HIV-1 disease is associated with pathological effects on T-cell production, destruction, and distribution. Using the deuterated (2H) glucose method for endogenous labeling, we have analyzed host factors that influence T-cell turnover in HIV-1–uninfected and –infected humans. In untreated HIV-1 disease, the average half life of circulating T cells was diminished without compensatory increases in cell production. Within 12 weeks of the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the absolute production rates of circulating T cells increased, and normal half-lives and production rates were restored by 12–36 months. Interpatient heterogeneity in the absolute degree of turnover correlated with the relative proportion of naive- and memory/effector-phenotype T cells in each of the CD4+ and CD8+ populations. The half-lives of naive-phenotype T cells ranged from 116–365 days (fractional replacement rates of 0.19–0.60% per day), whereas memory/effector-phenotype T cells persisted with half-lives from 22–79 days (fractional replacement rates of 0.87–3.14% per day). Naive-phenotype T cells were more abundant, and the half-life of total T cells was prolonged in individuals with abundant thymic tissue, as assessed by computed tomography. Such interpatient variation in T-cell kinetics may be reflective of differences in functional immune reconstitution after treatment for HIV-1 disease.
Joseph M. McCune, Mary Beth Hanley, Denise Cesar, Robert Halvorsen, Rebecca Hoh, Diane Schmidt, Eric Wieder, Steven Deeks, Scott Siler, Richard Neese, Marc Hellerstein
Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is the first member identified of a new family of secreted heparin-binding growth factors highly expressed in the fetal aorta. The biologic role of HDGF in vascular growth is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that HDGF mRNA is expressed in smooth muscle cells (SMCs), most prominently in proliferating SMCs, 8–24 hours after serum stimulation. Exogenous HDGF and endogenous overexpression of HDGF stimulated a significant increase in SMC number and DNA synthesis. Rat aortic SMCs transfected with a hemagglutinin-epitope–tagged rat HDGF cDNA contain HA-HDGF in their nuclei during S-phase. We also detected native HDGF in nuclei of cultured SMCs, of SMCs and endothelial cells from 19-day fetal (but not in the adult) rat aorta, of SMCs proximal to abdominal aortic constriction in adult rats, and of SMCs in the neointima formed after endothelial denudation of the rat common carotid artery. Moreover, HDGF colocalizes with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in SMCs in human atherosclerotic carotid arteries, suggesting that HDGF helps regulate SMC growth during development and in response to vascular injury.
Allen D. Everett, David R. Lobe, Martin E. Matsumura, Hideji Nakamura, Coleen A. McNamara
During early pregnancy, placentation occurs in a relatively hypoxic environment that is essential for appropriate embryonic development. Intervillous blood flow increases around 10 to 12 weeks of gestation and results in exposure of trophoblast cells to increased oxygen tension. Before this time, low oxygen appears to prevent trophoblast differentiation toward an invasive phenotype. Using human villous explants of 5–8 weeks’ gestation, we found that low oxygen tension triggered trophoblast proliferation, fibronectin synthesis, α5 integrin expression, and gelatinase A activity. These biochemical markers were barely detectable under oxic conditions. We therefore examined the placental expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis, and determined that expression of HIF-1α subunit during the first trimester of gestation parallels that of TGFβ3, an inhibitor of extravillous trophoblast differentiation. Expression of both molecules is high in early pregnancy and falls around 9 weeks of gestation, when placental pO2 levels are believed to increase. Increasing oxygen tension induced a similar decrease in expression in cultured explants. Moreover, antisense inhibition of HIF-1α expression in hypoxic explants inhibited expression of TGFβ3, arrested cell proliferation, decreased α5 expression and gelatinase A activity, and triggered biochemical markers of an invasive trophoblast phenotype such as α1 integrin and gelatinase B expression. These data suggest that the oxygen-regulated early events of trophoblast differentiation are in part mediated by TGFβ3 through HIF-1 transcription factors.
