The t(5;12)(q33;p13) translocation associated with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) generates a TEL/PDGFβR fusion gene. Here, we used a murine bone marrow transplant (BMT) assay to test the transforming properties of TEL/PDGFβR in vivo. TEL/PDGFβR, introduced into whole bone marrow by retroviral transduction, caused a rapidly fatal myeloproliferative disease that closely recapitulated human CMML. TEL/PDGFβR transplanted mice developed leukocytosis with Gr-1+ granulocytes, splenomegaly, evidence of extramedullary hematopoiesis, and bone marrow fibrosis, but no lymphoproliferative disease. We assayed mutant forms of the TEL/PDGFβR fusion protein — including 8 tyrosine to phenylalanine substitutions at phosphorylated PDGFβR sites to which various SH2 domain–containing signaling intermediates bind — for ability to transform hematopoietic cells. All of the phenylalanine (F-) mutants tested conferred IL-3-independence to a cultured murine hematopoietic cell line, but, in the BMT assay, different F-mutants displayed distinct transforming properties. In transplanted animals, tyrosines 579/581 proved critical for the development of myeloproliferative phenotype. F-mutants with these residues mutated showed no sign of myeloproliferation but instead developed T-cell lymphomas. In summary, TEL/PDGFβR is necessary and sufficient to induce a myeloproliferative disease in a murine BMT model, and PDGFβR residues Y579/581 are required for this phenotype.
Michael H. Tomasson, David W. Sternberg, Ifor R. Williams, Martin Carroll, Danielle Cain, Jon C. Aster, Robert L. Ilaria Jr., Richard A. Van Etten, D. Gary Gilliland
Osteoclasts express the αvβ3 integrin, an adhesion receptor that has been implicated in bone resorption and that is therefore a potential therapeutic target. To assess the role of this heterodimer in skeletal development in vivo, we engineered mice in which the gene for the β3 integrin subunit was deleted. Bone marrow macrophages derived from these mutants differentiate in vitro into numerous osteoclasts, thus establishing that αvβ3 is not necessary for osteoclast recruitment. Furthermore, the closely related integrin, αvβ5, does not substitute for αvβ3 during cytokine stimulation or authentic osteoclastogenesis. β3 knockout mice, but not their heterozygous littermates, develop histologically and radiographically evident osteosclerosis with age. Despite their increased bone mass, β3-null mice contain 3.5-fold more osteoclasts than do heterozygotes. These mutant osteoclasts are, however, dysfunctional, as evidenced by their reduced ability to resorb whale dentin in vitro and the significant hypocalcemia seen in the knockout mice. The resorptive defect in β3-deficient osteoclasts may reflect absence of matrix-derived intracellular signals, since their cytoskeleton is distinctly abnormal and they fail to spread in vitro, to form actin rings ex vivo, or to form normal ruffled membranes in vivo. Thus, although it is not required for osteoclastogenesis, the integrin αvβ3 is essential for normal osteoclast function.
Kevin P. McHugh, Kairbaan Hodivala-Dilke, Ming-Hao Zheng, Noriyuki Namba, Jonathan Lam, Deborah Novack, Xu Feng, F. Patrick Ross, Richard O. Hynes, Steven L. Teitelbaum
The Na+-K+-2Cl– cotransporter (NKCC1) carries 1 molecule of Na+ and K+ along with 2 molecules of Cl– across the cell membrane. It is expressed in a broad spectrum of tissues and has been implicated in cell volume regulation and in ion transport by secretory epithelial tissue. However, the specific contribution of NKCC1 to the physiology of the various organ systems is largely undefined. We have generated mouse lines carrying either of 2 mutant alleles of the Slc12a2 gene, which encodes this cotransporter: a null allele and a mutation that results in deletion of 72 amino acids of the cytoplasmic domain. Both NKCC1-deficient mouse lines show behavioral abnormalities characteristic of mice with inner ear defects. Male NKCC1-deficient mice are infertile because of defective spermatogenesis, as shown by the absence of spermatozoa in histological sections of their epididymides and the small number of spermatids in their testes. Consistent with this observation, we show that Slc12a2 is expressed in Sertoli cells, pachytene spermatocytes, and round spermatids isolated from wild-type animals. Our results indicate a critical role for NKCC1-mediated ion transport in spermatogenesis and suggest that the cytoplasmic domain of NKCC1 is essential in the normal functioning of this protein.
