The pathogenic role of antiendothelial cell antibodies (AECA) remains unclear. They are frequently associated with antibodies to anionic phospholipids (PL), such as phosphatidylserine (PS), which is difficult to reconcile with the distribution of PL molecular species within the plasma membrane. Since it is already known that PS is transferred to the outer face of the membrane as a preclude to apoptosis, the possibility exists that apoptosis is initiated by AECA. AECA-positive/anti-PL antibody-negative sera from eight patients with systemic sclerosis (SS) and 21 control patients were evaluated. Endothelial cells (EC) were incubated with AECA and the exposure of PS was established through the binding of annexin V. Hypoploid cell enumeration, DNA fragmentation, and optical and ultrastructural analyses of EC were used to confirm apoptosis. Incubation of EC with AECA derived from six of eight patients with SS led to the expression of PS on the surface of the cells. This phenomenon was significantly more frequent in SS (P < 0.04) than in control diseases. The redistribution of plasma membrane PS preceded other events associated with apoptosis: hypoploidy, DNA fragmentation, and morphology characteristic for apoptosis. Apoptosis-inducing AECA did not recognize the Fas receptor. We conclude that AECA may be pathogenic by inducing apoptosis.
A Bordron, M Dueymes, Y Levy, C Jamin, J P Leroy, J C Piette, Y Shoenfeld, P Y Youinou
19 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients participated in a randomized double-blind crossover investigation to investigate the impact of human C-peptide on skin microvascular blood flow. The investigation was also carried out with 10 healthy volunteers. Blood pressure, heart rate, blood sugar, and C-peptide levels were monitored during a 60-min intravenous infusion period of C-peptide (8 pmol kg-1 min-1) or saline solution (154 mmol liter-1 NaCl), and 30 min after stopping the infusion. During the same time period, capillary blood cell velocity (CBV), laser Doppler flux (LDF), and skin temperature were assessed in the feet. In the verum arm, C-peptide levels increased after starting infusion to reach a maximum of 2.3+/-0.2 nmol liter-1 after 45 min, but remained below 0. 15 nmol liter-1 during the saline treatment. Baseline CBV was lower in diabetic patients compared with healthy subjects (147+/-3.6 vs. 162+/-4.2 micron s-1; P < 0.01). During C-peptide administration, CBV in IDDM patients increased progressively from 147+/-3.6 to 167+/-3.7 micron s-1; P < 0.001), whereas no significant change occurred during saline infusion or in healthy subjects. In contrast to the CBV measurements, the investigation of LDF, skin temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, or blood sugar did not demonstrate any significant change during the study. Replacement of human C-peptide in IDDM patients leads to a redistribution in skin microvascular blood flow levels comparable to levels in healthy subjects by increasing the nutritive CBV relative to subpapillary arteriovenous shunt flow.
T Forst, T Kunt, T Pohlmann, K Goitom, M Engelbach, J Beyer, A Pfützner
The oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL) is an X-linked human genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, congenital cataracts, and renal tubular dysfunction. The Lowe syndrome gene, OCRL1, encodes a phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 5-phosphatase in the Golgi complex. The pathogenesis of Lowe syndrome due to deficiency of a phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 5-phosphatase in the Golgi complex is unknown. We have used targeted disruption in embryonic stem cells to make mice deficient in Ocrl1, the mouse homologue for OCRL1, as an animal model for the disease. Surprisingly, mice deficient in Ocrl1 do not develop the congenital cataracts, renal Fanconi syndrome, or neurological abnormalities seen in the human disorder. We hypothesized that Ocrl1 deficiency is complemented in mice by inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (Inpp5b), an autosomal gene that encodes a phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate 5-phosphatase highly homologous to Ocrl1. We created mice deficient in Inpp5b; the mice were viable and fertile without phenotype except for testicular degeneration in males beginning after sexual maturation. We crossed mice deficient in Ocrl1 to mice deficient in Inpp5b. No liveborn mice or embryos lacking both enzymes were found, demonstrating that Ocrl1 and Inpp5b have overlapping functions in mice and suggesting that the lack of phenotype in Ocrl1-deficient mice may be due to compensating Inpp5b function.
P A Jänne, S F Suchy, D Bernard, M MacDonald, J Crawley, A Grinberg, A Wynshaw-Boris, H Westphal, R L Nussbaum
Postischemic injury in recipients of 3-7-d-old renal allografts was classified into sustained (n = 19) or recovering (n = 20) acute renal failure (ARF) according to the prevailing inulin clearance. Recipients of optimally functioning, long-standing allografts and living donors undergoing nephrectomy served as functional (n = 14) and structural controls (n = 10), respectively. Marked elevation above control of fractional clearance of dextrans of graded size was consistent with transtubular backleak of 57% of filtrate (inulin) in sustained ARF. No backleak was detected in recovering ARF. To explore a structural basis for backleak, allograft biopsies were taken intraoperatively, 1 h after reperfusion in all recipients, and again on day 7 after transplant in a subset (n = 10). Electron microscopy revealed disruption of both apical and basolateral membranes of proximal tubule cells in both sustained and recovering ARF, but cell exfoliation and tubule basement membrane denudation were negligible. Histochemical analysis of membrane-associated adhesion complexes confirmed an abnormality of proximal but not distal tubule cells, marked in sustained ARF but not in recovering ARF. Staining for the zonula occludens complex (ZO-1) and adherens complex (alpha, beta, and gamma catenins) revealed diminished intensity and redistribution of each cytoskeletal protein from the apico-lateral membrane boundary. We conclude that impaired integrity of tight junctions and cell-cell adhesion in the proximal tubule provides a paracellular pathway through which filtrate leaks back in sustained allograft ARF.
