Winged helix transcription factors play important roles in cellular differentiation and cell-specific gene expression. To define the role of the winged helix factor hepatocyte nuclear factor/forkhead homologue (HFH)-4, a targeted mutation was created in the mouse hfh-4 gene. No expression of HFH-4 was detected in hfh-4(-)/- mice by RNA blot analysis, in situ hybridization, or RT-PCR. hfh-4(-)/- mice were noted to have abnormalities of organ situs consistent with random determination of left-right asymmetry. In addition, a complete absence of cilia was noted in hfh-4(-)/- mice. The hfh-4 gene is thus essential for nonrandom determination of left-right asymmetry and development of ciliated cells. Homozygous mutant mice also exhibited prenatal and postnatal growth failure, perinatal lethality and, in some cases, hydrocephalus. RT-PCR revealed an absence of left-right dynein (lrd) expression in the embryonic lungs of hfh-4(-)/- mice, suggesting that HFH-4 may act by regulating expression of members of the dynein family of genes. The abnormalities in ciliary development and organ situs in hfh-4(-)/- mice are similar to those observed in human congenital syndromes such as Kartagener syndrome. Targeted mutation of hfh-4 thus provides a model for elucidating the mechanisms regulating ciliary development and determination of left-right asymmetry.
J Chen, H J Knowles, J L Hebert, B P Hackett
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a nuclear receptor implicated in the control of cellular lipid utilization. To test the hypothesis that PPARalpha is activated as a component of the cellular lipid homeostatic response, the expression of PPARalpha target genes was characterized in response to a perturbation in cellular lipid oxidative flux caused by pharmacologic inhibition of mitochondrial fatty acid import. Inhibition of fatty acid oxidative flux caused a feedback induction of PPARalpha target genes encoding fatty acid oxidation enzymes in liver and heart. In mice lacking PPARalpha (PPARalpha-/-), inhibition of cellular fatty acid flux caused massive hepatic and cardiac lipid accumulation, hypoglycemia, and death in 100% of male, but only 25% of female PPARalpha-/- mice. The metabolic phenotype of male PPARalpha-/- mice was rescued by a 2-wk pretreatment with beta-estradiol. These results demonstrate a pivotal role for PPARalpha in lipid and glucose homeostasis in vivo and implicate estrogen signaling pathways in the regulation of cardiac and hepatic lipid metabolism.
F Djouadi, C J Weinheimer, J E Saffitz, C Pitchford, J Bastin, F J Gonzalez, D P Kelly
The spotting lethal rat, a naturally occurring rodent model of Hirschsprung disease, carries a deletion in the endothelin-B receptor (EDNRB) gene that abrogates expression of functional EDNRB receptors. Rats homozygous for this mutation (sl) exhibit coat color spotting and congenital intestinal aganglionosis. These deficits result from failure of the neural crest-derived epidermal melanoblasts and enteric nervous system (ENS) precursors to completely colonize the skin and intestine, respectively. We demonstrate that during normal rat development, the EDNRB mRNA expression pattern is consistent with expression by ENS precursors throughout gut colonization. We used the human dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DbetaH) promoter to direct transgenic expression of EDNRB to colonizing ENS precursors in the sl/sl rat. The DbetaH-EDNRB transgene compensates for deficient endogenous EDNRB in these rats and prevents the intestinal defect. The transgene has no effect on coat color spotting, indicating the critical time for EDNRB expression in enteric nervous system development begins after separation of the melanocyte lineage from the ENS lineage and their common precursor. The transgene dosage affects both the incidence and severity of the congenital intestinal defect, suggesting dosage-dependent events downstream of EDNRB activation in ENS development.
