David H. Kirn
Robert L. Martuza
Carla Heise, David H. Kirn
Jeffrey S. Flier, Mark Harris, Anthony N. Hollenberg
In the normal mouse embryo, Bmp4 is expressed in mesenchymal cells surrounding the Wolffian duct (WD) and ureter stalk, whereas bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptor genes are transcribed either ubiquitously (Alk3) or exclusively in the WD and ureter epithelium (Alk6). Bmp4 heterozygous null mutant mice display, with high penetrance, abnormalities that mimic human congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT), including hypo/dysplastic kidneys, hydroureter, ectopic ureterovesical (UV) junction, and double collecting system. Analysis of mutant embryos suggests that the kidney hypo/dysplasia results from reduced branching of the ureter, whereas the ectopic UV junction and double collecting system are due to ectopic ureteral budding from the WD and accessory budding from the main ureter, respectively. In the cultured metanephros deprived of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (S-GAGs), BMP4-loaded beads partially rescue growth and elongation of the ureter. By contrast, when S-GAGs synthesis is not inhibited, BMP4 beads inhibit ureter branching and expression of Wnt 11, a target of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor signaling. Thus, Bmp4 has 2 functions in the early morphogenesis of the kidney and urinary tract. One is to inhibit ectopic budding from the WD or the ureter stalk by antagonizing inductive signals from the metanephric mesenchyme to the illegitimate sites on the WD. The other is to promote the elongation of the branching ureter within the metanephros, thereby promoting kidney morphogenesis.
Yoichi Miyazaki, Keisuke Oshima, Agnes Fogo, Brigid L.M. Hogan, Iekuni Ichikawa
The ras family of small GTP-binding proteins exerts powerful effects upon cell structure and function. One member of this family, rac, induces actin cytoskeletal reorganization in nonmuscle cells and hypertrophic changes in cultured cardiomyocytes. To examine the effect of rac1 activation upon cardiac structure and function, transgenic mice were created that express constitutively activated rac1 specifically in the myocardium. Transgenic rac1 protein was expressed at levels comparable to endogenous rac levels, with activation of the rac1 signaling pathway resulting in two distinct cardiomyopathic phenotypes: a lethal dilated phenotype associated with neonatal activation of the transgene and a transient cardiac hypertrophy seen among juvenile mice that resolved with age. Neither phenotype showed myofibril disarray and hypertrophic hearts were hypercontractilein working heart analyses. The rac1 target p21-activated kinase translocated from a cytosolic to a cytoskeletal distribution, suggesting that rac1 activation was inducing focal adhesion reorganization. Corroborating results showed altered localizations of src in dilated cardiomyopathy and paxillin in both cardiomyopathic phenotypes. This study, the first examination of rac1-mediated cardiac effects in vivo, demonstrates that dilation and hypertrophy can share a common molecular origin and presents evidence that both timing and concurrent signaling from multiple pathways can influence cardiac remodeling.
Mark A. Sussman, Sara Welch, Angela Walker, Raisa Klevitsky, Timothy E. Hewett, Robert L. Price, Erik Schaefer, Karen Yager
Over 150 mutations within the coding sequence of the V2 vasopressin receptor (V2R) gene are known to cause nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). A large number of these mutant receptors fail to fold properly and therefore are not routed to the cell surface. Here we show that selective, nonpeptidic V2R antagonists dramatically increase cell-surface expression and rescue the function of 8 mutant NDI-V2Rs by promoting their proper folding and maturation. A cell-impermeant V2R antagonist could not mimic these effects and was unable to block the rescue mediated by a permeant agent, indicating that the nonpeptidic antagonists act intracellularly, presumably by binding to and stabilizing partially folded mutants. In addition to opening new therapeutic avenues for NDI patients, these data demonstrate that by binding to newly synthesized mutant receptors, small ligands can act as pharmacological chaperones, promoting the proper folding and maturation of receptors and their targeting to the cell surface.