O Kwon, W J Nelson, R Sibley, P Huie, J D Scandling, D Dafoe, E Alfrey, B D Myers
LPS-binding protein (LBP) recognizes bacterial LPS and transfers it to CD14, thereby enhancing host cell stimulation, eventually resulting in pathogenic states such as septic shock. Recently, LBP also was shown to detoxify LPS by transferring LPS into HDL particles in vitro. Thus, the predominant in vivo function of LBP has remained unclear. To investigate the biological activity of acute phase concentrations of recombinant murine LBP, high concentrations of LBP were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Although addition of low concentrations of LBP to a murine macrophage cell line enhanced LPS-induced TNF-alpha synthesis, acute phase concentrations of LBP blocked this effect in comparison to low-dose LBP. When injected into mice intraperitoneally, LBP inhibited LPS-mediated cytokine release and prevented hepatic failure resulting in a significantly decreased mortality rate in LPS-challenged and D-galactosamine-sensitized mice, as well as in a murine model of bacteremia. These results complement a recent study revealing LBP-deficient mice to be dramatically more susceptible to an intraperitoneal Salmonella infection as compared with normal mice. We conclude that acute phase LBP has a protective effect against LPS and bacterial infection and may represent a physiologic defense mechanism against infection. Despite the limitations of any murine sepsis model, the results shown may imply that LBP could have beneficial effects during gram-negative peritonitis in humans.
N Lamping, R Dettmer, N W Schröder, D Pfeil, W Hallatschek, R Burger, R R Schumann
The basolateral Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC1) is a key component of the intestinal crypt cell secretory apparatus. Its fate during the transition to absorptive enterocyte and the potential impact of its altered expression on secretory output have not been addressed. In this report, NKCC1 mRNA was found to be expressed in rat jejunal crypt but not villus cells. Butyrate treatment of intestinal epithelial HT29 cells induced a differentiation pattern that recapitulated the rat intestinal crypt-villus axis, with NKCC1 mRNA levels decreasing in a time- and dose-dependent fashion in parallel with upregulation of apical brush-border markers. Butyrate but not acetate or proprionate decreased basal and cAMP-stimulated bumetanide-sensitive K+ (86Rb) uptake in both HT29 cells and the Cl--secreting T84 line. Butyrate markedly decreased transepithelial Cl- secretion in confluent T84 monolayers without effect on cAMP-regulated apical Cl- efflux. We conclude that NKCC1 regulation during enterocyte differentiation occurs at the level of gene expression, and that selective downregulation of NKCC1 gene expression and function by butyrate leads to a profound decrease in transepithelial Cl- secretion. These data emphasize the importance of NKCC1 in determining epithelial secretory capacity and suggest the possibility of modulation of the enterocytic transport phenotype as therapy for diarrheal disorders.
J B Matthews, I Hassan, S Meng, S Y Archer, B J Hrnjez, R A Hodin
The bradykinin B1-receptor is strongly upregulated under chronic inflammatory conditions. However, the mechanism and reason are not known. Because a better understanding of the mechanism of the upregulation will help in understanding its potential importance in inflammation, we have studied the molecular mechanism of B1-receptor upregulation in cultured human lung fibroblasts (IMR 90) in response to IL-1beta and the B1-agonist [des-Arg10]-kallidin. We show that treatment of human IMR 90 cells by IL-1beta stimulates the expression of both B1-receptor mRNA and protein. The latter was studied by Western blot analysis using antipeptide antibodies directed against the COOH-terminal part of the human B1-receptor. We furthermore report the novel observation that the B1-receptor is upregulated by its own agonist which was completely blocked by the specific B1-antagonist [des-Arg10-Leu9]-kallidin, indicating an upregulation entirely mediated through cell surface B1-receptors. The increased population of B1-receptors was functionally coupled as exemplified by an enhancement of the B1-agonist induced increase in free cytosolic calcium. Upregulation by the B1-agonist was blocked by a specific protein kinase C inhibitor. B1-agonist-induced upregulation was correlated to the induction of transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) which efficiently bound to the NF-kappaB-like sequence located in the promoter region of the human B1-receptor gene. This correlation was further confirmed by reporter gene assays which showed that this NF-kappaB-like sequence, in the B1-receptor promoter context, could contribute to IL-1beta and DLBK-induced B1-receptor transcription activation, and by the effect of NF-kappaB inhibitor pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate which diminished both B1-receptor upregulation and NF-kappaB activation. NF-kappaB is now recognized as a key inflammatory mediator which is activated by the B1-agonist but which is also involved in B1-receptor upregulation.
J P Schanstra, E Bataillé, M E Marin Castaño, Y Barascud, C Hirtz, J B Pesquero, C Pecher, F Gauthier, J P Girolami, J L Bascands
Sodium-dependent uptake of bile acids across the hepatic basolateral membrane is rapidly and profoundly diminished during sepsis, thus contributing to the pathogenesis of sepsis-associated cholestasis. This effect is mediated by endotoxin or effector cytokines, which reduce expression of several hepatobiliary transporters, including the sodium-dependent bile acid transporter gene, ntcp. We test here the hypothesis that endotoxin treatment leads to impaired binding activity of ntcp promoter trans-acting factors, resulting in reduction of ntcp mRNA expression. After endotoxin administration, ntcp mRNA levels reached their nadir by 16 h, and nuclear run-on assays demonstrated a marked reduction in ntcp gene transcription. At 16 h after treatment, nuclear binding activities of two key factors that transactivate the ntcp promoter, hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 1 and Footprint B binding protein (FpB BP), decreased to 44 and 47% of pretreatment levels, respectively, while levels of the other known ntcp promoter transactivator, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5, were unaffected. In contrast, the universal inflammatory response factors nuclear factor kappaB and activating protein 1 were both upregulated significantly. Examination of nuclear extracts obtained at sequential time points revealed that the maximal decrease in nuclear activities of both HNF1 and FpB BP preceded the nadir of ntcp mRNA expression by 6-10 h. Furthermore, these two nuclear factors returned towards normal levels before the recovery of ntcp mRNA levels observed by 48 h. Since HNF1alpha mRNA levels were unchanged at all time points, HNF1 is likely to be regulated posttranscriptionally by endotoxin. We conclude that the downregulation of ntcp gene expression by endotoxin is mediated at the level of transcription through tandem reductions in the nuclear binding activity of two critical transcription factors. These findings provide new insight into the coordinated downregulation of hepatobiliary transporters during sepsis.
