Multiple genetic loci have been reported for progeroid syndromes. However, the molecular defects in some extremely rare forms of progeria have yet to be elucidated. Here we report a 21-year-old man of Chinese origin who had a novel autosomal recessive form of progeria, characterized by severe dwarfism, mandibular hypoplasia, hyperopia and partial lipodystrophy. Analyses of exome sequencing data of the entire family revealed only one rare homozygous missense variant, (c.86C>T; p.Pro29Leu), in TOMM7 in the proband, while the parents and two unaffected siblings were heterozygous for the variant. TOMM7, a nuclear gene, encodes a translocase in the outer mitochondrial membrane. The TOMM complex constitutes the outer membrane pore for import of several preproteins into mitochondria. Proteomics analyses of mitochondria from cultured fibroblasts of the proband, as compared to control fibroblasts, revealed increases in several proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, but reduced abundance of proteins involved in the phospholipid metabolism. We also observed elevated basal and maximal oxygen consumption rates in the fibroblasts from the proband as compared to control fibroblasts. We conclude that altered mitochondrial protein import due to loss of function bi-allelic variant in TOMM7 can cause severe growth retardation and progeroid features.
Abhimanyu Garg, Wee-Teik Keng, Zhenkang Chen, Adwait Amod Sathe, Chao Xing, Pavithira Devi Kailasam, Yanqiu Shao, Nicholas P. Lesner, Claire B. Llamas, Anil K. Agarwal, Prashant Mishra
Cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is a major neurotoxicity affecting more than 50% of cancer survivors. The underpinning mechanisms are mostly unknown, and there are no FDA-approved interventions. Sphingolipidomic analysis of mouse prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, key sites of cognitive function, revealed that cisplatin increased levels of the potent signaling molecule sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and led to cognitive impairment. At the biochemical level, S1P induced mitochondrial dysfunction, activation of NOD-, LRR-, and pyrin domain–containing protein 3 inflammasomes, and increased IL-1β formation. These events were attenuated by systemic administration of the functional S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1) antagonist FTY720, which also attenuated cognitive impairment without adversely affecting locomotor activity. Similar attenuation was observed with ozanimod, another FDA-approved functional S1PR1 antagonist. Mice with astrocyte-specific deletion of S1pr1 lost their ability to respond to FTY720, implicating involvement of astrocytic S1PR1. Remarkably, our pharmacological and genetic approaches, coupled with computational modeling studies, revealed that cisplatin increased S1P production by activating TLR4. Collectively, our results identify the molecular mechanisms engaged by the S1P/S1PR1 axis in CRCI and establish S1PR1 antagonism as an approach to target CRCI with therapeutics that have fast-track clinical application.
Silvia Squillace, Michael L. Niehoff, Timothy M. Doyle, Michael Green, Emanuela Esposito, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Christopher K. Arnatt, Sarah Spiegel, Susan A. Farr, Daniela Salvemini
CBL-B is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates proteins downstream of immune receptors to downregulate positive signaling cascades. Distinct homozygous mutations in CBLB were identified in three unrelated children with early onset autoimmunity, one of whom also had chronic urticaria. Patient T cells exhibited hyper-proliferation in response to anti-CD3 cross-linking. One of the mutations, p.R496X, abolished CBL-B expression, and a second mutation, p.C464W, resulted in preserved CBL-B expression. The third mutation, p.H285L in the SH2 domain of CBL-B, was expressed at half the normal level in the patient’s cells. Mice homozygous for the CBL-B p.H257L mutation, which corresponds to the patient’s p.H285L mutation, had T and B cell hyper-proliferation in response to antigen receptor cross-linking. CblbH257L mice had increased percentages of T regulatory cells (Tregs) that had normal in vitro suppressive function. However, T effector cells (Teffs) from the patient with the p.H285L mutation and CblbH257L mice were resistant to suppression by WT Treg cells. Bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMCs) from CblbH257L mice were hyper-activated after FcεRI cross-linking, and CblbH257L mice demonstrated exaggerated IgE-mediated passive anaphylaxis. This study establishes CBL-B deficiency as a cause of immune dysregulation.
