The molecular signaling events by which leptin exerts its functions in vivo are not well delineated. Here, we show a novel leptin signaling mechanism that requires phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)-dependent activation of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B) and subsequent suppression of cAMP levels. In pancreatic beta cells, leptin causes the activation of PDE3B, which leads to marked inhibition of glucagon-like peptide-1-stimulated insulin secretion. The effect of leptin is abolished when insulin secretion is induced with cAMP analogues that cannot be hydrolyzed by PDE3B. Selective inhibitors of PDE3B and PI 3-kinase completely prevent the leptin effect on insulin secretion and cAMP accumulation. The results demonstrate that one of the physiological effects of leptin, suppression of insulin secretion, is mediated through activation of PDE3B and suggest PDE3B as a mediator of leptin action in other tissues.
A Z Zhao, K E Bornfeldt, J A Beavo
Previous studies have implicated the novel peptide antibiotic human beta-defensin 1 (hBD-1) in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis. We describe in this report the isolation and characterization of the second member of this defensin family, human beta-defensin 2 (hBD-2). A cDNA for hBD-2 was identified by homology to hBD-1. hBD-2 is expressed diffusely throughout epithelia of many organs, including the lung, where it is found in the surface epithelia and serous cells of the submucosal glands. A specific antibody made of recombinant peptide detected hBD-2 in airway surface fluid of human lung. The fully processed peptide has broad antibacterial activity against many organisms, which is salt sensitive and synergistic with lysozyme and lactoferrin. These data suggest the existence of a family of beta-defensin molecules on mucosal surfaces that in the aggregate contributes to normal host defense.
R Bals, X Wang, Z Wu, T Freeman, V Bafna, M Zasloff, J M Wilson
Osteoclast activation is initiated by adhesion to the bone surface, followed by cytoskeletal rearrangement, the formation of the sealing zone, and a polarized ruffled membrane. This study shows that PYK2/CAKbeta/RAFTK, a cytoplasmic kinase related to the focal adhesion kinase, is highly expressed in rat osteoclasts in vivo. Using murine osteoclast-like cells (OCLs) or their mononuclear precursors (pOCs), generated in a coculture of bone marrow and osteoblastic MB1.8 cells, we show: (a) tyrosine phosphorylation of PYK2 upon ligation of beta3 integrins or adhesion of pOCs to serum, vitronectin, osteopontin, or fibronectin but not to laminin or collagen; (b) coimmunoprecipitation of PYK2 and c-Src from OCLs; (c) PYK2 binding to the SH2 domains of Src; (d) marked reduction in tyrosine phosphorylation and kinase activity of PYK2 in OCLs derived from Src (-/-) mice, which do not form actin rings and do not resorb bone; (e) PYK2 phosphorylation by exogeneous c-Src; (f) translocation of PYK2 to the Triton X-100 insoluble cytoskeletal fraction upon adhesion; (g) localization of PYK2 in podosomes and the ring-like structures in OCLs plated on glass and in the sealing zone in OCLs plated on bone; and (h) activation of PYK2, in the presence of MB1.8 cells, parallels the formation of sealing zones and pit resorption in vitro and is reduced by echistatin or calcitonin and cytochalasin D. Taken together, these findings suggest that Src-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of PYK2 is involved in the adhesion-induced formation of the sealing zone, required for osteoclastic bone resorption.