M Trauner, M Arrese, H Lee, J L Boyer, S J Karpen
We characterized a novel form of extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) in atherosclerotic vessels. Specific activity and protein expression of ecSOD was increased two- to threefold in apo E-deficient compared with control aortas. RNase protection assays demonstrated that the expected ecSOD transcript was not increased in either apo E-deficient mice or cholesterol-fed LDL receptor-deficient mice, but that a second, lower molecular weight transcript was present and became predominant as atherosclerosis progressed. Sequence analysis revealed that this novel ecSOD has a 10-bp deletion in the 3' untranslated region and an asparagine to aspartic acid mutation at amino acid 21. Studies of isolated macrophages and immunohistochemistry suggested that the truncated ecSOD transcript was expressed by lipid-laden but not control macrophages. Recombinant wild-type and novel ecSODs expressed in Sf9 cells exhibited similar SOD activities. These experiments show that ecSOD expression is increased in atherosclerotic vessels and that this is characterized by an alteration in mRNA and protein structure. Further, the source of this altered ecSOD is likely the lipid-laden macrophage. The enzymatic properties of this novel ecSOD may have important implications for the function of the lipid-laden macrophage and the atherosclerotic process.
T Fukai, Z S Galis, X P Meng, S Parthasarathy, D G Harrison
Mutation of the murine maturity-onset diabetes mellitus of the young (Mody) locus induces diabetes, but the effects of its homozygosity on the pancreas remain unknown. F2 mice were obtained by F1 (diabetic C57BL6 x normal Mus musculus castaneus) crosses. About 20% of the F2 progeny developed diabetes by 2 wk of age, 50% of the progeny were normal at 2 wk and developed diabetes between 5 and 8 wk of age, and the remaining 30% did not develop diabetes. Quantitative trait locus analysis using blood glucose levels of 118 F2 mice at 2 wk of age and 5-8 wk of age located Mody within 3 cM of D7Mit258. Histopathological investigation revealed hypoplastic islets (approximately 33% of that of wild-type mice) and a lower density of beta cells (approximately 20% of wild-type) with a reciprocal dominance of alpha cells (four times that of wild-type) in Mody homozygotes. Electron microscopic observations revealed a specific decrease in the number of insulin secretory granules and a lower density of beta cells. Ratios of insulin to glucagon contents confirmed specific decreases in insulin content: 0.01 for homozygotes, 0.54 for heterozygotes, and 1.11 for wild-type mice on day 14. These results suggest that Mody is involved in both islet growth and beta cell function.
T Kayo, A Koizumi
Ex vivo gene therapy of primary myopathies, based on autologous transplantation of genetically modified myogenic cells, is seriously limited by the number of primary myogenic cells that can be isolated, expanded, transduced, and reimplanted into the patient's muscles. We explored the possibility of using the MyoD gene to induce myogenic conversion of nonmuscle, primary cells in a quantitatively relevant fashion. Primary human and murine fibroblasts from skin, muscle, or bone marrow were infected by an E1-deleted adenoviral vector carrying a retroviral long terminal repeat-promoted MyoD cDNA. Expression of MyoD caused irreversible withdrawal from the cell cycle and myogenic differentiation in the majority (from 60 to 90%) of cultured fibroblasts, as defined by activation of muscle-specific genes, fusion into contractile myotubes, and appearance of ultrastructurally normal sarcomagenesis in culture. 24 h after adenoviral exposure, MyoD-converted cultures were injected into regenerating muscle of immunodeficient (severe combined immunodeficiency/beige) mice, where they gave rise to beta-galactosidase positive, centrally nucleated fibers expressing human myosin heavy chains. Fibers originating from converted fibroblasts were indistinguishable from those obtained by injection of control cultures of lacZ-transduced satellite cells. MyoD-converted murine fibroblasts participated to muscle regeneration also in immunocompetent, syngeneic mice. Although antibodies from these mice bound to adenoviral infected cells in vitro, no inflammatory infiltrate was present in the graft site throughout the 3-wk study period. These data support the feasibility of an alternative approach to gene therapy of primary myopathies, based on implantation of large numbers of genetically modified primary fibroblasts massively converted to myogenesis by adenoviral delivery of MyoD ex vivo.
L Lattanzi, G Salvatori, M Coletta, C Sonnino, M G Cusella De Angelis, L Gioglio, C E Murry, R Kelly, G Ferrari, M Molinaro, M Crescenzi, F Mavilio, G Cossu
Airway hyperresponsiveness leading to subepithelial fibrosis is mediated by inflammatory cells activated by T helper (Th) 2-derived cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-5. By analyzing the phenotype and response of human lung fibroblasts derived from either fetal (ICIG7) or adult (CCL202) tissue as well as from a Th2-type stromal reaction (FPA) to IL-4 and IL-13, we provide evidence that human lung fibroblasts may behave as inflammatory cells upon activation by IL-4 and IL-13. We show that the three types of fibroblasts constitute different populations that display a distinct pattern in cell surface molecule expression and proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine release. All fibroblasts express functional but different IL-4/IL-13 receptors. Thus, while IL-4 receptor (R) alpha and IL-13Ralpha1 chains are present in all the cells, CCL202 and FPA fibroblasts coexpress the IL-13Ralpha2 and the IL-2Rgamma chain, respectively, suggesting the existence of a heterotrimeric receptor (IL-4Ralpha/IL-13Ralpha/IL-2Rgamma) able to bind IL-4 and IL-13. Stimulation with IL-4 or IL-13 triggers in the fibroblasts a differential signal transduction and upregulation in the expression of beta1 integrin and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and in the production of IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, two inflammatory cytokines important in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation. Our results suggest that when activated by IL-4 and IL-13, different subsets of lung fibroblasts may act as effector cells not only in the pathogenesis of asthma but also in lung remodeling processes. They may also differentially contribute to trigger and maintain the recruitment, homing, and activation of inflammatory cells.