Jean-Pierre Morello, Ali Salahpour, André Laperrière, Virginie Bernier, Marie-Françoise Arthus, Michèle Lonergan, Ulla Petäjä-Repo, Stéphane Angers, Denis Morin, Daniel G. Bichet, Michel Bouvier
To determine whether an additional loss of the coagulation factor VII (FVII) gene influenced the coagulopathy observed in protein C gene–deficient (PC–/–) embryos and neonates, we crossed mice doubly heterozygous for the factor VII (FVII+/–) and protein C (PC+/–) genes to produce offspring possessing the 9 predicted genotypic combinations. FVII–/–/PC–/– embryos, although present at their expected Mendelian frequency, displayed a phenotype that had not been observed in either the FVII or PC singly deficient embryos. At E12.5 days postcoitum (dpc), FVII–/–/PC–/– embryos demonstrated an intra- and extravascular coagulopathy that progressed with substantial concomitant hemorrhage and peripheral edema by E17.5dpc, resulting in mortality immediately after birth. FVII+/–/PC–/– embryos showed a less severe phenotype, suggesting a gene dosage effect. The lack of rescue of PC–/– embryos and neonates and augmented coagulopathy resulting from an additional heterozygous or homozygous FVII deficiency are probably due to increased factor Xa and thrombin generation, resulting from loss of FVIIa-dependent tissue factor pathway inhibitor function and the absence of control at the levels of factors Va and VIIIa. The presence of fibrin in embryos in the absence of fetal FVII suggests that significant clot-generating potential exists outside of the embryonic factor VII–dependent pathway.
Joyce C.Y. Chan, Ivo Cornelissen, Desire Collen, Victoria A. Ploplis, Francis J. Castellino
Propagation of inflammatory signals from the airspace to the vascular space is pivotal in lung inflammation, but mechanisms of intercompartmental signaling are not understood. To define signaling mechanisms, we microinfused single alveoli of blood-perfused rat lung with TNF-α, and determined in situ cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) by the fura-2 ratio method, cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) activation and P-selectin expression by indirect immunofluorescence. Alveolar TNF-α increased [Ca2+]i and activated cPLA2 in alveolar epithelial cells, and increased both endothelial [Ca2+]i and P-selectin expression in adjoining perialveolar capillaries. All responses were blocked by pretreating alveoli with a mAb against TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1). Crosslinking alveolar TNFR1 also increased endothelial [Ca2+]i. However, the endothelial responses to alveolar TNF-α were blocked by alveolar preinjection of the intracellular Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM, or the cPLA2 blockers AACOCF3 and MAFP. The gap-junction uncoupler heptanol had no effect. We conclude that TNF-α induces signaling between the alveolar and vascular compartments of the lung. The signaling is attributable to ligation of alveolar TNFR1 followed by receptor-mediated [Ca2+]i increases and cPLA2 activation in alveolar epithelium. These novel mechanisms may be relevant in the alveolar recruitment of leukocytes.
Wolfgang M. Kuebler, Kaushik Parthasarathi, Ping M. Wang, Jahar Bhattacharya
Bone continuously remodels in response to mechanical and physiological stresses, allowing vertebrates to renew bone as adults. Bone remodeling consists of the cycled synthesis and resorption of collagenous and noncollagenous extracellular matrix proteins, and an imbalance in this process can lead to disease states such as osteoporosis, or more rarely, osteopetrosis. There is evidence that the extracellular matrix glycoprotein osteonectin or secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (BM-40) may be important in bone remodeling. Osteonectin is abundant in bone and is expressed in areas of active remodeling outside the skeleton. In vitro studies indicate that osteonectin can bind collagen and regulate angiogenesis, metalloproteinase expression, cell proliferation, and cell-matrix interactions. In some osteopenic states, such as osteogenesis imperfecta and selected animal models for bone fragility, osteonectin expression is decreased. To determine the function of osteonectin in bone, we used contact x-ray, histomorphometry, and Northern blot analysis to characterize the skeletal phenotype of osteonectin-null mice. We found that osteonectin-null mice have decreased bone formation and decreased osteoblast and osteoclast surface and number, leading to decreased bone remodeling with a negative bone balance and causing profound osteopenia. These data indicate that osteonectin supports bone remodeling and the maintenance of bone mass in vertebrates.
A.M. Delany, M. Amling, M. Priemel, C. Howe, R. Baron, E. Canalis
The role of the endothelin-B receptor (ETB) in vascular homeostasis is controversial because the receptor has both pressor and depressor effects in vivo. Spotting lethal (sl) rats carry a naturally occurring deletion in the ETB gene that completely abrogates functional receptor expression. Rats homozygous for this mutation die shortly after birth due to congenital distal intestinal aganglionosis. Genetic rescue of ETBsl/sl rats from this developmental defect using a dopamine-—hydroxylase (DBH)-ETB transgene results in ETB-deficient adult rats. On a sodium-deficient diet, DBH-ETB;ETBsl/sl and DBH-ETB;ETB+/+ rats both exhibit a normal arterial blood pressure, but on a high-sodium diet, the former are severely hypertensive. We find no difference in plasma renin activity or plasma aldosterone concentration between salt-fed wild-type, DBH-ETB;ETB+/+ or DBH-ETB;ETBsl/sl rats, and acute responses to intravenous L-NAME and indomethacin are similar between DBH-ETB;ETBsl/sl and DBH-ETB;ETB+/+ rats. Irrespective of diet, DBH-ETB;ETBsl/sl rats exhibit increased circulating ET-1, and, on a high-sodium diet, they show increased but incomplete hypotensive responses to acute treatment an ETA-antagonist. Normal pressure is restored in salt-fed DBH-ETB;ETBsl/sl rats when the epithelial sodium channel is blocked with amiloride. We conclude that DBH-ETB;ETBsl/sl rats are a novel single-locus genetic model of severe salt-sensitive hypertension. Our results suggest that DBH-ETB;ETBsl/sl rats are hypertensive because they lack the normal tonic inhibition of the renal epithelial sodium channel.