Amy J. Pace, Eddie Lee, Krairek Athirakul, Thomas M. Coffman, Deborah A. O’Brien, Beverly H. Koller
Hypertension and atherosclerosis are each important causes of morbidity and mortality in the developed world. We have investigated the interaction between these conditions by breeding mice that are atherosclerotic due to lack of apolipoprotein (apo) E with mice that are hypertensive due to lack of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). The doubly deficient mice (nnee) have higher blood pressure (BP) and increased atherosclerotic lesion size but no change in plasma lipoprotein profiles compared with normotensive but atherosclerotic (NNee) mice. The nnee mice also develop kidney damage, evidenced by increased plasma creatinine, decreased kidney weight/body weight ratio, and glomerular lipid deposition and calcification. Enalapril treatment abolishes the deleterious effects of eNOS deficiency on BP, atherosclerosis, and kidney dysfunction in nnee mice. In striking contrast, a genetic lack of inducible NOS, which does not affect BP, has no effect on the development of atherosclerotic lesions in Apoe–/– mice. We also observed a positive relationship between BP and size of atherosclerotic lesions These results suggest that the atherogenic effects of eNOS deficiency can be partially explained by an increase in BP and reemphasize the importance of controlling hypertension in preventing atherosclerosis.
Joshua W. Knowles, Robert L. Reddick, J. Charles Jennette, Edward G. Shesely, Oliver Smithies, Nobuyo Maeda
Cytokines such as IL-1α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes, but the mechanisms through which they promote diabetogenesis remain unclear. Here we show that CD4+ T lymphocytes propagated from transgenic nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice expressing the highly diabetogenic, β cell–specific 4.1-T-cell receptor (4.1-TCR) can kill IL-1α–, IL-1β–, and IFN-γ–treated β cells from NOD mice. Untreated NOD β cells and cytokine-treated β cells from Fas-deficient NOD.lpr mice are not targeted by these T cells. Killing of islet cells in vitro was associated with cytokine-induced upregulation of Fas on islet cells and was independent of MHC class II expression. Abrogation of Fas expression in 4.1-TCR–transgenic NOD mice afforded nearly complete protection from diabetes and did not interfere with the development of the transgenic CD4+ T cells or with their ability to cause insulitis. In contrast, abrogation of perforin expression did not affect β cell–specific cytotoxicity or the diabetogenic potential of these T cells. These data demonstrate a novel mechanism of action of IL-1α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ in autoimmune diabetes, whereby these cytokines mark β cells for Fas-dependent lysis by autoreactive CD4+ T cells.
Abdelaziz Amrani, Joan Verdaguer, Shari Thiessen, Sonny Bou, Pere Santamaria
To investigate roles in intestinal inflammation for the 2 cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms, we determined susceptibility to spontaneous and induced acute colitis in mice lacking either the COX-1 or COX-2 isoform. We treated wild-type, COX-1–/–, COX-2–/–, and heterozygous mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to provoke acute colonic inflammation, and we quantified tissue damage, prostaglandin (PG) E2, and interleukin-1β. No spontaneous gastrointestinal inflammation was detected in mice homozygous for either mutation, despite almost undetectable basal intestinal PGE2 production in COX-1–/– mice. Both COX-1–/– and COX-2–/– mice showed increased susceptibility to a low-dose of DSS that caused mild colonic epithelial injury in wild-type mice. COX-2–/– mice were more susceptible than COX-1–/– mice, and selective pharmacologic blockade of COX-2 potentiated injury in COX-1–/– mice. At a high dose, DSS treatment was fatal to 50% of the animals in each mutant group, but all wild-type mice survived. DSS treatment increased PGE2 intestinal secretion in all groups except COX-2–/– mice. These results demonstrate that COX-1 and COX-2 share a crucial role in the defense of the intestinal mucosa (with inducible COX-2 being perhaps more active during inflammation) and that neither isoform is essential in maintaining mucosal homeostasis in the absence of injurious stimuli.