C E Gariepy, S C Williams, J A Richardson, R E Hammer, M Yanagisawa
Despite the prevalence of essential hypertension, its underlying genetic basis has not been elucidated due to the complexities of its determinants. To identify a hypertension susceptibility gene, we used an approach that integrates molecular, transgenic, and genetic analysis using Dahl salt-sensitive (S) and Dahl salt-resistant (R) rats ascertained for genotype and phenotype. To determine the role of the Dahl S Q276L alpha1 Na,K-ATPase gene variant, we developed transgenic Dahl S rats bearing the Dahl R wild-type (wt) alpha1 Na, K-ATPase cDNA directed by the cognate wt promoter region, Tg[wtalpha1]. Transgenic Dahl S rats exhibited less salt-sensitive hypertension, less hypertensive renal disease, and longer life span when compared with non-transgenic Dahl S controls. Total chromosome 2 linkage analysis of F2(SxR) male rats detects cosegregation of the alpha1 Na,K-ATPase locus with salt-sensitive hypertension. These data support the alpha1 Na,K-ATPase gene as a susceptibility gene for salt-sensitive hypertension in the Dahl S rat model, and provide the basis for the study of the alpha1 Na,K-ATPase locus in human hypertension.
V L Herrera, H X Xie, L V Lopez, N J Schork, N Ruiz-Opazo
The potential roles of CD8(+) T-cell-induced chemokines in the expansion of immune responses were examined using DNA immunogen constructs as model antigens. We coimmunized cDNA expression cassettes encoding the alpha-chemokines IL-8 and SDF-1alpha and the beta-chemokines MIP-1alpha, RANTES, and MCP-1 along with DNA immunogens and analyzed the resulting antigen-specific immune responses. In a manner more similar to the traditional immune modulatory role of CD4(+) T cells via the expression of Th1 or Th2 cytokines, CD8(+) T cells appeared to play an important role in immune expansion and effector function by producing chemokines. For instance, IL-8 was a strong inducer of CD4(+) T cells, indicated by strong T helper proliferative responses as well as an enhancement of antibody responses. MIP-1alpha had a dramatic effect on antibody responses and modulated the shift of immune responses to a Th2-type response. RANTES coimmunization enhanced the levels of antigen-specific Th1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. Among the chemokines examined, MCP-1 was the most potent activator of CD8(+) CTL activity. The enhanced CTL results are supported by the increased expression of Th1 cytokines IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha and the reduction of IgG1/IgG2a ratio. Our results support that CD8(+) T cells may expand both humoral and cellular responses in vivo through the elaboration of specific chemokines at the peripheral site of infection during the effector stage of the immune response.
J J Kim, L K Nottingham, J I Sin, A Tsai, L Morrison, J Oh, K Dang, Y Hu, K Kazahaya, M Bennett, T Dentchev, D M Wilson, A A Chalian, J D Boyer, M G Agadjanyan, D B Weiner
Airway surface liquid is comprised of mucus and an underlying, watery periciliary liquid (PCL). In contrast to the well-described axial transport of mucus along airway surfaces via ciliary action, theoretical analyses predict that the PCL is nearly stationary. Conventional and confocal microscopy of fluorescent microspheres and photoactivated fluorescent dyes were used with well-differentiated human tracheobronchial epithelial cell cultures exhibiting spontaneous, radial mucociliary transport to study the movements of mucus and PCL. These studies showed that the entire PCL is transported at approximately the same rate as mucus, 39.2+/-4.7 and 39.8+/-4.2 micrometer/sec, respectively. Removing the mucus layer reduced PCL transport by > 80%, to 4.8+/-0.6 micrometer/sec, a value close to that predicted from theoretical analyses of the ciliary beat cycle. Hence, the rapid movement of PCL is dependent upon the transport of mucus. Mucus-dependent PCL transport was spatially uniform and exceeded the rate expected for pure frictional coupling with the overlying mucus layer; hence, ciliary mixing most likely accelerates the diffusion of momentum from mucus into the PCL. The cephalad movement of PCL along airway epithelial surfaces makes this mucus-driven transport an important component of salt and water physiology in the lung in health and disease.