C Doucet, D Brouty-Boyé, C Pottin-Clémenceau, G W Canonica, C Jasmin, B Azzarone
Receptor-mediated endocytosis of albumin is an important function of the kidney proximal tubule epithelium. We have measured endocytosis of [125I]-albumin in opossum kidney cells and examined the regulation of this process by phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase). Albumin endocytosis was inhibited by both wortmannin (IC50 6.9 nM) and LY294002 (IC50 6.5 microM) at concentrations that suggested the involvement of PI 3-kinase in its regulation. Recycling rates were unaffected. We transfected OK cells with either a wild-type p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase, or a dominant negative form of the p85 subunit (Deltap85) using the LacSwitch expression system. Transfects were screened by immunoblotting with anti-PI 3-kinase antibodies. Under basal conditions, transfects demonstrated no expression of p85 or Deltap85, but expression was briskly induced by treatment of the cells with IPTG (EC50 13.7 microM). Inhibition of PI 3-kinase activity by Deltap85 was confirmed by in vitro kinase assay of anti-phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitates from transfected cells stimulated with insulin. Expression of Deltap85 resulted in marked inhibition of albumin endocytosis, predominantly as a result of reduction of the Vmax of the transport process. Expression of p85 had no significant effect on albumin uptake. The results demonstrate that PI 3-kinase regulates an early step in the receptor-mediated endocytosis of albumin by kidney proximal tubular cells.
N J Brunskill, J Stuart, A B Tobin, J Walls, S Nahorski
Transgenic rabbits expressing human apo E3 were generated to investigate mechanisms by which apo E modulates plasma lipoprotein metabolism. Compared with nontransgenic littermates expressing approximately 3 mg/dl of endogenous rabbit apo E, male transgenic rabbits expressing approximately 13 mg/dl of human apo E had a 35% decrease in total plasma triglycerides that was due to a reduction in VLDL levels and an absence of large VLDL. With its greater content of apo E, transgenic VLDL had an increased binding affinity for the LDL receptor in vitro, and injected chylomicrons were cleared more rapidly by the liver in transgenic rabbits. In contrast to triglyceride changes, transgenic rabbits had a 70% increase in plasma cholesterol levels due to an accumulation of LDL and apo E-rich HDL. Transgenic and control LDL had the same binding affinity for the LDL receptor. Both transgenic and control rabbits had similar LDL receptor levels, but intravenously injected human LDL were cleared more slowly in transgenic rabbits than in controls. Changes in lipoprotein lipolysis did not contribute to the accumulation of LDL or the reduction in VLDL levels. These observations suggest that the increased content of apo E3 on triglyceride-rich remnant lipoproteins in transgenic rabbits confers a greater affinity for cell surface receptors, thereby increasing remnant clearance from plasma. The apo E-rich large remnants appear to compete more effectively than LDL for receptor-mediated binding and clearance, resulting in delayed clearance and the accumulation of LDL in plasma.
J Fan, Z S Ji, Y Huang, H de Silva, D Sanan, R W Mahley, T L Innerarity, J M Taylor
Hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis (HCAO) is a rare disorder characterized by a marked increase in bone mass during adult life. Despite the rarity of HCAO, understanding the mediator(s) of the skeletal disease is of great interest. The IGFs-I and -II have potent anabolic effects on bone, and alterations in the IGFs and/or IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) could be responsible for the increase in bone formation in this disorder. Thus, we assayed sera from seven cases of HCAO for IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-IIE (an IGF-II precursor), and IGFBPs. The distribution of the serum IGFs and IGFBPs between their ternary ( approximately 150 kD) and binary (approximately 50 kD) complexes was also determined to assess IGF bioavailability. HCAO patients had normal serum levels of IGF-I and -II, but had markedly elevated levels of IGF-IIE. Of the IGFBPs, an increase in IGFBP-2 was unique to these patients and was not found in control hepatitis C or hepatitis B patients. IGF-I and -II in sera from patients with HCAO were carried, as in the case of sera from control subjects, bound to IGFBP-3 in the approximately 150-kD complex, which is retained in the circulation. However, IGF-IIE was predominantly in the approximately 50-kD complex in association with IGFBP-2; this complex can cross the capillary barrier and access target tissues. In vitro, we found that IGF-II enhanced by over threefold IGFBP-2 binding to extracellular matrix produced by human osteoblasts and that in an extracellular matrix-rich environment, the IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex was as effective as IGF-II alone in stimulating human osteoblast proliferation. Thus, IGFBP-2 may facilitate the targeting of IGFs, and in particular IGF-IIE, to skeletal tissue in HCAO patients, with a subsequent stimulation by IGFs of osteoblast function. Our findings in HCAO suggest a possible means to increase bone mass in patients with osteoporosis.