Isabella Caniggia, Homa Mostachfi, Jennifer Winter, Max Gassmann, Stephen J. Lye, Maciej Kuliszewski, Martin Post
Developing gene therapy for cystic fibrosis has been hindered by limited binding and endocytosis of vectors by human airway epithelia. Here we show that the apical membrane of airway epithelia express the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), or a 7-residue peptide derived from this protein (u7-peptide), bound the receptor and stimulated apical endocytosis. Both ligands enhanced gene transfer by nonspecifically bound adenovirus and adeno-associated virus vectors and by a modified adenovirus vector that had been coupled to the u7-peptide. These data provide the first evidence that targeting an apical receptor can circumvent the two most important barriers to gene transfer in airway epithelia. Thus, the uPA/uPAR system may offer significant advantages for delivering genes and other pharmaceuticals to airway epithelia.
Paola T. Drapkin, Catherine R. O’Riordan, Su Min Yi, John A. Chiorini, Jonathan Cardella, Joseph Zabner, Michael J. Welsh
Mutations in Notch3 cause CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant adult onset arteriopathy), which leads to stroke and dementia in humans. CADASIL arteriopathy is characterized by major alterations of vascular smooth muscle cells and the presence of specific granular osmiophilic deposits. Patients carry highly stereotyped mutations that lead to an odd number of cysteine residues within EGF-like repeats of the Notch3 receptor extracellular domain. Such mutations may alter the processing or the trafficking of this receptor, or may favor its oligomerization. In this study, we examined the Notch3 expression pattern in normal tissues and investigated the consequences of mutations on Notch3 expression in transfected cells and CADASIL brains. In normal tissues, Notch3 expression is restricted to vascular smooth muscle cells. Notch3 undergoes a proteolytic cleavage leading to a 210-kDa extracellular fragment and a 97-kDa intracellular fragment. In CADASIL brains, we found evidence of a dramatic and selective accumulation of the 210-kDa Notch3 cleavage product. Notch3 accumulates at the cytoplasmic membrane of vascular smooth muscle cells, in close vicinity to but not within the granular osmiophilic material. These results strongly suggest that CADASIL mutations specifically impair the clearance of the Notch3 ectodomain, but not the cytosolic domain, from the cell surface.
Anne Joutel, Fréderic Andreux, Swann Gaulis, Valérie Domenga, Michaelle Cecillon, Nicole Battail, Nadia Piga, Françoise Chapon, Catherine Godfrain, Elisabeth Tournier-Lasserve
Osteoclasts (OCLs) in Paget’s disease are markedly increased in number and size, have increased numbers of nuclei per multinucleated cell, and demonstrate increased resorption capacity and increased sensitivity to 1,25-(OH)2D3, the active form of vitamin D. These cells also contain nuclear inclusions, reminiscent of those seen in paramyxovirus-infected cells, which cross-react with antibodies to measles virus nucleocapsid (MVNP) antigen. To elucidate the role of MV in the abnormal OCL phenotype of Paget’s disease, we transduced normal OCL precursors with retroviral vectors expressing MVNP and the MV matrix (MVM) genes. The transduced cells were then cultured with 1,25-(OH)2D3 for14 or 21 days to induce formation of OCL-like multinucleated cells. The MVNP-transduced cells formed increased numbers of multinucleated cells, which contained many more nuclei and had increased resorption capacity compared with multinucleated cells derived from empty vector–transduced (EV-transduced) and MVM-transduced or normal bone marrow cells. Furthermore, MVNP-transduced cells showed increased sensitivity to 1,25-(OH)2D3, and formed OCLs at concentrations of 1,25-(OH)2D3 that were 1 log lower than that required for normal, EV-transduced, or MVM-transduced cells. These results demonstrate that expression of the MVNP gene in normal OCL precursors stimulates OCL formation and induces OCLs that express a phenotype similar to that of pagetic OCLs. These results support a potential pathophysiologic role for MV infection in the abnormal OCL activity and morphology that are characteristic of pagetic OCLs.