Erin Janssen, Zachary Peters, Mohammed F. Alosaimi, Emma Smith, Elena Milin, Kelsey Stafstrom, Jacqueline G. Wallace, Craig D. Platt, Janet Chou, Yasmeen S. El Ansari, Tariq Al Farsi, Najim Ameziane, Ruslan Al-Ali, María Calvo, Maria Eugenia Rocha, Peter Bauer, Nouriya Abbas Al-Sannaa, Nashat Faud Al Sukaiti, Abdullah A. Alangari, Aida M. Bertoli-Avella, Raif S. Geha
Highly effective modulator therapies dramatically improve the prognosis for those with cystic fibrosis (CF). The triple combination of elexacaftor, tezacaftor, and ivacaftor (ETI) benefits many, but not all, of those with the most common F508del mutation in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Here, we showed that poor sweat chloride concentration responses and lung function improvements upon initiation of ETI were associated with elevated levels of active transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) in the upper airway. Furthermore, TGF-β1 impaired the function of ETI-corrected F508del-CFTR, thereby increasing airway surface liquid (ASL) absorption rates and inducing mucus hyperconcentration in primary CF bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. TGF-β1 not only decreased CFTR mRNA but was also associated with increases in the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and TNF-⍺ protein. Losartan improved TGF-β1-mediated inhibition of ETI-corrected F508del-CFTR function and reduced TNFA and COX2 mRNA and TNF⍺ protein expression. This occurred likely by improving correction of mutant CFTR rather than increasing its mRNA (without an effect on potentiation), thereby reversing the negative effects of TGF-β1 and improving ASL hydration in the CF airway epithelium in vitro. Importantly, these effects were independent of type 1 angiotensin II receptor inhibition.
Michael D. Kim, Charles D. Bengtson, Makoto Yoshida, Asef J. Niloy, John S. Dennis, Nathalie Baumlin, Matthias Salathe
Replication of SARS-CoV-2 in human population is defined by distributions of mutants that are present at different frequencies within the infected host, and can be detected by ultra-deep sequencing techniques. In this study, we have examined the SARS-CoV-2 mutant spectra of amplicons from the spike (S)-coding region of five nasopharyngeal isolates derived from vaccine-breakthrough patients. Interestingly, all patients became infected with the Alpha variant but amino acid substitutions that correspond to the Delta Plus, Iota and Omicron variants were present in the mutant spectra of the resident virus. Deep sequencing analysis of SARS-CoV-2 from vaccine-breakthrough patients revealed a rich reservoir of mutant types, and may also inform of tolerated substitutions that can be represented in epidemiological dominant variants.
Brenda Martínez-González, Lucía Vázquez-Sirvent, María E. Soria, Pablo Mínguez, Llanos Salar-Vidal, Carlos García-Crespo, Isabel Gallego, Ana Ávila, Carlos Llorens, Beatriz Soriano, Ricardo Ramos-Ruiz, Jaime Esteban, Ricardo Fernandez-Roblas, Ignacio Gadea, Carmen Ayuso, Javier Ruiz-Hornillos, Concepción Pérez-Jorge, Esteban Domingo, Celia Perales
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer that frequently carries an integrated Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) genome and expresses viral transforming antigens (TAgs). MCC tumor cells also express signature genes detected in skin-resident, post-mitotic Merkel cells, including Atoh1, which is required for Merkel cell development from epidermal progenitors. We now report the use of in vivo cellular reprogramming, using ATOH1, to drive MCC development from murine epidermis. We generated mice that conditionally expressed MCPyV TAgs and ATOH1 in epidermal cells, yielding microscopic collections of proliferating MCC-like cells arising from hair follicles. Immunostaining of these nascent tumors revealed p53 accumulation and apoptosis, and targeted deletion of Trp53 led to development of gross skin tumors with classic MCC histology and marker expression. Global transcriptome analysis confirmed the close similarity of mouse and human MCCs, and hierarchical clustering showed conserved upregulation of signature genes. Our data establish that expression of MCPyV TAgs, in ATOH1-reprogrammed epidermal cells and their neuroendocrine progeny, initiates hair follicle-derived MCC tumorigenesis in adult mice. Moreover, progression to full-blown MCC in this model requires loss of p53, mimicking the functional inhibition of p53 reported in human MCPyV-positive MCCs.