S Khosla, A A Hassoun, B K Baker, F Liu, N N Zein, M P Whyte, C A Reasner, T B Nippoldt, R D Tiegs, R L Hintz, C A Conover
Low birth weight in humans is predictive of insulin resistance and diabetes in adult life. The molecular mechanisms underlying this link are unknown but fetal exposure to excess glucocorticoids has been implicated. The fetus is normally protected from the higher maternal levels of glucocorticoids by feto-placental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-2 (11beta-HSD2) which inactivates glucocorticoids. We have shown previously that inhibiting 11beta-HSD2 throughout pregnancy in rats reduces birth weight and causes hyperglycemia in the adult offspring. We now show that dexamethasone (a poor substrate for 11beta-HSD2) administered to pregnant rats selectively in the last week of pregnancy reduces birth weight by 10% (P < 0.05), and produces adult fasting hyperglycemia (treated 5.3+/-0.3; control 4.3+/-0.2 mmol/ liter, P = 0.04), reactive hyperglycemia (treated 8.7+/-0.4; control 7.5+/-0.2 mmol/liter, P = 0.03), and hyperinsulinemia (treated 6.1+/-0.4; control 3.8+/-0.5 ng/ml, P = 0.01) on oral glucose loading. In the adult offspring of rats exposed to dexamethasone in late pregnancy, hepatic expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) mRNA (and activity) are increased by 25% (P = 0.01) and 60% (P < 0.01), respectively, while other liver enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase, glucokinase, and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-1) are unaltered. In contrast dexamethasone, when given in the first or second week of gestation, has no effect on offspring insulin/glucose responses or hepatic PEPCK and GR expression. The increased hepatic GR expression may be crucial, since rats exposed to dexamethasone in utero showed potentiated glucose responses to exogenous corticosterone. These observations suggest that excessive glucocorticoid exposure late in pregnancy predisposes the offspring to glucose intolerance in adulthood. Programmed hepatic PEPCK overexpression, perhaps mediated by increased GR, may promote this process by increasing gluconeogenesis.
M J Nyirenda, R S Lindsay, C J Kenyon, A Burchell, J R Seckl
Brief ischemic episodes confer marked protection against myocardial stunning 1-3 d later (late preconditioning [PC] against stunning). The mechanism of this powerful protective effect is poorly understood. Although protein kinase C (PKC) has been implicated in PC against infarction, it is unknown whether it triggers late PC against stunning. In addition, the entire PKC hypothesis of ischemic PC remains controversial, possibly because the effects of PKC inhibitors on PC protection have not been correlated with their effects on PKC activity and/or translocation in vivo. Thus, conscious rabbits underwent a sequence of six 4-min coronary occlusion (O)/4-min reperfusion (R) cycles for three consecutive days (days 1, 2, and 3). In the control group (group I, n = 7), the recovery of systolic wall thickening after the six O/R cycles was markedly improved on days 2 and 3 compared with day 1, indicating the development of late PC against stunning. Administration of the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine at a dose of 5 mg/kg before the first O on day 1 (group II, n = 10) abrogated the late PC effect against stunning, whereas a 10-fold lower dose (0.5 mg/kg; group III, n = 7) did not. Administration of 5 mg/kg of chelerythrine 10 min after the sixth reperfusion on day 1 (group IV, n = 6) failed to block late PC against stunning. When rabbits were given 5 mg/kg of chelerythrine in the absence of O/R (group V, n = 5), the severity of myocardial stunning 24 h later was not modified. Pretreatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (4 microg/kg) on day 1 without ischemia (group VI, n = 11) induced late PC against stunning on day 2 and the magnitude of this effect was equivalent to that observed after ischemic PC. In vehicle-treated rabbits (group VIII, n = 5), the six O/R cycles caused translocation of PKC isoforms epsilon and eta from the cytosolic to the particulate fraction without significant changes in total PKC activity, in the subcellular distribution of total PKC activity, or in the subcellular distribution of the alpha, beta1, beta2, gamma, delta, zeta, iota, lambda, and mu isoforms. The higher dose of chelerythrine (5 mg/kg; group X, n = 5) prevented the translocation of both PKC epsilon and eta induced by ischemic PC, whereas the lower dose (0.5 mg/kg; group XI, n = 5) prevented the translocation of PKC eta but not that of epsilon, indicating that the activation of epsilon is necessary for late PC to occur whereas that of eta is not. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that a PKC inhibitor actually prevents the translocation of PKC induced by ischemic PC in vivo, and that this inhibition of PKC translocation results in loss of PC protection. Taken together, the results demonstrate that the mechanism of late PC against myocardial stunning in conscious rabbits involves a PKC-mediated signaling pathway, and implicate epsilon as the specific PKC isoform responsible for the development of this cardioprotective phenomenon.
Y Qiu, P Ping, X L Tang, S Manchikalapudi, A Rizvi, J Zhang, H Takano, W J Wu, S Teschner, R Bolli
Inhibition of the renal brush border membrane (BBM) Na/H exchanger by cAMP-dependent protein kinase, PKA, requires participation of a recently cloned regulatory cofactor, Na/H exchanger-regulatory factor (NHE-RF). As deduced from the cDNA of this 358-amino acid protein, amino acids 11-101 and amino acids 150-241 of the NHE-RF protein share 74% overall homology suggesting duplication of these PDZ containing domains. The serine residues at amino acid position 289 and 340 are considered to be the most likely sites for PKA mediated phosphorylation. To study the structure- function relation between NHE-RF and PKA mediated inhibition of the rabbit BBM Na/H exchanger, the effect of recombinant proteins representing full-length NHE-RF as well as truncated and mutant forms of NHE-RF were determined using a reconstitution assay. The reconstitution assay employed a fraction of rabbit BBM proteins that contains Na/H exchanger activity that is not regulated by PKA. NHE-RF in the presence of ATP and Mg but not PKA, inhibited Na/H exchange activity in a concentration-dependent manner. In the presence of PKA, there was a significant left shift in the dose-response relation such that 10(-12) M NHE-RF inhibited Na/H exchange transport by 30% in the presence but not in the absence of PKA. A recombinant polypeptide representing amino acids 1-151 (Domain I) did not affect Na/H exchange transport in the presence or absence of PKA. A polypeptide representing amino acids 149-358 (Domain II) in the presence of ATP and Mg but not PKA, inhibited Na/H exchange activity in a concentration-dependent manner. In the presence of PKA, there was a left shift in the dose-response relation. 10(-12) M of Domain II polypeptide inhibited transport by 18% in the presence but not in the absence of PKA. Mutation of serine residues 287, 289, and 290 to alanine did not affect the inhibitory effect in the absence of PKA but abolished the left shift in the dose-response relation elicited by PKA. Mutation of serine residues 339 and 340 to alanine were without effect on PKA dependent regulation of Na/H exchange transport. These studies indicate that NHE-RF inhibits basal rabbit renal BBM Na/H exchange activity-an effect which is augmented by PKA. The amino acid sequences in the polypeptide containing only the NH2-terminal PDZ domain of NHE-RF have no intrinsic activity as an inhibitor but appears to be required for the full-length NHE-RF to express its full inhibitory effect on the BBM Na/H exchanger. One or more of the serine residues at positions 287, 289, and/or 290 represent the critical PKA phosphorylation site(s) on the NHE-RF protein that mediates the physiologic effect of cAMP on the renal BBM Na/H exchanger.