H Matsui, S H Randell, S W Peretti, C W Davis, R C Boucher
IL-5 is induced locally in the lung and systemically in the circulation during allergic airways eosinophilic inflammation both in humans and experimental animals. However, the precise role of local and systemic IL-5 in the development of allergic airways eosinophilia remains to be elucidated. In our current study, we demonstrate that compared with their IL-5(+/+) counterparts, IL-5(-/-) mice lacked an IL-5 response both in the lung and peripheral blood, yet they released similar amounts of IL-4, eotaxin, and MIP-1alpha in the lung after ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge. At cellular levels, these mice failed to develop peripheral blood and airways eosinophilia while the responses of lymphocytes, neutrophils, and macrophages remained similar to those in IL-5(+/+) mice. To dissect the relative role of local and systemic IL-5 in this model, we constructed a gene transfer vector expressing murine IL-5. Intramuscular IL-5 gene transfer to OVA-sensitized IL-5(-/-) mice led to raised levels of IL-5 compartmentalized to the circulation and completely reconstituted airways eosinophilia upon OVA challenge, which was associated with reconstitution of eosinophilia in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. Significant airways eosinophilia was observed for at least 7 d in these mice. In contrast, intranasal IL-5 gene transfer, when rendered to give rise to a significant but compartmentalized level of transgene protein IL-5 in the lung, was unable to reconstitute airways eosinophilia in OVA-sensitized IL-5(-/-) mice upon OVA-challenge, which was associated with a lack of eosinophilic responses in bone marrow and peripheral blood. Our findings thus provide unequivocal evidence that circulating but not local lung IL-5 is critically required for the development of allergic airways eosinophilia. These findings also provide the rationale for developing strategies to target circulating IL-5 and/or its receptors in bone marrow to effectively control asthmatic airways eosinophilia.
J Wang, K Palmer, J Lŏtvall, S Milan, X F Lei, K I Matthaei, J Gauldie, M D Inman, M Jordana, Z Xing
LIGHT is a new member of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) cytokine family derived from an activated T cell cDNA library. LIGHT mRNA is highly expressed in splenocytes, activated PBL, CD8(+) tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, granulocytes, and monocytes but not in the thymus and the tumor cells examined. Introduction of LIGHT cDNA into MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma caused complete tumor suppression in vivo. Histological examination showed marked neutrophil infiltration and necrosis in LIGHT expressing but not in the parental or the Neo-transfected MDA-MB-231 tumors. Interferon gamma (IFNgamma) dramatically enhances LIGHT-mediated apoptosis. LIGHT protein triggers apoptosis of various tumor cells expressing both lymphotoxin beta receptor (LTbetaR) and TR2/HVEM receptors, and its cytotoxicity can be blocked specifically by addition of a LTbetaR-Fc or a TR2/HVEM-Fc fusion protein. However, LIGHT was not cytolytic to the tumor cells that express only the LTbetaR or the TR2/HVEM or hematopoietic cells examined that express only the TR2/HVEM, such as PBL, Jurkat cells, or CD8(+) TIL cells. In contrast, treatment of the activated PBL with LIGHT resulted in release of IFNgamma. Our data suggest that LIGHT triggers distinct biological responses based on the expression patterns of its receptors on the target cells. Thus, LIGHT may play a role in the immune modulation and have a potential value in cancer therapy.
Y Zhai, R Guo, T L Hsu, G L Yu, J Ni, B S Kwon, G W Jiang, J Lu, J Tan, M Ugustus, K Carter, L Rojas, F Zhu, C Lincoln, G Endress, L Xing, S Wang, K O Oh, R Gentz, S Ruben, M E Lippman, S L Hsieh, D Yang
Lyso-phospholipids exert a major injurious effect on lung cell membranes during Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), but the mechanisms leading to their in vivo generation are still unknown. Intratracheal administration of LPS to guinea pigs induced the secretion of type II secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-II) accompanied by a marked increase in fatty acid and lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC) levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Administration of LY311727, a specific sPLA2-II inhibitor, reduced by 60% the mass of free fatty acid and lyso-PC content in BALF. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis revealed that palmitic acid and palmitoyl-2-lyso-PC were the predominant lipid derivatives released in BALF. A similar pattern was observed after the intratracheal administration of recombinant guinea pig (r-GP) sPLA2-II and was accompanied by a 50-60% loss of surfactant phospholipid content, suggesting that surfactant is a major lung target of sPLA2-II. In confirmation, r-GP sPLA2-II was able to hydrolyze surfactant phospholipids in vitro. This hydrolysis was inhibited by surfactant protein A (SP-A) through a direct and selective protein-protein interaction between SP-A and sPLA2-II. Hence, our study reports an in vivo direct causal relationship between sPLA2-II and early surfactant degradation and a new process of regulation for sPLA2-II activity. Anti-sPLA2-II strategy may represent a novel therapeutic approach in lung injury, such as ARDS.