Olivier Morteau, Scott G. Morham, Rance Sellon, Levinus A. Dieleman, Robert Langenbach, Oliver Smithies, R. Balfour Sartor
Glycogen-targeting subunits of protein phosphatase-1, such as protein targeting to glycogen (PTG), direct the phosphatase to the glycogen particle, where it stimulates glycogenesis. We have investigated the metabolic impact of overexpressing PTG in liver of normal rats. After administration of PTG cDNA in a recombinant adenovirus, animals were fasted or allowed to continue feeding for 24 hours. Liver glycogen was nearly completely depleted in fasted control animals, whereas glycogen levels in fasted or fed PTG-overexpressing animals were 70% higher than in fed controls. Nevertheless, transgenic animals regulated plasma glucose, triglycerides, FFAs, ketones, and insulin normally in the fasted and fed states. Fasted PTG-overexpressing animals receiving an oral bolus of [U-13C]glucose exhibited a large increase in hepatic glycogen content and a 70% increase in incorporation of [13C]glucose into glycogen. However, incorporation of labeled glucose accounted for only a small portion of the glycogen synthesized in PTG-overexpressing animals, consistent with our earlier finding that PTG promotes glycogen synthesis from gluconeogenic precursors. We conclude that hepatic PTG overexpression activates both direct and indirect pathways of glycogen synthesis. Because of its ability to enhance glucose storage without affecting other metabolic indicators, the glycogen-targeting subunit may prove valuable in controlling blood glucose levels in diabetes.
Robert M. O’Doherty, Per B. Jensen, Paul Anderson, John G. Jones, Hal K. Berman, Denise Kearney, Christopher B. Newgard
Neointima formation is a common feature of atherosclerosis and restenosis after balloon angioplasty. To find a new target to suppress neointima formation, we investigated the possible role of midkine (MK), a heparin-binding growth factor with neurotrophic and chemotactic activities, in neointima formation. MK expression increased during neointima formation caused by intraluminal balloon injury of the rat carotid artery. Neointima formation in a restenosis model was strongly suppressed in MK-deficient mice. Continuous administration of MK protein to MK-deficient mice restored neointima formation. Leukocyte recruitment to the vascular walls after injury was markedly decreased in MK-deficient mice. Soluble MK as well as that bound to the substratum induced migration of macrophages in vitro. These results indicate that MK plays a critical role in neointima formation at least in part owing to its ability to mediate leukocyte recruitment.
Mitsuru Horiba, Kenji Kadomatsu, Eishin Nakamura, Hisako Muramatsu, Shinya Ikematsu, Sadatoshi Sakuma, Kenji Hayashi, Yukio Yuzawa, Seiichi Matsuo, Masafumi Kuzuya, Tadashi Kaname, Makoto Hirai, Hidehiko Saito, Takashi Muramatsu
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the main inducer of shock and death in Gram-negative sepsis. Recent evidence suggests that LPS-induced signal transduction begins with CD14-mediated activation of 1 or more Toll-like receptors (TLRs). The lipid A analogues lipid IVa and Rhodobacter sphaeroides lipid A (RSLA) exhibit an uncommon species-specific pharmacology. Both compounds inhibit the effects of LPS in human cells but display LPS-mimetic activity in hamster cells. We transfected human TLR4 or human TLR2 into hamster fibroblasts to determine if either of these LPS signal transducers is responsible for the species-specific pharmacology. RSLA and lipid IVa strongly induced NF-κB activity and IL-6 release in Chinese hamster ovary fibroblasts expressing CD14 (CHO/CD14), but these compounds antagonized LPS antagonists in CHO/CD14 fibroblasts that overexpressed human TLR4. No such antagonism occurred in cells overexpressing human TLR2. We cloned TLR4 from hamster macrophages and found that human THP-1 cells expressing the hamster TLR4 responded to lipid IVa as an LPS mimetic, as if they were hamster in origin. Hence, cells heterologously overexpressing TLR4 from different species acquired a pharmacological phenotype with respect to recognition of lipid A substructures that corresponded to the species from which the TLR4 transgene originated. These data suggest that TLR4 is the central lipid A–recognition protein in the LPS receptor complex.