L T Duong, P T Lakkakorpi, I Nakamura, M Machwate, R M Nagy, G A Rodan
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the rate-limiting enzyme in triglyceride hydrolysis, is normally not expressed in the liver of adult humans and animals. However, liver LPL is found in the perinatal period, and in adults it can be induced by cytokines. To study the metabolic consequences of liver LPL expression, transgenic mice producing human LPL specifically in the liver were generated and crossed onto the LPL knockout (LPL0) background. LPL expression exclusively in liver rescued LPL0 mice from neonatal death. The mice developed a severe cachexia during high fat suckling, but caught up in weight after switching to a chow diet. At 18 h of age, compared with LPL0 mice, liver-only LPL-expressing mice had equally elevated triglycerides (10,700 vs. 14,800 mg/dl, P = NS), increased plasma ketones (4.3 vs. 1.7 mg/dl, P < 0.05) and glucose (28 vs. 15 mg/dl, P < 0.05), and excessive amounts of intracellular liver lipid droplets. Adult mice expressing LPL exclusively in liver had slower VLDL turnover than wild-type mice, but greater VLDL mass clearance, increased VLDL triglyceride production, and three- to fourfold more plasma ketones. In summary, it appears that liver LPL shunts circulating triglycerides to the liver, which results in a futile cycle of enhanced VLDL production and increased ketone production, and subsequently spares glucose. This may be important to sustain brain and muscle function at times of metabolic stress with limited glucose availability.
M Merkel, P H Weinstock, T Chajek-Shaul, H Radner, B Yin, J L Breslow, I J Goldberg
Screening of serum by using a surface plasmon resonance analysis assay identified beta2-glycoprotein-I/apolipoprotein H as a plasma component binding to the renal epithelial endocytic receptor megalin. A calcium-dependent megalin-mediated beta2-glycoprotein-I endocytosis was subsequently demonstrated by ligand blotting of rabbit renal cortex and uptake analysis in megalin-expressing cells. Immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopic examination of kidneys and the presence of high concentrations of beta2-glycoprotein-I in urine of mice with disrupted megalin gene established that megalin is the renal clearance receptor for beta2-glycoprotein-I. A significant increase in functional affinity for purified megalin was observed when beta2-glycoprotein-I was bound to the acidic phospholipids, phosphatidylserine and cardiolipin. The binding of beta2-glycoprotein-I and beta2-glycoprotein-I- phospholipid complexes to megalin was completely blocked by receptor-associated protein. In conclusion, we have demonstrated a novel receptor recognition feature of beta2-glycoprotein-I. In addition to explaining the high urinary excretion of beta2-glycoprotein-I in patients with renal tubule failure, the data provide molecular evidence for the suggested function of beta2-glycoprotein-I as a linking molecule mediating cellular recognition of phosphatidylserine-exposing particles.
S K Moestrup, I Schousboe, C Jacobsen, J R Leheste, E I Christensen, T E Willnow
Atherosclerosis is associated with immune activation. T cells and macrophages infiltrate atherosclerotic plaques and disease progression is associated with formation of autoantibodies to oxidized lipoproteins. In the apo E knockout mouse, a genetic model of cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis, congenital deficiency of macrophages, lymphocytes, or interferon-gamma receptors result in reduced lesion formation. We have now evaluated whether immune modulation in the adult animal affects disease development. Injections of 7-wk-old male apo E knockout mice with polyclonal immunoglobulin preparations (ivIg) during a 5-d period reduced fatty streak formation over a 2-mo period on cholesterol diet by 35%. Fibrofatty lesions induced by diet treatment for 4 mo were reduced by 50% in mice receiving ivIg after 2 mo on the diet. ivIg treatment also reduced IgM antibodies to oxidized LDL and led to inactivation of spleen and lymph node T cells. These data indicate that ivIg inhibits atherosclerosis, that it is effective both during the fatty streak and plaque phases, and that it may act by modulating T cell activity and/or antibody production. Therefore, immunomodulation may be an effective way to prevent and/or treat atherosclerosis.