E J Weinman, D Steplock, K Tate, R A Hall, R F Spurney, S Shenolikar
Studies in vitro suggested that inflammatory cytokines could cause myocardial dysfunction. However, the detailed mechanism for the cytokine-induced myocardial dysfunction in vivo remains to be examined. We thus examined this point in our new canine model in vivo, in which microspheres with and without IL-1beta were injected into the left main coronary artery. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was evaluated by echocardiography for 1 wk. Immediately after the microsphere injection, LVEF decreased to approximately 30% in both groups. While LVEF rapidly normalized in 2 d in the control group, it was markedly impaired in the IL-1beta group even at day 7. Pretreatment with dexamethasone or with aminoguanidine, an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase, prevented the IL-1beta-induced myocardial dysfunction. Nitrotyrosine concentration, an in vivo marker of the peroxynitrite production by nitric oxide and superoxide anion, was significantly higher in the myocardium of the IL-1beta group than in that of the control group or the group cotreated with dexamethasone or aminoguanidine. There was an inverse linear relationship between myocardial nitrotyrosine concentrations and LVEF. These results indicate that IL-1beta induces sustained myocardial dysfunction in vivo and that nitric oxide produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase and the resultant formation of peroxynitrite are substantially involved in the pathogenesis of the cytokine-induced sustained myocardial dysfunction in vivo.
J i Oyama, H Shimokawa, H Momii, X Cheng, N Fukuyama, Y Arai, K Egashira, H Nakazawa, A Takeshita
Mutations in the gene for the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 1alpha cause maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) 3, a form of diabetes that results from defects in insulin secretion. Since the nature of these defects has not been defined, we compared insulin secretory function in heterozygous [HNF-1alpha (+/-)] or homozygous [HNF-1alpha (-/-)] mice with null mutations in the HNF-1alpha gene with their wild-type littermates [HNF-1alpha (+/+)]. Blood glucose concentrations were similar in HNF-1alpha (+/+) and (+/-) mice (7.8+/-0.2 and 7.9+/-0.3 mM), but were significantly higher in the HNF-1alpha (-/-) mice (13.1+/-0.7 mM, P < 0.001). Insulin secretory responses to glucose and arginine in the perfused pancreas and perifused islets from HNF-1alpha (-/-) mice were < 15% of the values in the other two groups and were associated with similar reductions in intracellular Ca2+ responses. These defects were not due to a decrease in glucokinase or insulin gene transcription. beta cell mass adjusted for body weight was not reduced in the (-/-) animals, although pancreatic insulin content adjusted for pancreas weight was slightly lower (0.06+/-0.01 vs. 0.10+/-0.01 microg/mg, P < 0.01) than in the (+/+) animals. In summary, a null mutation in the HNF-1alpha gene in homozygous mice leads to diabetes due to alterations in the pathways that regulate beta cell responses to secretagogues including glucose and arginine. These results provide further evidence in support of a key role for HNF-1alpha in the maintenance of normal beta cell function.
M Pontoglio, S Sreenan, M Roe, W Pugh, D Ostrega, A Doyen, A J Pick, A Baldwin, G Velho, P Froguel, M Levisetti, S Bonner-Weir, G I Bell, M Yaniv, K S Polonsky
Hypercalciuria in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rats is accompanied by intestinal Ca hyperabsorption with normal serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] levels, elevation of intestinal, kidney, and bone vitamin D receptor (VDR) content, and greater 1,25(OH)2D3-induced bone resorption in vitro. To test the hypothesis that hyperresponsiveness of VDR gene expression to 1,25(OH)2D3 may mediate these observations, male GHS and wild-type Sprague- Dawley normocalciuric control rats were fed a normal Ca diet (0.6% Ca) and received a single intraperitoneal injection of either 1,25(OH)2D3 (10-200 ng/100 g body wt) or vehicle. Total RNAs were isolated from both duodenum and kidney cortex, and the VDR and calbindin mRNA levels were determined by Northern blot hybridization using specific cDNA probes. Under basal conditions, VDR mRNA levels in GHS rats were lower in duodenum and higher in kidney compared with wild-type controls. Administration of 1,25(OH)2D3 increased VDR gene expression significantly in GHS but not normocalciuric animals, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In vivo half-life of VDR mRNA was similar in GHS and control rats in both duodenum and kidney, and was prolonged significantly (from 4-5 to > 8 h) by 1,25(OH)2D3 administration. Neither inhibition of gene transcription by actinomycin D nor inhibition of de novo protein synthesis with cycloheximide blocked the upregulation of VDR gene expression stimulated by 1,25(OH)2D3 administration. No alteration or mutation was detected in the sequence of duodenal VDR mRNA from GHS rats compared with wild-type animals. Furthermore, 1,25(OH)2D3 administration also led to an increase in duodenal and renal calbindin mRNA levels in GHS rats, whereas they were either suppressed or unchanged in wild-type animals. The results suggest that GHS rats hyperrespond to minimal doses of 1,25(OH)2D3 by an upregulation of VDR gene expression. This hyperresponsiveness of GHS rats to 1,25(OH)2D3 (a) occurs through an increase in VDR mRNA stability without involving alteration in gene transcription, de novo protein synthesis, or mRNA sequence; and (b) is likely of functional significance, and affects VDR-responsive genes in 1, 25(OH)2D3 target tissues. This unique characteristic suggests that GHS rats may be susceptible to minimal fluctuations in serum 1, 25(OH)2D3, resulting in increased VDR and VDR-responsive events, which in turn may pathologically amplify the actions of 1,25(OH)2D3 on Ca metabolism that thus contribute to the hypercalciuria and stone formation.
