF-2 in bone, we examined mice with a disruption of the Fgf2 gene. Measurement of trabecular bone architecture of the femoral metaphysis of Fgf2+/+ and Fgf2–/– adult mice by micro-CT revealed that the platelike trabecular structures were markedly reduced and many of the connecting rods of trabecular bone were lost in the Fgf2–/– mice. Dynamic histomorphometry confirmed a significant decrease in trabecular bone volume, mineral apposition, and bone formation rates. In addition, there was a profound decreased mineralization of bone marrow stromal cultures from Fgf2–/– mice. This study provides strong evidence that FGF-2 helps determine bone mass as well as bone formation.
Aldemar Montero, Yosuke Okada, Masato Tomita, Masako Ito, Hiroshi Tsurukami, Toshitaka Nakamura, Thomas Doetschman, J. Douglas Coffin, Marja M. Hurley
The oxidative conversion of LDL into an atherogenic form is considered a pivotal event in the development of cardiovascular disease. Recent studies have identified reactive nitrogen species generated by monocytes by way of the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-nitrite (MPO-H2O2-NO2–) system as a novel mechanism for converting LDL into a high-uptake form (NO2-LDL) for macrophages. We now identify the scavenger receptor CD36 as the major receptor responsible for high-affinity and saturable cellular recognition of NO2-LDL by murine and human macrophages. Using cells stably transfected with CD36, CD36-specific blocking mAbs, and CD36-null macrophages, we demonstrated CD36-dependent binding, cholesterol loading, and macrophage foam cell formation after exposure to NO2-LDL. Modification of LDL by the MPO-H2O2-NO2– system in the presence of up to 80% lipoprotein-deficient serum (LPDS) still resulted in the conversion of the lipoprotein into a high-uptake form for macrophages, whereas addition of less than 5% LPDS totally blocked Cu2+-catalyzed LDL oxidation and conversion into a ligand for CD36. Competition studies demonstrated that lipid oxidation products derived from 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine can serve as essential moieties on NO2-LDL recognized by CD36. Collectively, these results suggest that MPO-dependent conversion of LDL into a ligand for CD36 is a likely pathway for generating foam cells in vivo. MPO secreted from activated phagocytes may also tag phospholipid-containing targets for removal by CD36-positive cells.
Eugene A. Podrez, Maria Febbraio, Nader Sheibani, David Schmitt, Roy L. Silverstein, David P. Hajjar, Peter A. Cohen, William A. Frazier, Henry F. Hoff, Stanley L. Hazen
The mechanisms of chronic disease and recovery from relapses in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis, are unknown. Deletion of myelin-specific lymphocytes by apoptosis may play a role in termination of the inflammatory response. One pathway of apoptosis is the passive cell death or “cell death by neglect” pathway, which is under the control of the Bcl family of genes. To investigate the role of passive cell death pathway in EAE, we used mice with transgenic expression of the long form of the bcl-x gene (Bcl-xL) targeted to the T-cell lineage. We found that mice transgenic for Bcl-xL have an earlier onset and a more chronic form of EAE induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide 35–55 compared with wild-type littermate mice. This was not due to an expanded autoreactive cell repertoire. Primed peripheral lymphocytes from Bcl-xL transgenic mice showed increased proliferation and cytokine production to MOG peptide in vitro compared with lymphocytes from wild-type animals. Immunohistologic studies demonstrated increased cellular infiltrates, immunoglobulin precipitation, and demyelination in the Bcl-xL transgenic central nervous system (CNS) compared with controls. There was also a decreased number of apoptotic cells in the CNS of Bcl-xL transgenic mice when compared with littermates at all time points tested. This is the first report of an autoimmune disease model in Bcl-xL transgenic mice. Our data indicate that the passive cell death pathway is important in the pathogenesis of chronic EAE. These findings have implications for understanding the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases.
Shohreh Issazadeh, Kald Abdallah, Tanuja Chitnis, Anil Chandraker, Andrew D. Wells, Laurence A. Turka, Mohamed H. Sayegh, Samia J. Khoury
Diabetes is associated with increased prevalence, severity, and progression of periodontal disease. To test the hypothesis that activation of RAGE (Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products) contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetes-associated periodontitis, we treated diabetic mice, infected with the human periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, with soluble RAGE (sRAGE). sRAGE is the extracellular domain of the receptor, which binds ligand and blocks interaction with, and activation of, cell-surface RAGE. Blockade of RAGE diminished alveolar bone loss in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, we noted decreased generation of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in gingival tissue, as well as decreased levels of matrix metalloproteinases. Gingival AGEs were also reduced in mice treated with sRAGE, paralleling the observed suppression in alveolar bone loss. These findings link RAGE and exaggerated inflammatory responses to the pathogenesis of destructive periodontal disease in diabetes.