A Nicoletti, S Kaveri, G Caligiuri, J Bariéty, G K Hansson
Oxygen deprivation, as occurs during tissue ischemia, tips the natural anticoagulant/procoagulant balance of the endovascular wall to favor activation of coagulation. To investigate the effects of low ambient oxygen tension on the fibrinolytic system, mice were placed in a hypoxic environment with pO2 < 40 Torr. Plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) antigen, detected by ELISA, increased in a time-dependent fashion after hypoxic exposure (increased as early as 4 h, P < 0.05 vs. normoxic controls), and were accompanied by an increase in plasma PAI-1 activity by 4 h (P < 0.05 vs. normoxic controls). Northern analysis of hypoxic murine lung demonstrated an increase in PAI-1 mRNA compared with normoxic controls; in contrast, transcripts for both tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) decreased under hypoxic conditions. Immunocolocalization studies identified macrophages as the predominant source of increased PAI-1 within hypoxic lung. Using a transformed murine macrophage line, striking induction of PAI-1 transcripts occurred under hypoxic conditions, due to both increased de novo transcription as well as increased mRNA stability. Consistent with an important role of the fibrinolytic system in hypoxia-induced fibrin accumulation, PAI-1 +/+ mice exposed to hypoxia exhibited increased pulmonary fibrin deposition based upon a fibrin immunoblot, intravascular fibrin identified by immunostaining, and increased accumulation of 125I-fibrinogen/fibrin in hypoxic tissue. In contrast, mice deficient for the PAI-1 gene (PAI-1 -/-) similarly exposed to hypoxic conditions did not display increased fibrin accumulation compared with normoxic PAI-1 +/+ controls. Furthermore, homozygous null uPA (uPA -/-) and tPA (tPA -/-) mice subjected to oxygen deprivation showed increased fibrin deposition compared with wild-type controls. These studies identify enhanced expression of PAI-1 as an important mechanism suppressing fibrinolysis under conditions of low oxygen tension, a response which may be further amplified by decreased expression of plasminogen activators. Taken together, these data provide insight into an important potential role of macrophages and the fibrinolytic system in ischemia-induced thrombosis.
D J Pinsky, H Liao, C A Lawson, S F Yan, J Chen, P Carmeliet, D J Loskutoff, D M Stern
We have used adenoviral-mediated gene transfer of a constitutively active (V12rac1) and dominant negative (N17rac1) isoform of rac1 to assess the role of this small GTPase in cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. Expression of V12rac1 in neonatal cardiac myocytes results in sarcomeric reorganization and an increase in cell size that is indistinguishable from ligand-stimulated hypertrophy. In addition, V12rac1 expression leads to an increase in atrial natriuretic peptide secretion. In contrast, expression of N17rac1, but not a truncated form of Raf-1, attenuated the morphological hypertrophy associated with phenylephrine stimulation. Consistent with the observed effects on morphology, expression of V12rac1 resulted in an increase in new protein synthesis, while N17rac1 expression inhibited phenylephrine-induced leucine incorporation. These results suggest rac1 is an essential element of the signaling pathway leading to cardiac myocyte hypertrophy.
J B Pracyk, K Tanaka, D D Hegland, K S Kim, R Sethi, I I Rovira, D R Blazina, L Lee, J T Bruder, I Kovesdi, P J Goldshmidt-Clermont, K Irani, T Finkel
Structures resembling germinal centers are seen in the salivary glands of patients with Sjögren's syndrome, but it is not known whether the microenvironment of these cell clusters is sufficient for the induction of a germinal center response. Therefore, we cloned and sequenced rearranged Ig V genes expressed by B cells isolated from sections of labial salivary gland biopsies from two Sjögren's syndrome patients. Rearranged V genes from B cells within one cell cluster were polyclonal and most had few somatic mutations. Two adjacent clusters from another patient each contained one dominant B cell clone expressing hypermutated V genes. None of the rearranged V genes was found in both clusters, suggesting that cells are unable to migrate out into the surrounding tissue and seed new clusters. The ratios of replacement to silent mutations in the framework and complementarity determining regions suggest antigen selection of high-affinity mutants. These results show that an antigen-driven, germinal center-type B cell response is taking place within the salivary glands of Sjögren's syndrome patients. In view of the recent demonstration of a germinal center response within the rheumatoid synovial membrane and the existence of similar structures in the target tissues of other autoimmune diseases, we propose that germinal center- type responses can be induced in the nonlymphoid target tissues of a variety of autoimmune diseases.