Noriyoshi Kurihara, Sakamuri V. Reddy, Cheikh Menaa, Dirk Anderson, G. David Roodman
Heterozygous disruption of Gnas, the gene encoding the stimulatory G-protein α subunit (Gsα), leads to distinct phenotypes depending on whether the maternal (m–/+) or paternal (+/p–) allele is disrupted. Gsα is imprinted, with the maternal allele preferentially expressed in adipose tissue. Hence, expression is decreased in m–/+ mice but normal in +/p– mice. M–/+ mice become obese, with increased lipid per cell in white and brown adipose tissue, whereas +/p– mice are thin, with decreased lipid in adipose tissue. These effects are not due to abnormalities in thyroid hormone status, food intake, or leptin secretion. +/p– mice are hypermetabolic at both ambient temperature (21° C) and thermoneutrality (30° C). In contrast, m–/+ mice are hypometabolic at ambient temperature and eumetabolic at thermoneutrality M–/+ and wild-type mice have similar dose-response curves for metabolic response to a β3-adrenergic agonist, CL316243, indicating normal sensitivity of adipose tissue to sympathetic stimulation. Measurement of urinary catecholamines suggests that +/p– and m–/+ mice have increased and decreased activation of the sympathetic nervous system, respectively. This is to our knowledge the first animal model in which a single genetic defect leads to opposite effects on energy metabolism depending on parental inheritance. This probably results from deficiency of maternal- and paternal-specific Gnas gene products, respectively.
Shuhua Yu, Oksana Gavrilova, Hui Chen, Randy Lee, Jie Liu, Karel Pacak, A.F. Parlow, Michael J. Quon, Marc L. Reitman, Lee S. Weinstein
The development of experimental models of active autoimmune diseases can be difficult due to tolerance of autoantigens, but knockout mice, which fail to acquire tolerance to the defective gene product, provide a useful tool for this purpose. Using knockout mice lacking desmoglein 3 (Dsg3), the target antigen of pemphigus vulgaris (PV), we have generated an active disease model for this autoantibody-mediated disease. Dsg3–/– mice, but not Dsg3+/– littermates, produced anti-Dsg3 IgG that binds native Dsg3, when immunized with recombinant mouse Dsg3. Splenocytes from the immunized Dsg3–/– mice were then adoptively transferred into Rag-2–/– immunodeficient mice expressing Dsg3. Anti-Dsg3 IgG was stably produced in the recipient mice for more than 6 months without further boosting. This IgG bound to Dsg3 in vivo and disrupted the cell-cell adhesion of keratinocytes. Consequently, the recipient mice developed erosions in their oral mucous membranes with typical histologic findings of PV. In addition, the recipient mice showed telogen hair loss, as found in Dsg3–/– mice. Collectively, the recipient mice developed the phenotype of PV due to the pathogenic anti-Dsg3 IgG. This model will be valuable for developing novel therapeutic strategies. Furthermore, our approach can be applied broadly for the development of various autoimmune disease models.
Masayuki Amagai, Kazuyuki Tsunoda, Harumi Suzuki, Koji Nishifuji, Shigeo Koyasu, Takeji Nishikawa
Transgenic (TG) female mice expressing bLHβ-CTP (a chimeric protein derived from the β-subunit of bovine luteinizing hormone [LH] and a fragment of the β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin [hCG]) exhibit elevated serum LH, infertility, polycystic ovaries, and ovarian tumors. In humans, increased LH secretion also occurs in infertility and polycystic ovarian syndrome, often concomitant with adrenocortical dysfunction. We therefore investigated adrenal function in LH overexpressing bLHβ-CTP female mice. The size of their adrenals was increased by 80% with histological signs of cortical stimulation. Furthermore, adrenal steroid production was increased, with up to 14-fold elevated serum corticosterone. Primary adrenal cells from TG and control females responded similarly to ACTH stimulation, but, surprisingly, the TG adrenals responded to hCG with significantly increased cAMP, progesterone, and corticosterone production. LH receptor (LHR) expression and activity were also elevated in adrenals from female TG mice, but gonadectomized TG females showed no increase in corticosterone, suggesting that the dysfunctional ovaries of the intact TG females promote adrenocortical hyperfunction. We suggest that, in intact TG females, enhanced ovarian estrogen synthesis causes increased secretion of prolactin (PRL), which elevates LHR expression. Chronically elevated serum LH, augmented by enhanced PRL production, induces functional LHR expression in mouse adrenal cortex, leading to elevated, LH-dependent, corticosterone production. Thus, besides polycystic ovaries, the bLHβ-CTP mice provide a useful model for studying human disorders related to elevated LH secretion and adrenocortical hyperfunction.