J Yao, P Kathpalia, D A Bushinsky, M J Favus
Lipid kinetics were studied in six severely burned patients who were treated with a high dose of exogenous insulin plus glucose to promote protein metabolism. The patients were 20+/-2-yr-old (SD) with 63+/-8% total body surface area burned. They were studied in a randomized order (a) in the fed state on the seventh day of a control period (C) of continuous high-carbohydrate enteral feeding alone, and (b) on the seventh day of enteral feeding plus exogenous insulin (200 pmol/h = 28 U/h) with extra glucose given as needed to avoid hypoglycemia (I+G). Despite a glucose delivery rate approximately 100% in excess of energy requirements, the following lipid parameters were unchanged: (a) total hepatic VLDL triglyceride (TG) secretion rate (0.165+/-0.138 [C] vs. 0.154+/- 0.138 mmol/kg . d-1 [I+G]), (b) plasma TG concentration (1.58+/-0.66 [C] vs. 1. 36+/-0.41 mmol/liter [I+G]), and (c) plasma VLDL TG concentration (0. 68+/-0.79 [C] vs. 0.67+/- 0.63 mmol/liter [I+G]). Instead, the high-carbohydrate delivery in conjunction with insulin therapy increased the proportion of de novo-synthesized palmitate in VLDL TG from 13+/-5% (C) to 34+/-14% (I+G), with a corresponding decreased amount of palmitate from lipolysis. In association with the doubling of the secretion rate of de novo-synthesized fatty acid (FA) in VLDL TG during insulin therapy (P > 0.5), the relative amount of palmitate and stearate increased from 35+/-5 to 44+/-8% and 4+/-1 to 7+/-2%, respectively, in VLDL TG, while the relative concentration of oleate and linoleate decreased from 43+/-5 to 37+/-6% and 8+/-4% to 2+/-2%, respectively. A 15-fold increase in plasma insulin concentration did not change the rate of release of FA into plasma (8.22+/-2.86 [C] vs. 8.72+/-6.68 mmol/kg.d-1 [I+G]. The peripheral release of FA represents a far greater potential for hepatic lipid accumulation in burn patients than the endogenous hepatic fat synthesis, even during excessive carbohydrate intake in conjunction with insulin therapy.
A Aarsland, D L Chinkes, Y Sakurai, T T Nguyen, D N Herndon, R R Wolfe
There is now substantial evidence that Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, undergoes major alterations in antigenic composition as it cycles between its arthropod and mammalian hosts. In this report, we cultivated B. burgdorferi 297 within dialysis membrane chambers implanted into the peritoneal cavities of rats to induce antigenic changes similar to those which occur during mammalian infection. Chamber-grown spirochetes, which remained fully virulent, did not express either outer surface protein A or Lp6.6, lipoproteins known to be downregulated after mammalian infection. However, they did, express p21, a well characterized outer surface protein E homologue, which is selectively expressed during infection. SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and immunoblot analysis revealed that chamber-grown borreliae also expressed uncharacterized proteins not expressed by in vitro-cultivated spirochetes; reactivity with sera from mice chronically infected with B. burgdorferi 297 confirmed that many of these novel proteins are selectively expressed during experimental murine infection. Finally, we used differential display RT-PCR to identify transcripts of other differentially expressed B. burgdorferi genes. One gene (2.9-7lpB) identified with this technique belongs to a family of genes located on homologous 32- and 18-kb circular plasmids. The lipoprotein encoded by 2.9-7lpB was shown to be selectively expressed by chamber-grown spirochetes and by spirochetes during experimental infection. Cultivation of B. burgdorferi in rat peritoneal implants represents a novel system for studying Lyme disease spirochetes in a mammalian host-adapted state.
D R Akins, K W Bourell, M J Caimano, M V Norgard, J D Radolf
A decreased ratio of fat to carbohydrate oxidation rate (an elevated respiratory quotient) predicts the development of obesity. Skeletal muscle accounts for a major fraction of total body lipid oxidation and is the principle site for reduced glucose storage in insulin-resistant subjects. The potentially important role that muscle has in promoting obesity or insulin resistance may be based on metabolic control intrinsic to skeletal muscle. Cultured skeletal muscle provides a system to examine the importance of inherent metabolic traits in muscle biopsies from obese and insulin-resistant subjects. Glycogen synthase fractional activity (GSFA) was measured in cultured myoblasts from 21 Pima Indians characterized in vivo using indirect calorimetry and a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Basal GSFA in cultured muscle cells is inversely correlated with postabsorptive respiratory quotient of the muscle donors (r = -0.66, P = 0.001) and with in vivo high dose insulin-stimulated glucose storage rates (r = 0.47, P = 0.04). These results indicate that the postabsorptive respiratory quotients and insulin-mediated glucose storage rates in vivo share a common regulatory mechanism with GSFA in cultured myoblasts. Abnormal regulation of glycogen synthase phosphorylation state may be an intrinsic defect in skeletal muscle associated with obesity and insulin resistance.