D I Stott, F Hiepe, M Hummel, G Steinhauser, C Berek
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in humans is linked with specific HLA class II genes, e.g., HLA-DQA1*0301/ DQB1*0302 (DQ8). To investigate the roles of HLA-DQ8 molecules and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in disease development, we generated DQ8(+)/I-Abo transgenic mice expressing functional HLA-DQ8 molecules and devoid of endogenous mouse class II. DQ8(+)/I-Abo mice produced antigen-specific antibodies and formed germinal centers after immunization with GAD65 peptides. Two GAD peptide-specific (247-266 and 509-528), DQ8 restricted Th1 CD4(+) T cell lines, were generated from immunized DQ8(+)/I-Abo mice. They induced severe insulitis after adoptive transfer into transgene positive (but not negative) mice who were treated with a very low dose of streptozotocin that alone caused no apparent islet pathology. In addition to CD4, islet mRNA from these mice also showed expression of CD8, IFNgamma, TNFalpha, Fas, and Fas ligand. Our data suggest that a mild islet insult in the presence of HLA-DQ8 bearing antigen-presenting cells promotes infiltration of GAD peptide reactive T cells into the islet.
L Wen, F S Wong, L Burkly, M Altieri, C Mamalaki, D Kioussis, R A Flavell, R S Sherwin
The parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) receptor (PTHR) functions in skeletal development and mediates an array of other physiological responses modulated by PTH and PTHrP. PTHR gene transcription in mouse is controlled by two promoters: P1, which is highly and selectively active in kidney; and P2, which functions in a variety of tissues. P1 and P2 are conserved in human tissue; however, P1 activity in kidney is weak. We have now identified a third human promoter, P3, which is widely expressed and accounts for approximately 80% of renal PTHR transcripts in the adult. No P3 activity was detected in mouse kidney, indicating that renal PTHR gene expression is controlled by different signals in human and mouse. During development, only P2 is active at midgestation in many human tissues, including calvaria and long bone. This strongly suggests that factors regulating well conserved P2 control PTHR gene expression during skeletal development. Our results indicate that human PTHR gene transcription is upregulated late in development with the induction of both P1 and P3 promoter activities. In addition, P2-specific transcripts are differentially spliced in a number of human cell lines and adult tissues, but not in fetal tissues, giving rise to a shorter and less structured 5' UTR. Thus, our studies show that both human PTHR gene transcription and mRNA splicing are developmentally regulated. Moreover, our data indicate that renal and nonrenal PTHR gene expression are tightly coordinated in humans.
J D Bettoun, M Minagawa, G N Hendy, L C Alpert, C G Goodyer, D Goltzman, J H White
High viral and/or antigen load may be an important cause of the T cell hyporesponsiveness to hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigens that is often observed in patients with chronic HBV infection. Reduction of viral and antigen load by lamivudine treatment represents an ideal model for investigating this hypothesis. HLA class II restricted T cell responses and serum levels of HBV-DNA, HBsAg, and HBeAg were studied before and during lamivudine treatment in 12 patients with hepatitis B e antigen positive chronic active hepatitis B to assess possible correlations between viral and/or antigen load and vigor of the T cell response. Cell proliferation to HBV nucleocapsid antigens and peptides and frequency of circulating HBV nucleocapsid-specific T cells were assessed to characterize CD4-mediated responses. A highly significant enhancement of the CD4-mediated response to HBV nucleocapsid antigens was already detectable in most patients 7-14 d after the start of lamivudine treatment. This effect was dramatic and persistent in 10 patients but undetectable in 2. It occurred concomitant with a rapid and marked reduction of viremia. Interestingly, lamivudine also enhanced the responses to mitogens and recall antigens, showing that its effect was not limited to HBV-specific T cells. In conclusion, an efficient antiviral T cell response can be restored by lamivudine treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B concurrently with reduction of viremia, indicating the importance of viral load in the pathogenesis of T cell hyporesponsiveness in these patients. Since lamivudine treatment can overcome T cell hyporeactivity, combining lamivudine with treatments directed to stimulate the T cell response may represent an effective strategy to induce eradication of chronic HBV infection.