L Arbibe, K Koumanov, D Vial, C Rougeot, G Faure, N Havet, S Longacre, B B Vargaftig, G Béréziat, D R Voelker, C Wolf, L Touqui
Endothelial cells play a central role in the coordination of the inflammatory response. In mucosal tissue, such as the lung and intestine, endothelia are anatomically positioned in close proximity to epithelia, providing the potential for cell-cell crosstalk. Thus, in this study endothelial-epithelial biochemical crosstalk pathways were studied using a human intestinal crypt cell line (T84) grown in noncontact coculture with human umbilical vein endothelia. Exposure of such cocultures to endothelial-specific agonists (LPS) resulted in activation of epithelial electrogenic Cl- secretion and vectorial fluid transport. Subsequent experiments revealed that in response to diverse stimuli (LPS, IL-1alpha, TNF-alpha, hypoxia), endothelia produce and secrete a small, stable epithelial secretagogue into conditioned media supernatants. Further experiments identified this secretagogue as 6-keto-PGF1alpha, a stable hydrolysis product of prostacyclin (PGI2). Results obtained with synthetic prostanoids indicated that 6-keto-PGF1alpha (EC50 = 80 nM) and PGI2 stable analogues (EC50 = 280 nM) activate the same basolaterally polarized, Ca2+-coupled epithelial receptor. In summary, these findings reveal a previously unappreciated 6-keto-PGF1alpha receptor on intestinal epithelia, the ligation of which results in activation of electrogenic Cl- secretion. In addition, these data reveal a novel action for the prostacyclin hydrolysis product 6-keto-PGF1alpha and provide a potential endothelial- epithelial crosstalk pathway in mucosal tissue.
E D Blume, C T Taylor, P F Lennon, G L Stahl, S P Colgan
Interactions between complementary receptors on leukocytes and endothelial cells play a central role in regulating extravasation from the blood and thereby affect both normal and pathologic inflammatory responses. CD44 on lymphocytes that has been "activated" to bind its principal ligand hyaluronate (HA) on endothelium can mediate the primary adhesion (rolling) of lymphocytes to vascular endothelial cells under conditions of physiologic shear stress, and this interaction is used for activated T cell extravasation into an inflamed site in vivo in mice (DeGrendele, H.C., P. Estess, L.J. Picker, and M.H. Siegelman. 1996. J. Exp. Med. 183:1119-1130. DeGrendele, H.D., P. Estess, and M.H. Siegelman. 1997. Science. 278:672-675. DeGrendele, H.C., P. Estess, and M.H. Siegelman. 1997. J. Immunol. 159: 2549-2553). Here, we have investigated the role of lymphocyte-borne-activated CD44 in the human and show that CD44-dependent primary adhesion is induced in human peripheral blood T cells through T cell receptor triggering. In addition, lymphocytes capable of CD44/HA-dependent rolling interactions can be found resident within inflamed tonsils. In analysis of peripheral bloods of patients from a pediatric rheumatology clinic, examining systemic lupus erythematosus, and a group of chronic arthropathies, expression of CD44-dependent primary adhesion strongly correlates with concurrent symptomatic disease, with 85% of samples from clinically active patients showing elevated levels of rolling activity (compared with only 4% of inactive patients). These rolling interactions are predominantly mediated by T cells. The results suggest that circulating T lymphocytes bearing activated CD44 are elevated under conditions of chronic inflammation and that these may represent a pathogenically important subpopulation of activated circulating cells that may provide a reliable marker for autoimmune or chronic inflammatory disease activity.