Cheryl E. Gariepy, Takashi Ohuchi, S. Clay Williams, James A. Richardson, Masashi Yanagisawa
Insulin receptor substrates (IRS-1 and -2) are essential for intracellular signaling by insulin and IGF-I, anabolic regulators of bone metabolism. Mice lacking the IRS-1 gene IRS-1–/– showed severe osteopenia with low bone turnover. IRS-1 was expressed in osteoblasts, but not in osteoclasts, of wild-type (WT) mice. IRS-1–/– osteoblasts treated with insulin or IGF-I failed to induce tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins, and they showed reduced proliferation and differentiation. Osteoclastogenesis in the coculture of hemopoietic cells and osteoblasts depended on IRS-1 expression in osteoblasts and could not be rescued by IRS-1 expression in hemopoietic cells in the presence of not only IGF-I but also 1,25(OH)2D3. In addition, osteoclast differentiation factor (RANKL/ODF) was not induced by these factors in IRS-1–/– osteoblasts. We conclude that IRS-1 deficiency in osteoblasts impairs osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, and support of osteoclastogenesis, resulting in low-turnover osteopenia. Osteoblastic IRS-1 is essential for maintaining bone turnover, because it mediates signaling by IGF-I and insulin and, we propose, also by other factors, such as 1,25(OH)2D3.
Naoshi Ogata, Daichi Chikazu, Naoto Kubota, Yasuo Terauchi, Kazuyuki Tobe, Yoshiaki Azuma, Tomohiro Ohta, Takashi Kadowaki, Kozo Nakamura, Hiroshi Kawaguchi
Because eosinophils recruited into the airways in allergic diseases are exposed to inhaled allergens, we evaluated whether eosinophils within the endobronchial lumen can function in vivo as antigen-presenting cells for inhaled antigens. We recovered eosinophils from the airways after aerosol antigen challenge in sensitized mice or from the peritoneal cavities of IL-5 transgenic mice and fluorescently labeled these cells ex vivo. These labeled cells, instilled intratracheally into normal mice, migrated into draining paratracheal lymph nodes and localized to T cell–rich paracortical areas. The homing of airway eosinophils to lymph nodes was not governed by eotaxin, because CCR3–/– and CCR3+/+ eosinophils migrated identically. Airway eosinophils, recovered after inhalational antigen challenge in sensitized mice, expressed MHC class II and costimulatory CD80 and CD86 proteins and functioned in vitro as CD80- and CD86-dependent, antigen-specific, antigen-presenting cells. Moreover, when instilled into the airways of antigen-sensitized recipient mice, airway eosinophils recovered after inhalational antigen challenge stimulated antigen-specific CD4+ T cell proliferation within paratracheal lymph nodes. Thus, eosinophils within the lumina of airways can process inhaled antigens, traffic to regional lymph nodes, and function in vivo as antigen-presenting cells to stimulate responses of CD4+ T cells.
Huan-Zhong Shi, Alison Humbles, Craig Gerard, Zhuang Jin, Peter F. Weller
The pancreatic processing enzymes, PC1 and PC2, convert proinsulin to insulin and convert proglucagon to glucagon and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). We examined the effect of streptozotocin (STZ) treatment on the regulation of these enzymes and the production of insulin, glucagon, and GLP-1 in the rat. Pancreatic PC1 and PC2 mRNA increased >2-fold and >4-fold, respectively, in rats receiving intraperitoneal STZ (50 mg/kg) daily for 5 days. Immunocytochemistry revealed that, although pancreatic islet cells in the STZ-treated rats were sparse and atrophic PC1, PC2, glucagon, and GLP-1 immunoreactivity increased dramatically in the remaining islet cells. Heightened PC1 and PC2 expression was seen in cells expressing glucagon but not in insulin-expressing cells. Furthermore, in STZ-treated rats, bioactive GLP-17–36 amide accumulated in pancreatic extracts and serum 3- and 2.5-fold, respectively, over control animals. This treatment also caused a 2-fold increase in the ratio of amidated forms of GLP-1 immunoreactivity to total glucagon immunoreactivity in the pancreas but did not affect the ratio of proinsulin to insulin. We conclude that hyperglycemic rats have an increased expression of prohormone converting enzymes in islet α cells, leading to an increase in amidated GLP-1, which can then exert an insulinotropic effect on the remaining β cells.