C Boni, A Bertoletti, A Penna, A Cavalli, M Pilli, S Urbani, P Scognamiglio, R Boehme, R Panebianco, F Fiaccadori, C Ferrari
IFN-alpha has been shown to prolong survival in chronic myeloid leukemia patients, but its mechanism of action is still not understood. The human cobblestone area-forming cell (CAFC) assay allows for the measurement of the concentration of normal as well as malignant stem cells, while their progeny can be measured in parallel long-term culture (LTC) in flasks. Using CAFC and LTC assays, we have examined direct effects of IFN-alpha (500; 5,000 IU/ml) on the maintenance and outgrowth of CD34-enriched normal and malignant stem cells, obtained from six patients with an established major cytogenetic response to IFN-alpha and from four nonresponding patients. CAFC concentrations were not affected by IFN-alpha. In contrast, IFN-alpha strongly inhibited the clonogenic output in flask LTC. Nucleated cells (NC) produced in LTC were evaluated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for the presence of the Philadelphia (Ph) translocation. After 8 wk of LTC, the percentage of Ph+ NCs produced was significantly more inhibited by IFN-alpha in responding patients than in nonresponders. Control LTC without IFN-alpha showed no significant differences of Ph+ NC production between responders and nonresponders. These findings provide the first in vitro model for cytogenetic conversion and suggest that direct antiproliferative effects of IFN-alpha account for the cytogenetic response observed clinically.
J J Cornelissen, R E Ploemacher, B W Wognum, A Borsboom, H C Kluin-Nelemans, A Hagemeijer, B Löwenberg
T cells are essential for controlling infection with Histoplasma capsulatum. Because the T cell receptor is vital for transducing the biological activities of these cells, we sought to determine if exposure to this fungus induced an alteration in the Vbeta repertoire in lungs of C57BL/6 mice infected intranasally. Vbeta2(+) cells were elevated on day 3 after infection; Vbeta4(+) cells were higher than controls on days 7, 10, and 14 after infection. Vbeta10(+) cells were increased on days 14 and 21, and Vbeta11(+) exceeded controls only on day 14. We investigated the clonality and function of Vbeta4(+) cells because their expansion transpired during the critical time of infection, that is, when cellular immunity is activated. Sequence analysis demonstrated preferential use of a restricted set of sequences in the complementarity-determining region 3. Elimination of Vbeta4(+) cells from mice impaired their ability to resolve infection. In contrast, depletion of Vbeta7(+) cells, the abundance of which was similar to that of Vbeta4(+), did not alter elimination of the fungus. The identification of clonotypes of Vbeta4(+) cells suggests that a few antigenic determinants may drive proliferation of this subset, which is necessary for optimal clearance.
F J Gomez, J A Cain, R Gibbons, R Allendoerfer, G S Deepe Jr
After two-thirds hepatectomy, normally quiescent liver cells are stimulated to reenter the cell cycle and proliferate to restore the original liver mass. The level of bZIP transcription factor CCAAT enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) increases in the liver during the period of cell proliferation. The significance of this change in C/EBP expression is not understood. To determine the role of C/EBPbeta in the regenerating liver, we examined the regenerative response after partial hepatectomy in mice that contain a targeted disruption of the C/EBPbeta gene. Posthepatectomy, hepatocyte DNA synthesis was decreased to 25% of normal in C/EBPbeta -/- mice. The reduced regenerative response was associated with a prolonged period of hypoglycemia that was independent of expression of C/EBPalpha protein and gluconeogenic genes. C/EBPbeta -/- livers showed reduced expression of immediate-early growth-control genes including the Egr-1 transcription factor, mitogen-activated protein kinase protein tyrosine phosphatase (MKP-1), and HRS, a delayed-early gene that encodes an mRNA splicing protein. Cyclin B and E gene expression were dramatically reduced in C/EBPbeta -/- livers whereas cyclin D1 expression was normal. The abnormalities in immediate-early gene expression in C/EBPbeta -/- livers were distinct from those seen in IL-6 -/- livers. These data link C/EBPbeta to the activation of metabolic and growth response pathways in the regenerating liver and demonstrate that C/EBPbeta is required for a normal proliferative response.