P Estess, H C DeGrendele, V Pascual, M H Siegelman
The ligand binding site(s) of the alpha subunit of integrin alphaIIb beta3 (GPIIb-IIIa), a prototypic non-I domain integrin, remains elusive. In this study, we have characterized a Japanese variant of Glanzmann thrombasthenia, KO, whose platelets express normal amounts of alphaIIb beta3. KO platelets failed to bind the activation-independent ligand-mimetic mAb OP-G2 and did not bind fibrinogen or the activation-dependent ligand-mimetic mAb PAC-1 following activation of alphaIIb beta3 under any condition examined. Sequence analysis of PCR fragments derived from KO platelet mRNA revealed a 6-bp insertion leading to a 2-amino-acid insertion (Arg-Thr) between residues 160 and 161 of the alphaIIb subunit. Introduction of the insertion into wild-type recombinant alphaIIb beta3 expressed in 293 cells led to the normal expression of alphaIIb beta3 having the defect in ligand binding function. The insertion is located within the small loop (Cys146-Cys167) in the third NH2-terminal repeat of the alphaIIb subunit. Alanine substitution of each of the oxygenated residues within the loop (Thr150, Ser152, Glu157, Asp159, Ser161, and Asp163) did not significantly affect expression of alphaIIbbeta3, and only Asp163AlaalphaIIb beta3 abolished the ligand binding function. In addition, Asp163AlaalphaIIb beta3 as well as KO mutant alphaIIb beta3 constitutively expressed the PMI-1 epitope. Our present data suggest that Asp163 of the alphaIIb subunit is one of the critical residues for ligand binding.
S Honda, Y Tomiyama, M Shiraga, S Tadokoro, J Takamatsu, H Saito, Y Kurata, Y Matsuzawa
Human mitochondrial trifunctional protein (TFP) is a heterooctamer of four alpha- and four beta-subunits that catalyzes three steps in the beta-oxidation spiral of long-chain fatty acids. TFP deficiency causes a Reye-like syndrome, cardiomyopathy, or sudden, unexpected death. We delineated the molecular basis for TFP deficiency in two patients with a unique phenotype characterized by chronic progressive polyneuropathy and myopathy without hepatic or cardiac involvement. Single-stranded conformation variance and nucleotide sequencing identified all patient mutations in exon 9 of the alpha-subunit. One patient is homozygous for the T845A mutation that substitutes aspartic acid for valine at residue 246. The second patient is a compound heterozygote for the T914A that substitutes asparagine for isoleucine at residue 269 and a C871T that creates a premature termination at residue 255. Allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization studies revealed undetectable levels of the mRNA corresponding to the mutant allele carrying the termination codon. This study suggests a novel genotype-phenotype correlation in TFP deficiency; that is, mutations in exon 9 of the alpha-subunit, which encodes a linker domain between the NH2-terminal hydratase and the COOH-terminal 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, result in a unique neuromuscular phenotype.
J A Ibdah, I Tein, C Dionisi-Vici, M J Bennett, L IJlst, B Gibson, R J Wanders, A W Strauss
It has been reported that exhaled nitric oxide levels are reduced in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We have examined the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the airways by immunostaining and found that iNOS is constitutively expressed in the airway epithelia of non-CF mouse and human tissues but essentially absent in the epithelium of CF airways. We explored potential consequences of lost iNOS expression and found that iNOS inhibition significantly increases mouse nasal trans-epithelial potential difference, and hindered the ability of excised mouse lungs to prevent growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The absence of continuous nitric oxide production in epithelial cells of CF airways may play a role in two CF-associated characteristics: hyperabsorption of sodium and susceptibility to bacterial infections.