Jukka Kero, Matti Poutanen, Fu-Ping Zhang, Nafis Rahman, Anne Marie McNicol, John H. Nilson, Ruth A. Keri, Ilpo T. Huhtaniemi
Experimental autoimmune glomerulonephritis (EAG), an animal model of Goodpasture’s disease, can be induced in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats by a single injection of rat glomerular basement membrane (GBM) in adjuvant. EAG is characterized by circulating and deposited anti-GBM antibodies, accompanied by focal necrotizing glomerulonephritis with crescent formation. The role of T cells in the pathogenesis of EAG remains unclear. T-cell costimulation is provided by ligation of CD28 with either B7.1 (CD80) or B7.2 (CD86) on antigen-presenting cells, and can be inhibited by a soluble form of CTLA4 (CTLA4-Ig) that binds to both B7.1 and B7.2. We examined the effect of CD28-B7 blockade on the development of EAG using native CTLA4-Ig or mutant CTLA4-Ig (Y100F-Ig), which selectively blocks B7.1. Native CTLA4-Ig treatment ameliorated EAG by several measures, including the levels of circulating anti-GBM antibodies, albuminuria, the deposition of IgG and fibrin in the glomeruli, the severity of glomerular abnormalities, and the numbers of infiltrating T cells and macrophages. Y100F-Ig resulted in a similar reduction in the severity of nephritis, but produced no overall reduction in circulating anti-GBM antibodies, although there was a reduction in IgG2a antibodies. We concluded that CD28-B7 blockade reduced autoantibody production and cellular infiltration of glomeruli, and prevented target organ injury. Our results suggest a key role for B7.1 in costimulation of Th1-like autoimmune responses in the rat, and show that glomerular injury in EAG is largely dependent on cell-mediated mechanisms.
John Reynolds, Frederick W.K. Tam, Anil Chandraker, Jennifer Smith, Ayman M. Karkar, Jane Cross, Robert Peach, Mohamed H. Sayegh, Charles D. Pusey
To understand the mRNA transcript profile in the human atherosclerotic lesion, RNA was prepared from the fibrous cap versus adjacent media of 13 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. cDNA expression arrays bearing 588 known genes indicated that lesions express unexpectedly high levels of the early growth response gene, Egr-1 (NGFI-A), a zinc-finger transcription factor that modulates a cluster of stress-responsive genes including PDGF and TGF-β. Expression of Egr-1 was an average of 5-fold higher in the lesion than in the adjacent media, a result confirmed by RT-PCR, and many Egr-1–inducible genes were also strongly elevated in the lesion. Time-course analyses revealed that Egr-1 was not induced ex vivo. Immunocytochemistry indicated that Egr-1 was expressed prominently in the smooth muscle–actin positive cells, particularly in areas of macrophage infiltration, and in other cell types, including endothelial cells. Induction of atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-null mice by feeding them a high-fat diet resulted in a progressive increase in Egr-1 expression in the aorta. Thus, induction of Egr-1 by atherogenic factors may be a key step in coordinating the cellular events that result in vascular lesions.