L E Greenbaum, W Li, D E Cressman, Y Peng, G Ciliberto, V Poli, R Taub
Rat inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD3s) possess a luminal Na+-dependent, active urea secretory transport process, which is upregulated by water diuresis. In this study of perfused IMCDs microdissected from base (IMCD1), middle (IMCD2), or tip (IMCD3) of the inner medulla, we tested whether furosemide diuresis alters active urea transport. Rats received furosemide (10 mg/d s.c. for 3-4 d) and were compared with pair-fed control rats. Furosemide significantly decreased urine osmolality and urea clearance, and increased blood urea nitrogen. IMCD3s from furosemide-treated rats had significantly lower rates of active urea secretion than IMCD3s from control rats. IMCD2s showed no active urea transport in control or furosemide-treated rats. IMCD1s from control rats had no active urea transport, but IMCD1s from furosemide-treated rats expressed significant rates of active urea reabsorption. In IMCD1s, this active urea reabsorptive transport process was inhibited by: (i) 0. 25 mM phloretin (bath); (ii) 1 mM ouabain (bath); and (iii) replacing bath Na+ with NMDG+; it was stimulated by 10 nM bumetanide (bath). In summary, we found that furosemide decreased active urea secretion in IMCD3s and induced active urea reabsorption in IMCD1s. The new Na+- dependent, active urea reabsorptive transport process may be a basolateral Na+-urea antiporter.
A Kato, J M Sands
The cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase 3A4 (CYP3A4) is responsible for the oxidative metabolism of a wide variety of xenobiotics including an estimated 60% of all clinically used drugs. Although expression of the CYP3A4 gene is known to be induced in response to a variety of compounds, the mechanism underlying this induction, which represents a basis for drug interactions in patients, has remained unclear. We report the identification of a human (h) orphan nuclear receptor, termed the pregnane X receptor (PXR), that binds to a response element in the CYP3A4 promoter and is activated by a range of drugs known to induce CYP3A4 expression. Comparison of hPXR with the recently cloned mouse PXR reveals marked differences in their activation by certain drugs, which may account in part for the species-specific effects of compounds on CYP3A gene expression. These findings provide a molecular explanation for the ability of disparate chemicals to induce CYP3A4 levels and, furthermore, provide a basis for developing in vitro assays to aid in predicting whether drugs will interact in humans.
J M Lehmann, D D McKee, M A Watson, T M Willson, J T Moore, S A Kliewer
CD44 is important during myelopoiesis, although the contributions of variant CD44 proteins are unclear. We show here that in human long-term bone marrow culture antibodies recognizing a CD44 NH2-terminal epitope (mab 25-32) or a CD44v6 epitope (mab VFF18) inhibit myelopoiesis. However, mab 25-32 but not mab VFF18 affects myeloid colony formation. These data suggest that an early precursor cell compartment is the target for the 25-32 antibody, whereas the mab VFF18 targets later stages in myelopoiesis. Since the bulk of hemopoietic precursor cells are negative for the v6 epitope and only a minor subset of myeloid cells express the v6 epitope, we have used several human myeloid progenitor cell lines to unravel the function of different CD44 proteins. These cell lines produce variant CD44 proteins, predominantly a new variant CD44v4-v10, when stimulated towards myeloid differentiation. Features that can be acquired by the expression of CD44v4-v10 are an increased hyaluronate (HA) and a de novo chondroitin sulphate A (CS-A) binding. Although, the expression of CD44v4-v10 per se is necessary for HA and CS-A binding, the protein backbone seems to require appropriate glycosylation. HA binding results in CD44-mediated cellular self-aggregation and adhesion to the stromal cell line MS-5. In summary, our data suggest that different CD44 proteins are important for at least two different steps in myelopoiesis.