Egil Lien, Terry K. Means, Holger Heine, Atsutoshi Yoshimura, Shoichi Kusumoto, Koichi Fukase, Matthew J. Fenton, Masato Oikawa, Nilofer Qureshi, Brian Monks, Robert W. Finberg, Robin R. Ingalls, Douglas T. Golenbock
The 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs binds proteins that determine mRNA stability and localization. The 3′-UTR of parathyroid hormone (PTH) mRNA specifically binds cytoplasmic proteins. We screened an expression library for proteins that bind the PTH mRNA 3′-UTR, and the sequence of 1 clone was identical to that of the dynein light chain LC8, a component of the dynein complexes that translocate cytoplasmic components along microtubules. Recombinant LC8 binds PTH mRNA 3′-UTR, as shown by RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assay. We showed that PTH mRNA colocalizes with microtubules in the parathyroid gland, as well as with a purified microtubule preparation from calf brain, and that this association was mediated by LC8. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a dynein complex protein binding an mRNA. The dynein complex may be the motor that is responsible for transporting mRNAs to specific locations in the cytoplasm and for the consequent is asymmetric distribution of translated proteins in the cell.
Eyal Epstein, Alin Sela-Brown, Israel Ringel, Rachel Kilav, Stephen M. King, Sharon E. Benashski, Joel K. Yisraeli, Justin Silver, Tally Naveh-Many
The cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) facilitates the transfer of HDL cholesterol esters from plasma to the liver. Transgenic mice expressing human CETP, controlled by its natural flanking region, increase expression of this gene in response to hypercholesterolemia. We established a CETP promoter-luciferase reporter assay in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes to map the sterol upregulatory element. Promoter mutagenesis suggested that a direct repeat of a nuclear receptor binding sequence separated by 4 nucleotides (DR4 element, –384 to –399) was responsible for this activity. Using mice carrying normal or mutated promoter sequences, we confirmed the importance of this element for gene induction by dietary sterol. A gel retardation complex containing LXR/RXR was identified using the CETP DR4 element and adipocyte nuclear extracts. Both LXRα/RXRα and LXRβ/RXRα transactivated the CETP promoter via its DR4 element in a sterol-responsive fashion. Thus, the positive sterol response of the CETP gene is mediated by a nuclear receptor binding site that is activated by LXRs. That Cyp7a, the rate-limiting enzyme for conversion of cholesterol into bile acids in the liver, is also regulated by LXRα suggests that this class of nuclear receptor coordinates the regulation of HDL cholesterol ester catabolism and bile acid synthesis in the liver.