Ying Nie, Masahiro Nakashima, Patricia L. Brubaker, Qiao-Ling Li, Riccardo Perfetti, Erik Jansen, Yasmeen Zambre, Daniel Pipeleers, Theodore C. Friedman
We examined the effect of glatiramer acetate, a random copolymer of alanine, lysine, glutamic acid, and tyrosine, on antigen-specific T-cell responses in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Glatiramer acetate (Copaxone) functioned as a universal antigen, inducing proliferation, independent of any prior exposure to the polymer, in T-cell lines prepared from MS or healthy subjects. However, for most patients, daily injections of glatiramer acetate abolished this T-cell response and promoted the secretion of IL-5 and IL-13, which are characteristic of Th2 cells. The surviving glatiramer acetate–reactive T cells exhibited a greater degree of degeneracy as measured by cross-reactive responses to combinatorial peptide libraries. Thus, it appears that, in some individuals, in vivo administration of glatiramer acetate induces highly cross-reactive T cells that secrete Th2 cytokines. To our knowledge, glatiramer acetate is the first agent that suppresses human autoimmune disease and alters immune function by engaging the T-cell receptor. This compound may be useful in a variety of autoimmune disorders in which immune deviation to a Th2 type of response is desirable.
Petra W. Duda, Mascha C. Schmied, Sandra L. Cook, Jeffrey I. Krieger, David A. Hafler
In multiple sclerosis (MS) patients who carry the Class II major histocompatibility (MHC) type HLA-DR2, T cells specific for amino acids 95-116 in the proteolipid protein (PLP) are activated and clonally expanded. However, it remains unclear whether these autoreactive T cells play a pathogenic role or, rather, protect against the central nervous system (CNS) damage. We have addressed this issue, using mice transgenic for the human MHC class II region carrying the HLA-DR2 (DRB1*1502) haplotype. After stimulating cultured lymph node cells repeatedly with PLP95-116, we generated 2 HLA-DR2–restricted, PLP95-116–specific T-cell lines (TCLs) from the transgenic mice immunized with this portion of PLP. The TCLs were CD4+ and produced T-helper 1 (Th1) cytokines in response to the peptide. These TCLs were adoptively transferred into RAG-2–/– mice expressing HLA-DR2 (DRB1*1502) molecules. Mice receiving 1 of the TCLs developed a neurological disorder manifested ataxic movement without apparent paresis on day 3, 4, or 5 after cell transfer. Histological examination revealed inflammatory foci primarily restricted to the cerebrum and cerebellum, in association with scattered demyelinating lesions in the deep cerebral cortex. These results support a pathogenic role for PLP95-116–specific T cells in HLA-DR2+ MS patients, and shed light on the possible correlation between autoimmune target epitope and disease phenotype in human CNS autoimmune diseases.
Kazuyuki Kawamura, Takashi Yamamura, Kazumasa Yokoyama, De-Hua Chui, Yoshinori Fukui, Takehiko Sasazuki, Hidetoshi Inoko, Chella S. David, Takeshi Tabira
Macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α) promotes natural killer (NK) cell inflammation in livers during murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infections, and NK cell–produced interferon γ (IFN-γ) contributes to defense against MCMV infections. A specific role for local NK cell IFN-γ production, however, has not been established. The importance of MIP-1α and NK cell–produced IFN-γ in shaping endogenous immune responses and defense in different compartments was examined. MIP-1α deficiency profoundly decreased resistance to MCMV and was associated with dramatically reduced NK cell accumulation and IFN-γ production in liver. MIP-1α–independent IFN-γ responses were observed in serum and spleen, and infection-induced elevations in blood NK cell populations occurred in absence of the factor, but peak liver expression of another chemokine, the monokine induced by IFN-γ (Mig), depended upon presence of MIP-1α, NK cells, and IFN-γ. The Mig response was also important for viral resistance. Thus, serum cytokine responses are insufficient; MIP-1α is critical for NK cell migration and IFN-γ delivery to mediate protection; and Mig induction in tissues is a downstream protective response resulting from the process. These results define a critical chemokine-to-cytokine-to-chemokine cascade required for defense during a viral infection establishing itself in tissues.