J Moll, S Khaldoyanidi, J P Sleeman, M Achtnich, I Preuss, H Ponta, P Herrlich
The route of estrogen replacement therapy has a major impact on the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis. Estrogen administration by the oral, but not the transdermal route, reduces IGF-I and increases GH levels in postmenopausal women. To investigate whether these perturbations have metabolic consequences, we compared the effects of 24 wk each of oral (Premarin 1.25 mg) and transdermal (Estraderm 100TTS) estrogen on energy metabolism and body composition in 18 postmenopausal women in an open-label randomized crossover study. Energy expenditure, lipid oxidation (lipid(ox)), and carbohydrate oxidation (CHOox) were measured by indirect calorimetry in the fasted and fed state before and after 2 and 6 mon treatment. Lean body mass, fat mass, and total body bone mineral density were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry before and after 6 mon treatment. Mean (+/-SE) Luteinizing hormone levels fell to comparable levels during oral and transdermal estrogen, and bone mineral density was significantly increased by both treatments. Mean IGF-I was significantly lower during oral estrogen (77+/-7 versus 97+/-7 microg/liter, P < 0.05) treatment. Lipid(ox) 30-60 min after a standardized meal was significantly lower (36+/-5 versus 54+/-5 mg/min, P < 0.01) and CHOox higher (147+/-13 versus 109+/-12 mg/min, P < 0.05) with oral compared with transdermal estrogen. Oral estrogen resulted in a 1.2+/-0.5 kg (P < 0.05) increase in fat mass and a 1.2+/-0.4 kg (P < 0.01) decrease in lean mass compared with transdermal estrogen. Lean body mass (0.4+/-0.2 kg) and fat mass (0. 1+/-0.4 kg) did not change significantly during transdermal estrogen. In summary, when compared with the transdermal route, oral estrogen reduces lipid(ox), increases fat mass, and reduces lean body mass. The route of estrogen therapy confers distinct and divergent effects on substrate oxidation and body composition. The suppression of lipidox during oral estrogen therapy may increase fat mass although the fall in IGF-I may lead to a loss of lean body mass. The route-dependent changes in body composition observed during estrogen replacement therapy may have important implications for postmenopausal health.
A J O'Sullivan, L J Crampton, J Freund, K K Ho
The molecular mechanisms regulating the amount of dietary cholesterol retained in the body as well as the body's ability to selectively exclude other dietary sterols are poorly understood. Studies of the rare autosomal recessively inherited disease sitosterolemia (OMIM 210250) may shed some light on these processes. Patients suffering from this disease appear to hyperabsorb both cholesterol and plant sterols from the intestine. Additionally, there is failure of the liver's ability to preferentially and rapidly excrete these non-cholesterol sterols into bile. Consequently, people who suffer from this disease have very elevated plasma plant sterol levels and develop tendon and tuberous xanthomas, accelerated atherosclerosis, and premature coronary artery disease. Identification of this gene defect may therefore throw light on regulation of net dietary cholesterol absorption and lead to an advancement in the management of this important cardiovascular risk factor. By studying 10 well-characterized families with this disorder, we have localized the genetic defect to chromosome 2p21, between microsatellite markers D2S1788 and D2S1352 (maximum lodscore 4.49, theta = 0.0).