Yi Luo, Alan R. Tall
Familial hypercholesterolemia is caused by mutations in the LDL receptor gene (Ldlr). Elevated plasma LDL levels result from slower LDL catabolism and a paradoxical lipoprotein overproduction. We explored the relationship between the presence of the LDL receptor and lipoprotein secretion in hepatocytes from both wild-type and LDL receptor–deficient mice. Ldlr–/– hepatocytes secreted apoB100 at a 3.5-fold higher rate than did wild-type hepatocytes. ApoB mRNA abundance, initial apoB synthetic rate, and abundance of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein 97-kDa subunit did not differ between wild-type and Ldlr–/– cells. Pulse-chase analysis and multicompartmental modeling revealed that in wild-type hepatocytes, approximately 55% of newly synthesized apoB100 was degraded. However, in Ldlr–/– cells, less than 20% of apoB was degraded. In wild-type hepatocytes, approximately equal amounts of LDL receptor–dependent apoB100 degradation occured via reuptake and presecretory mechanisms. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of the LDL receptor in Ldlr–/– cells resulted in degradation of approximately 90% of newly synthesized apoB100. These studies show that the LDL receptor alters the proportion of apoB that escapes co- or post-translational presecretory degradation and mediates the reuptake of newly secreted apoB-containing lipoprotein particles.
Jaap Twisk, Donald L. Gillian-Daniel, Angie Tebon, Lin Wang, P. Hugh R. Barrett, Alan D. Attie
Cell-cycle checkpoint mechanisms, including the p53- and p21-dependent G2 arrest that follows DNA damage, are often lost during tumorigenesis. We have exploited the ability of DNA-damaging drugs to elicit this checkpoint, and we show here that such treatment allows microtubule drugs, which cause cell death secondary to mitotic arrest, to kill checkpoint-deficient tumor cells while sparing checkpoint-competent cells. Low doses of the DNA-damaging drug doxorubicin cause predominantly G2 arrest without killing HCT116 cells that harbor wt p53. Doxorubicin treatment prevented mitotic arrest, Bcl-2 phosphorylation, and cell death caused by paclitaxel, epothilones, and vinblastine. In contrast, doxorubicin enhanced cytotoxicity of FR901228, an agent that does not affect microtubules. Low doses of doxorubicin did not arrest p21-deficient clones of HCT116 cells and did not protect these cells from cytotoxicity caused by microtubule drugs, but cells in which p21 expression was restored enjoyed partial protection under these conditions. Moreover, in p53-deficient clones of HCT116 cells doxorubicin did not induce either p53 or p21 and provided no protection against paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity. Therefore, (a) p53-dependent p21 induction caused by doxorubicin protects from microtubule drug-induced cytotoxicity, and (b) pretreatment with cytostatic doses of DNA-damaging drugs before treatment with microtubule drugs results in selective cytotoxicity to cancer cells with defective p53/p21-dependent checkpoint.
Mikhail V. Blagosklonny, Robert Robey, Susan Bates, Tito Fojo
Although virus-specific CD4+ T cells have been characterized extensively in latently infected individuals, it is unclear how these protective T-cell responses develop during primary virus infection in humans. Here, we analyzed the kinetics and characteristics of cytomegalovirus-specific (CMV-specific) CD4+ T cells in the course of primary CMV infection in kidney transplant recipients. Our data reveal that, as the first sign of specific immunity, circulating CMV-specific CD4+ T cells become detectable with a median of 7 days after first appearance of CMV-DNA in peripheral blood. These cells produce the T helper 1 type (Th1) cytokines IFNγ and TNFα, but not the T helper 2 type (Th2) cytokine IL4. In primary CMV infection, the vast majority of these circulating virus-specific T cells have features of recently activated naive T cells in that they coexpress CD45RA and CD45R0 and appear to be in the cell cycle. In contrast, in people who have recovered from CMV infection earlier in life, virus-specific T cells do not cycle and express surface markers characteristic of memory T cells. After the initial rise, circulating virus-specific CD4+ T cells decline rapidly. During this phase, a strong rise in IgM and IgG anti-CMV antibody titers occurs, concomitant with the reduction of CMV-DNA in the circulation.
Rob J. Rentenaar, Laila E. Gamadia, Nicolette van derHoek, Frank N.J. van Diepen, René Boom, Jan F.L. Weel, Pauline M.E. Wertheim-van Dillen, René A.W. van Lier, Ineke J.M. ten Berge