Timothy A. McCaffrey, Chenzhong Fu, Baoheng Du, Sukru Eksinar, K. Craig Kent, Harry Bush Jr., Karl Kreiger, Todd Rosengart, Myron I. Cybulsky, Eric S. Silverman, Tucker Collins
Complete ablation of nonmuscle myosin heavy chain II-B (NMHC-B) in mice resulted in cardiac and brain defects that were lethal during embryonic development or on the day of birth. In this paper, we report on the generation of mice with decreased amounts of NMHC-B. First, we generated BΔI/BΔI mice by replacing a neural-specific alternative exon with the PGK-Neo cassette. This resulted in decreased amounts of NMHC-B in all tissues, including a decrease of 88% in the heart and 65% in the brain compared with B+/B+ tissues. BΔI/BΔI mice developed cardiac myocyte hypertrophy between 7 months and 11 months of age, at which time they reexpressed the cardiac β-MHC. Serial sections of BΔI/BΔI brains showed abnormalities in neural cell migration and adhesion in the ventricular wall. Crossing BΔI/BΔI with B+/B– mice generated BΔI/B– mice, which showed a further decrease of approximately 55% in NMHC-B in the heart and brain compared with BΔI/BΔI mice. Five of 8 BΔI/B– mice were born with a membranous ventricular septal defect. Moreover, 5 of 5 BΔI/B– mice developed myocyte hypertrophy by 1 month; BΔI/B– mice also reexpressed the cardiac β-MHC. More than 60% of BΔI/B– mice developed overt hydrocephalus and showed more severe defects in neural cell migration and adhesion than did BΔI/BΔI mice. These data on BΔI/BΔI and BΔI/B– mice demonstrate a gene dosage effect of the amount of NMHC-B on the severity and time of onset of the defects in the heart and brain.
Deniz Üren, Hweung-Kon Hwang, Yoshinobu Hara, Kazuyo Takeda, Sachiyo Kawamoto, Antonella N. Tullio, Zu-Xi Yu, Victor J. Ferrans, Nancy Tresser, Alexander Grinberg, Yvette A. Preston, Robert S. Adelstein
Mucolipidosis IIIC, or variant pseudo-Hurler polydystrophy, is an autosomal recessive disease of lysosomal hydrolase trafficking. Unlike the related diseases, mucolipidosis II and IIIA, the enzyme affected in mucolipidosis IIIC (N-Acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase [GlcNAc-phosphotransferase]) retains full transferase activity on synthetic substrates but lacks activity on lysosomal hydrolases. Bovine GlcNAc-phosphotransferase has recently been isolated as a multisubunit enzyme with the subunit structure α2β2γ2. We cloned the cDNA for the human γ-subunit and localized its gene to chromosome 16p. We also showed, in a large multiplex Druze family that exhibits this disorder, that MLIIIC also maps to this chromosomal region. Sequence analysis of the γ-subunit cDNA in patients from 3 families identified a frameshift mutation, in codon 167 of the γ subunit, that segregated with the disease, indicating MLIIIC results from mutations in the phosphotransferase γ-subunit gene. This is to our knowledge the first description of the molecular basis for a human mucolipidosis and suggests that the γ subunit functions in lysosomal hydrolase recognition.
Annick Raas-Rothschild, Valerie Cormier-Daire, Ming Bao, Emmanuelle Genin, Remi Salomon, Kevin Brewer, Marsha Zeigler, Hanna Mandel, Steve Toth, Bruce Roe, Arnold Munnich, William M. Canfield
Leukocytes extravasate from the blood in response to physiologic or pathologic demands by means of complementary ligand interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells. The multistep model of leukocyte extravasation involves an initial transient interaction (“rolling” adhesion), followed by secondary (firm) adhesion. We recently showed that binding of CD44 on activated T lymphocytes to endothelial hyaluronan (HA) mediates a primary adhesive interaction under shear stress, permitting extravasation at sites of inflammation. The mechanism for subsequent firm adhesion has not been elucidated. Here we demonstrate that the integrin VLA-4 is used in secondary adhesion after CD44-mediated primary adhesion of human and mouse T cells in vitro, and by mouse T cells in an in vivo model. We show that clonal cell lines and polyclonally activated normal T cells roll under physiologic shear forces on hyaluronate and require VCAM-1, but not ICAM-1, as ligand for subsequent firm adhesion. This firm adhesion is also VLA-4 dependent, as shown by antibody inhibition. Moreover, in vivo short-term homing experiments in a model dependent on CD44 and HA demonstrate that superantigen-activated T cells require VLA-4, but not LFA-1, for entry into an inflamed peritoneal site. Thus, extravasation of activated T cells initiated by CD44 binding to HA depends upon VLA-4–mediated firm adhesion, which may explain the frequent association of these adhesion receptors with diverse chronic inflammatory processes.
Mark H. Siegelman, Diana Stanescu, Pila Estess