T J Kelley, M L Drumm
In the kidney, there is a close and intricate association between epithelial and endothelial cells, suggesting that a complex reciprocal interaction may exist between these two cell types during renal ontogeny. Thus, we examined whether metanephrogenic mesenchymal cells secrete endothelial mitogens. With an endothelial mitogenic assay and sequential chromatography of the proteins in the media conditioned by a cell line of rat metanephrogenic mesenchymal cells (7.1.1 cells), we isolated a protein whose amino acid analysis identified it as hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF). Media conditioned with Cos-7 cell transfected with HDGF cDNA stimulated endothelial DNA synthesis. With immunoaffinity purified antipeptide antibodies, we found that HDGF was widely distributed in the renal anlage at early stages of development but soon concentrated at sites of active morphogenesis and, except for some renal tubules, disappeared from the adult kidney. From a 7.1.1 cells cDNA library, a clone of most of the translatable region of HDGF was obtained and used to synthesize digoxigenin-labeled riboprobes. In situ hybridization showed that during kidney development mRNA for HDGF was most abundant at sites of nephron morphogenesis and in ureteric bud cells while in the adult kidney transcripts disappeared except for a small population of distal tubules. Thus, HDGF is an endothelial mitogen that is present in embryonic kidney, and its expression is synchronous with nephrogenesis.
J A Oliver, Q Al-Awqati
Maintenance of hepatic microcirculatory flow after ischemia of the liver is essential to prevent hepatic dysfunction. Thus, we determined the differential role of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) in the intrinsic control of sinusoidal perfusion, mitochondrial redox state, and bile production in the isolated perfused rat liver after hemorrhagic shock. Administration of tin protoporphyrin-IX (50 microM), a specific inhibitor of the CO generating enzyme heme oxygenase, caused a decrease in sinusoidal flow that was more pronounced after shock compared with sham shock, as determined by in situ epifluorescence microscopy. This was associated with a shift in hepatocellular redox potential to a more reduced state (increased fluorescence intensity of reduced pyridine nucleotides in hepatocytes, decreased acetoacetate/beta-hydroxybutyrate ratio in the perfusate) and a profound reduction in bile flow. In sharp contrast, the preferential inhibitor of the inducible isoform of NO synthase S-methylisothiourea sulfate (100 microM) did not affect sinusoidal flow, hepatic redox state, or function. This indicates that 1.) endogenously generated CO preserves sinusoidal perfusion after hemorrhagic shock, 2.) protection of the hepatic microcirculation by CO may serve to limit shock-induced liver dysfunction, and 3.) in contrast to CO, inducible NO synthase-derived NO is of only minor importance for the intrinsic control of hepatic perfusion and function under these conditions.
B H Pannen, N Köhler, B Hole, M Bauer, M G Clemens, K K Geiger
Immune complex-mediated inflammation is a common mechanism of various autoimmune diseases. Glomerulonephritis (GN) is one of these diseases, and the main mechanism of the induction of GN has been unclear. We examined the contribution of Fc receptors in the induction of nephrotoxic GN by establishing and analyzing mice deficient in the Fc receptor gamma chain (FcRgamma). Whereas all wild-type mice died from severe glomerulonephritis with hypernitremia by administration of anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies, all FcRgamma-deficient mice survived. Histologically, wild-type mice showed glomerular hypercellularity and thrombotic changes, whereas the renal tissue in FcRgamma-deficient mice was almost intact. Deposition of anti-GBM antibody as well as complement components in the GBM were equally observed in both wild-type and knockout mice. These results demonstrate that the triggering of this type of glomerulonephritis is completely dependent on FcR+ cells.
S Y Park, S Ueda, H Ohno, Y Hamano, M Tanaka, T Shiratori, T Yamazaki, H Arase, N Arase, A Karasawa, S Sato, B Ledermann, Y Kondo, K Okumura, C Ra, T Saito
Since the natural immune response to hepatitis C virus (HCV) is often unable to clear the infection, to enhance immunogenicity we studied substituted peptides from an HCV cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope (C7A2) from a conserved region of the HCV core protein (DLMGYIPLV) recognized by CTL lines from HLA-A2.1(+) HCV-infected patients and HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice. HLA-A2.1 binding, human and murine CTL recognition, and in vivo immunogenicity (using mice transgenic for human HLA-A2 in lieu of immunizing humans) were analyzed to define peptides with enhanced immunogenicity. Peptides substituted at position 1 showed enhanced HLA-A2 binding affinity, but paradoxically poorer immunogenicity. A peptide with Ala substituted at position 8 (8A) showed higher HLA-A2 binding affinity and CTL recognition and was a more potent in vivo immunogen in HLA-A2-transgenic mice, inducing higher CTL responses with higher avidity against native C7A2 than induced by C7A2 itself. These results suggest that peptide 8A is a more potent in vitro antigen and in vivo immunogen than C7A2 and may be useful as a vaccine component. They provide proof of principle that the strategy of epitope enhancement can enhance immunogenicity of a CTL epitope recognized by human CTL.