Thais P. Salazar-Mather, Thomas A. Hamilton, Christine A. Biron
HIV-1 persists in a latent state in resting CD4+ T lymphocytes of infected adults despite prolonged highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). To determine whether a latent reservoir for HIV-1 exists in infected children, we performed a quantitative viral culture assay on highly purified resting CD4+ T cells from 21 children with perinatally acquired infection. Replication-competent HIV-1 was recovered from all 18 children from whom sufficient cells were obtained. The frequency of latently infected resting CD4+ T cells directly correlated with plasma virus levels, suggesting that in children with ongoing viral replication, most latently infected cells are in the labile preintegration state of latency. However, in each of 7 children who had suppression of viral replication to undetectable levels for 1–3 years on HAART, latent replication-competent HIV-1 persisted with little decay, owing to a stable reservoir of infected cells in the postintegration stage of latency. Drug-resistance mutations generated by previous nonsuppressive regimens persisted in this compartment despite more than 1 year of fully suppressive HAART, rendering untenable the idea of recycling drugs that were part of failed regimens. Thus the latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting CD4+ T cells will be a major obstacle to HIV-1 eradication in children.
Deborah Persaud, Theodore Pierson, Christian Ruff, Diana Finzi, Karen R. Chadwick, Joseph B. Margolick, Andrea Ruff, Nancy Hutton, Stuart Ray, Robert F. Siliciano
Prolonged fasting is associated with a downregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary thyroid (H-P-T) axis, which is reversed by administration of leptin. The hypothalamic melanocortin system regulates energy balance and mediates a number of central effects of leptin. In this study, we show that hypothalamic melanocortins can stimulate the thyroid axis and that their antagonist, agouti-related peptide (Agrp), can inhibit it. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of Agrp (83-132) decreased plasma thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in fed male rats. Intraparaventricular nuclear administration of Agrp (83-132) produced a long-lasting suppression of plasma TSH, and plasma T4. ICV administration of a stable α-MSH analogue increased plasma TSH in 24-hour–fasted rats. In vitro, α-MSH increased thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) release from hypothalamic explants. Agrp (83-132) alone caused no change in TRH release but antagonized the effect of α-MSH on TRH release. Leptin increased TRH release from hypothalami harvested from 48-hour–fasted rats. Agrp (83-132) blocked this effect. These data suggest a role for the hypothalamic melanocortin system in the fasting-induced suppression of the H-P-T axis.
M.S. Kim, C.J. Small, S.A Stanley, D.G.A. Morgan, L.J. Seal, W.M. Kong, C.M.B. Edwards, S. Abusnana, D. Sunter, M.A. Ghatei, S.R. Bloom
Here, we demonstrate a significant ex vivo expansion of human hematopoietic stem cells capable of repopulating in NOD/SCID mice. Using a combination of stem cell factor (SCF), Flk2/Flt3 ligand (FL), thrombopoietin (TPO), and a complex of IL-6 and soluble IL-6 receptor (IL-6/sIL-6R), we cultured cord blood CD34+ cells for 7 days and transplanted these cells into NOD/SCID mice. Bone marrow engraftment was judged successful when recipient animals contained measurable numbers of human CD45+ cells 10–12 weeks after transplantation. When cells were cultured with SCF+FL+TPO+IL-6/sIL-6R, 13 of 16 recipients were successfully engrafted, and CD45+ cells represented 11.5% of bone marrow cells in engrafted recipients. Cells cultured with a subset of these factors were less efficiently engrafted, both as measured by frequency of successful transplantations and prevalence of CD45+ cells. In animals receiving cells cultured with all 4 factors, human CD45+ cells represented various lineages, including a large number of CD34+ cells. The proportion of CD45+ cells in recipient marrow was 10 times higher in animals receiving these cultured cells than in those receiving comparable numbers of fresh CD34+ cells, and the expansion rate was estimated at 4.2-fold by a limiting dilution method. Addition of IL-3 to the cytokine combination abrogated the repopulating ability of the expanded cells. The present study may provide a novel culture method for the expansion of human transplantable hematopoietic stem cells suitable for clinical applications.
Takahiro Ueda, Kohichiro Tsuji, Hiroshi Yoshino, Yasuhiro Ebihara, Hiroshi Yagasaki, Hiroaki Hisakawa, Tetsuo Mitsui, Atsushi Manabe, Ryuhei Tanaka, Kimio Kobayashi, Mamoru Ito, Kiyoshi Yasukawa, Tatsutoshi Nakahata