S B Patel, G Salen, H Hidaka, P O Kwiterovich, A F Stalenhoef, T A Miettinen, S M Grundy, M H Lee, J S Rubenstein, M H Polymeropoulos, M J Brownstein
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is characterized by increased concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig), which on electrophoretic analysis shows restricted heterogeneity (oligoclonal bands). CSF Ig is composed of both serum and intrathecally produced components. To examine the properties of intrathecal antibody-producing B cells, we analyzed Ig heavy-chain variable (V(H)) region genes of B cells recovered from the CSF of 12 MS patients and 15 patients with other neurological diseases (OND). Using a PCR technique, we could detect rearrangements of Ig V(H) genes in all samples. Sequence analysis of complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) of rearranged VDJ genes revealed expansion of a dominant clone or clones in 10 of the 12 MS patients. B cell clonal expansion was identified in 3 of 15 OND. The nucleotide sequences of V(H) genes from clonally expanded CSF B cells in MS patients demonstrated the preferential usage of the V(H) IV family. There were numerous somatic mutations, mainly in the CDRs, with a high replacement-to-silent ratio; the mutations were distributed in a way suggesting that these B cells had been positively selected through their antigen receptor. Our results demonstrate that in MS CSF, there is a high frequency of clonally expanded B cells that have properties of postgerminal center memory or antibody-forming lymphocytes.
Y Qin, P Duquette, Y Zhang, P Talbot, R Poole, J Antel
Fibronectin (FN), an extracellular matrix protein, is involved in the adhesion and migration of hematopoietic cells and has been shown to enhance retroviral gene transfer into primitive hematopoietic cells by co-localization of target cells and retrovirus when used as a substrate in vitro. We have previously found that mouse hematopoietic stem cells could be transduced on a FN fragment that included the recognition sequence Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), suggesting that stem cells may express the integrin very late antigen (VLA)-5. To address this, we investigated the binding of mouse and human hematopoietic cells to recombinant peptides that contained one or a combination of the three principle cell-binding domains of FN. These domains included the VLA-5- binding sequence RGD, the VLA-4-binding site CS1, and the high affinity heparin-binding domain. Here we show that mouse long-term in vivo repopulating stem cells, as well as primitive human NOD/SCID mouse repopulating cells, can bind extracellular matrix protein FN by using integrin VLA-5 in vitro. This binding is specific and can be inhibited by antibodies to VLA-5. In addition, preincubation of BM cells with peptide CH-296, which contains all three primary FN-binding domains, decreased the engraftment of cells in the bone marrow in vivo, while intravenous injection of the same peptide induced an increase of progenitor cells in the spleen. In summary, our data demonstrate that VLA-5 is expressed on primitive mouse and human hematopoietic cells and suggest that there may be significant cooperation between integrin receptors and proteoglycan molecules in the engraftment of bone marrow cells and hematopoietic cell adhesion in vivo.
J C van der Loo, X Xiao, D McMillin, K Hashino, I Kato, D A Williams
Experimental models of Chagas' disease, an infection caused by the intracellular protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, have demonstrated the crucial immunoprotective role played by CD8(+) T lymphocytes. These cells dominate inflammatory foci in parasitized tissues and their elimination from mice leads to uncontrolled parasite replication and subsequent death of the infected host. A trypomastigote surface antigen, TSA-1, and two amastigote surface molecules, ASP-1 and ASP-2, were recently identified as targets of CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in T. cruzi-infected mice. Until now, however, there was no evidence for the development of parasite-specific CTL in T. cruzi-infected humans. In this study, human CTL specific for TSA-1-, ASP-1-, and ASP-2-derived peptides were detected in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 21 of 24 HLA-A2(+) T. cruzi-infected patients. CTL recognition was antigen specific, A2-restricted, and CD8(+) T cell-dependent. Demonstration of human CTL against T. cruzi and against target molecules identified using the murine model provides important information for the optimal design and evaluation of vaccines to prevent or ameliorate Chagas' disease.
B Wizel, M Palmieri, C Mendoza, B Arana, J Sidney, A Sette, R Tarleton