P Sarobe, C D Pendleton, T Akatsuka, D Lau, V H Engelhard, S M Feinstone, J A Berzofsky
We have generated transgenic nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice expressing dominant negative mutant IFN-gamma receptors on pancreatic beta cells to investigate whether the direct effects of IFN-gamma on beta cells contribute to autoimmune diabetes. We have also quantitated by flow cytometry the rise in class I MHC on beta cells of NOD mice with increasing age and degree of islet inflammatory infiltrate. Class I MHC expression increases gradually with age in wild-type NOD mice; however, no such increase is observed in the transgenic beta cells. The transgenic mice develop diabetes at a similar rate to that of wild-type animals. This study dissociates class I MHC upregulation from progression to diabetes, shows that the rise in class I MHC is due to local IFN-gamma action, and eliminates beta cells as the targets of IFN-gamma in autoimmune diabetes.
H E Thomas, J L Parker, R D Schreiber, T W Kay
The immune system can recognize self antigens expressed by cancer cells. Differentiation antigens are prototypes of these self antigens, being expressed by cancer cells and their normal cell counterparts. The tyrosinase family proteins are well characterized differentiation antigens recognized by antibodies and T cells of patients with melanoma. However, immune tolerance may prevent immunity directed against these antigens. Immunity to the brown locus protein, gp75/ tyrosinase-related protein-1, was investigated in a syngeneic mouse model. C57BL/6 mice, which are tolerant to gp75, generated autoantibodies against gp75 after immunization with DNA encoding human gp75 but not syngeneic mouse gp75. Priming with human gp75 DNA broke tolerance to mouse gp75. Immunity against mouse gp75 provided significant tumor protection. Manifestations of autoimmunity were observed, characterized by coat depigmentation. Rejection of tumor challenge required CD4(+) and NK1.1(+) cells and Fc receptor gamma-chain, but depigmentation did not require these components. Thus, immunization with homologous DNA broke tolerance against mouse gp75, possibly by providing help from CD4(+) T cells. Mechanisms required for tumor protection were not necessary for autoimmunity, demonstrating that tumor immunity can be uncoupled from autoimmune manifestations.
L W Weber, W B Bowne, J D Wolchok, R Srinivasan, J Qin, Y Moroi, R Clynes, P Song, J J Lewis, A N Houghton
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced in the rat by active immunization with myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein (MOG) is mediated by synergy between MOG-specific T cells and demyelinating MOG-specific antibody responses. The resulting disease is chronic and displays demyelinating central nervous system (CNS) pathology that closely resembles multiple sclerosis. We analyzed major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype influences on this disease. The MHC haplotype does not exert an all-or-none effect on disease susceptibility. Rather, it determines the degree of disease susceptibility, recruitment of MOG-specific immunocompetent cells, clinical course, and CNS pathology in a hierarchical and allele-specific manner. Major haplotype-specific effects on MOG-EAE map to the MHC class II gene region, but this effect is modified by other MHC genes. In addition, non-MHC genes directly influence both disease and T cell functions, such as the secretion of IFN-gamma. Thus, in MOG-EAE, allelic MHC class II effects are graded, strongly modified by other MHC genes, and overcome by effects of non-MHC genes and environment.
R Weissert, E Wallström, M K Storch, A Stefferl, J Lorentzen, H Lassmann, C Linington, T Olsson