Evanthia Lalla, Ira B. Lamster, Michael Feit, Linda Huang, Alexandra Spessot, Wu Qu, Thomas Kislinger, Yan Lu, David M. Stern, Ann Marie Schmidt
Neonatal injection of semiallogeneic spleen cells in BALB/c mice induces a self-limited state of chimerism that promotes the differentiation of donor-specific CD4 T cells toward the Th2 phenotype. Here we show that injection of spleen cells from β2-microglobulin–deficient (BALB/c × C57BL/6) F1 mice into BALB/c newborns with a disrupted β2-microglobulin (β2m) gene results in a lethal lymphoproliferative disorder associated with uncontrolled Th2 response, long-term persistence of donor B cells, and sustained blood eosinophilia. Autoimmune manifestations are also enhanced and characterized by a severe autoantibody-mediated glomerulonephritis. Histological examination of the spleen shows a hyperplasia of periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths, with accumulation of eosinophils and basophils, and variable degree of fibrosis. Perivascular lymphoid infiltrates with eosinophils are also found in the lung and are correlated with disease severity. Such abnormalities are almost absent using β2m-sufficient mice. These data demonstrate that induction of lymphoid chimerism in the absence of MHC class I–T-cell interactions results in a lethal form of host-versus-graft disease that represents a unique model of Th2-dependent chronic inflammatory disease associated with an hypereosinophilic syndrome in mice.
Jérôme D. Coudert, Gilles Foucras, Cécile Demur, Christiane Coureau, Catherine Mazerolles, Georges Delsol, Philippe Druet, Jean-Charles Guéry
Mutations in SCN5A, encoding the cardiac sodium (Na) channel, are linked to a form of the congenital long-QT syndrome (LQT3) that provokes lethal ventricular arrhythmias. These autosomal dominant mutations disrupt Na channel function, inhibiting channel inactivation, thereby causing a sustained ionic current that delays cardiac repolarization. Sodium channel–blocking antiarrhythmics, such as lidocaine, potently inhibit this pathologic Na current (INa) and are being evaluated in patients with LQT3. The mechanism underlying this effect is unknown, although high-affinity “block” of the open Na channel pore has been proposed. Here we report that a recently identified LQT3 mutation (R1623Q) imparts unusual lidocaine sensitivity to the Na channel that is attributable to its altered functional behavior. Studies of lidocaine on individual R1623Q single-channel openings indicate that the open-time distribution is not changed, indicating the drug does not block the open pore as proposed previously. Rather, the mutant channels have a propensity to inactivate without ever opening (“closed-state inactivation”), and lidocaine augments this gating behavior. An allosteric gating model incorporating closed-state inactivation recapitulates the effects of lidocaine on pathologic INa. These findings explain the unusual drug sensitivity of R1623Q and provide a general and unanticipated mechanism for understanding how Na channel–blocking agents may suppress the pathologic, sustained Na current induced by LQT3 mutations.
Nicholas G. Kambouris, H. Bradley Nuss, David C. Johns, Eduardo Marbán, Gordon F. Tomaselli, Jeffrey R. Balser
The proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) reabsorbs most of the filtered bicarbonate. Proton secretion is believed to be mediated predominantly by an apical membrane Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE). Several NHE isoforms have been cloned, but only NHE3 and NHE2 are known to be present on the apical membrane of the PCT. Here we examined apical membrane PCT sodium-dependent proton secretion of wild-type (NHE3+/+/NHE2+/+), NHE3–/–, NHE2–/–, and double-knockout NHE3–/–/NHE2–/– mice to determine their relative contribution to luminal proton secretion. NHE2–/– and wild-type mice had comparable rates of sodium-dependent proton secretion. Sodium-dependent proton secretion in NHE3–/– mice was approximately 50% that of wild-type mice. The residual sodium-dependent proton secretion was inhibited by 100 μM 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride (EIPA). Luminal sodium-dependent proton secretion was the same in NHE3–/–/NHE2–/– as in NHE3–/– mice. These data point to a previously unrecognized Na+-dependent EIPA-sensitive proton secretory mechanism in the proximal tubule that may play an important role in acid-base homeostasis.
Joo Young Choi, Mehul Shah, Min Goo Lee, Patrick J. Schultheis, Gary E. Shull, Shmuel Muallem, Michel Baum
Clostridium difficile toxin A causes acute neutrophil infiltration and intestinal mucosal injury. In cultured cells, toxin A inactivates Rho proteins by monoglucosylation. In monocytes, toxin A induces IL-8 production and necrosis by unknown mechanisms. We investigated the role of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in these events. In THP-1 monocytic cells, toxin A activated the 3 main MAP kinase cascades within 1 to 2 minutes. Activation of p38 was sustained, whereas stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase was transient. Rho glucosylation became evident after 15 minutes. IL-8 gene expression was reduced by 70% by the MEK inhibitor PD98059 and abrogated by the p38 inhibitor SB203580 or by overexpression of dominant-negative mutants of the p38-activating kinases MKK3 and MKK6. SB203580 also blocked monocyte necrosis and IL-1β release caused by toxin A but not by other toxins. Finally, in mouse ileum, SB203580 prevented toxin A–induced neutrophil recruitment by 92% and villous destruction by 90%. Thus, in monocytes exposed to toxin A, MAP kinase activation appears to precede Rho glucosylation and is required for IL-8 transcription and cell necrosis. p38 MAP kinase also mediates intestinal inflammation and mucosal damage induced by toxin A.
Michel Warny, Andrew C. Keates, Sarah Keates, Ignazio Castagliuolo, Jeff K. Zacks, Samer Aboudola, Amir Qamar, Charalabos Pothoulakis, J. Thomas LaMont, Ciarán P. Kelly
Mario Sznol, Stanley L. Lin, David Bermudes, Li-mou Zheng, Ivan King
Douglas Hanahan, Gabriele Bergers, Emily Bergsland