D M Mott, R E Pratley, C Bogardus
Five single-point aquaporin-2 (AQP2) mutations that cause non-X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) were characterized to establish the cellular defect and to develop therapeutic strategies. In Xenopus oocytes expressing AQP2 cRNAs, single-channel water permeabilities of mutants L22V, T126M, and A147T were similar to that of wild-type AQP2, whereas R187C and C181W were nonfunctional. In [35S]methionine pulse-chase experiments in transiently transfected CHO cells, half-times for AQP2 degradation were approximately 4 h for wild-type AQP2 and L22V, and mildly decreased for T126M (2.7 h), C181W (2.4 h), R187C (2.0 h), and A147T (1.8 h). Immunofluorescence showed three distinct AQP2-staining patterns: plasma membrane and endosomal staining (wild-type, L22V), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) staining (T126M > A147T approximately R187C), or a mixed pattern of reticular and perinuclear vesicular staining. Immunoblot of fractionated vesicles confirmed primary ER localization of T126M, R187C, and A147T. To determine if the AQP2-trafficking defect is correctable, cells were incubated with the "chemical chaperone" glycerol for 48 h. Immunoblot showed that glycerol produced a nearly complete redistribution of AQP2 (T126M, A147T, and R187C) from ER to membrane/endosome fractions. Immunofluorescence confirmed the cellular redistribution. Redistribution of AQP2 mutants was also demonstrated in transfected MDCK cells, and using the chaperones TMAO and DMSO in place of glycerol in CHO cells. Water permeability measurements indicated that functional correction was achieved. These results indicate defective mammalian cell processing of mutant AQP2 water channels in NDI, and provide evidence for pharmacological correction of the processing defect by chemical chaperones.
B K Tamarappoo, A S Verkman
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is caused by helper T cell-dependent autoantibodies against the muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR). Thymic epithelial tumors (thymomas) occur in 10% of MG patients, but their autoimmunizing potential is unclear. They express mRNAs encoding AChR alpha and epsilon subunits, and might aberrantly select or sensitize developing thymocytes or recirculating peripheral T cells against AChR epitopes. Alternatively, there could be defective self-tolerance induction in the abundant maturing thymocytes that they usually generate. For the first time, we have isolated and characterized AChR-specific T cell clones from two MG thymomas. They recognize extracellular epitopes (alpha75-90 and alpha149-158) which are processed very efficiently from muscle AChR. Both clones express CD4 and CD8alpha, and have a Th-0 cytokine profile, producing IL-4 as well as IFN-gamma. They are restricted to HLA-DP14 and DR52a; expression of these minority isotypes was strong on professional antigen-presenting cells in the donors' tumors, although it is generally weak in the periphery. The two clones' T cell receptor beta chains are different, but their alpha chain sequences are very similar. These resemblances, and the striking contrasts with T cells previously cloned from non-thymoma patients, show that thymomas generate and actively induce specific T cells rather than merely failing to tolerize them against self antigens.
N Nagvekar, A M Moody, P Moss, I Roxanis, J Curnow, D Beeson, N Pantic, J Newsom-Davis, A Vincent, N Willcox
We investigated the effect of the acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) specific PML/RARalpha fusion protein on the sensitivity to TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis. The U937 leukemia cell line was transduced with PML/RARalpha cDNA. PML/RARalpha expression caused a markedly reduced sensitivity to TNF-alpha, even if apoptosis was triggered by agonistic antibodies to TNF-alpha receptors I and II (TNF-alphaRI, II). PML/RARalpha induced a 10-20-fold decrease of the TNF-alpha-binding capacity via downmodulation of both TNF-alphaRI and TNF-alphaRII: this may mediate at least in part the reduced sensitivity to TNF-alpha. Furthermore, the fusion protein did not modify Fas expression (CD95) or sensitivity to Fas-mediated apoptosis. The pathophysiological significance of these findings is supported by two series of observations. (a) Fresh APL blasts exhibit no TNF-alpha binding and are resistant to TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis. Conversely, normal myeloblasts-promyelocytes show marked TNF-alphaR expression and are moderately sensitive to TNF-alpha-mediated cytotoxicity. Similarly, blasts from other types of acute myeloid leukemia (AML M1, M2, and M4 FAB types) show an elevated TNF-alpha binding. (b) The NB4 APL cell line, which is PML/RARalpha+, shows low TNF-alphaR expression capacity and is resistant to TNF-alpha-triggered apoptosis; conversely a PML/RARalpha- NB4 subclone (NB4.306) exhibits detectable TNF-alpha-binding capacity and is sensitive to TNF-alpha-mediated cytotoxicity. These studies indicate that the PML/RARalpha fusion protein protects against TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis, at least in part via downmodulation of TNF-alphaRI/II: this phenomenon may play a significant role in APL, which is characterized by prolonged survival of leukemic blasts.
U Testa, F Grignani, P Samoggia, C Zanetti, R Riccioni, F Lo Coco, D Diverio, N Felli, C G Passerini, M Grell, P G Pelicci, C Peschle
Human chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is characterized by a translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 that results in a BCR-ABL fusion gene coding for chimeric proteins. The junctional region of the BCR-ABLb3a2 molecule represents a potential leukemia-specific antigen which could be recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). In fact, we identified a junctional nonapeptide (SSKALQRPV) which binds to HLA-A2.1 molecules. This peptide, as well as those binding to HLA-A3, -A11, and -B8 molecules (previously identified by others), elicits primary CTL responses in vitro from PBLs of both healthy donors and CML patients. Such CTL recognize HLA-matched, BCR-ABL-positive leukemic cells, implying efficient natural processing and presentation of these junctional peptides. Specific CTL were found at high frequency in 5 of 21 CML patients, suggesting that these epitopes are, to some extent, immunogenic in vivo during the course of the disease. These peptides could be useful for the development of specific immunotherapy in CML patients.
P Yotnda, H Firat, F Garcia-Pons, Z Garcia, G Gourru, J P Vernant, F A Lemonnier, V Leblond, P Langlade-Demoyen