Monique E. Verhaegen, Paul W. Harms, Julia J. Van Goor, Jacob Arche, Matthew T. Patrick, Dawn Wilbert, Haley Zabawa, Marina Grachtchouk, Chia-Jen Liu, Kevin Hu, Michael C. Kelly, Ping Chen, Thomas L. Saunders, Stephan Weidinger, Li-Jyun Syu, John S. Runge, Johann E. Gudjonsson, Sunny Y. Wong, Isaac Brownell, Marcin Cieslik, Aaron M. Udager, Arul M. Chinnaiyan, Lam C. Tsoi, Andrzej A. Dlugosz
Inherited germline mutations in the BRCA1 (BReast CAncer gene 1) or BRCA2 (BReast CAncer gene 2) genes (herein BRCA1/2) greatly increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancer, presumably by elevating somatic mutational errors as a consequence of deficient DNA repair. However, this has never been directly demonstrated by a comprehensive analysis of the somatic mutational landscape of primary, non-cancer, mammary epithelial cells of women diagnosed with pathogenic BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutations. Here we used an accurate, single-cell whole genome sequencing approach to first show that telomerized primary mammary epithelial cells heterozygous for a highly penetrant BRCA1 variant displayed a robustly elevated mutation frequency as compared to their isogenic control cells. We then demonstrated a small but statistically significant increase in mutation frequency in mammary epithelial cells isolated from the breast of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as compared to those obtained from age-matched controls with no genetically increased risk for breast cancer.
Shixiang Sun, Kristina Brazhnik, Moonsook Lee, Alexander Y. Maslov, Yi Zhang, Zhenqiu Huang, Susan Klugman, Ben H. Park, Jan Vijg, Cristina Montagna
Naive and memory CD4+ T cells reactive with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are detectable in unexposed, unimmunized individuals. The contribution of preexisting CD4+ T cells to a primary immune response was investigated in 20 HIV-1–seronegative volunteers vaccinated with an HIV-1 envelope (Env) plasmid DNA prime and recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) boost in the HVTN 106 vaccine trial (clinicaltrials.gov NCT02296541). Prevaccination naive or memory CD4+ T cell responses directed against peptide epitopes in Env were identified in 14 individuals. After priming with DNA, 40% (8/20) of the elicited responses matched epitopes detected in the corresponding preimmunization memory repertoires, and clonotypes were shared before and after vaccination in 2 representative volunteers. In contrast, there were no shared epitope specificities between the preimmunization memory compartment and responses detected after boosting with recombinant MVA expressing a heterologous Env. Preexisting memory CD4+ T cells therefore shape the early immune response to vaccination with a previously unencountered HIV-1 antigen.
Suzanne L. Campion, Elena Brenna, Elaine Thomson, Will Fischer, Kristin Ladell, James E. McLaren, David A. Price, Nicole Frahm, Juliana M. McElrath, Kristen W. Cohen, Janine R. Maenza, Stephen R. Walsh, Lindsey R. Baden, Barton F. Haynes, Bette Korber, Persephone Borrow, Andrew J. McMichael
Vast numbers of differentially expressed genes and perturbed networks have been identified in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), however neither disease- nor brain region-specificity of these transcriptome alterations have been explored. Using RNA sequencing data from 231 temporal cortex and 224 cerebellum samples of patients with AD and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), a tauopathy, we identify a striking correlation in the directionality and magnitude of gene expression changes between these two neurodegenerative proteinopathies. Further, the transcriptome changes in AD and PSP are highly conserved between the temporal and cerebellar cortices, indicating highly similar transcriptional changes occur in pathologically affected and grossly less affected, albeit functionally connected, areas of the brain. Shared up- or down-regulated genes in AD and PSP are enriched in biological pathways. Many of these genes also have concordant protein changes and evidence of epigenetic control. These conserved transcriptomic alterations of two distinct proteinopathies in brain regions with and without significant gross neuropathology have broad implications. AD and other neurodegenerative diseases are likely characterized by common disease or compensatory pathways with widespread perturbations in the whole brain. These findings can be leveraged to develop multifaceted therapies and biomarkers that address these common, complex and ubiquitous molecular alterations in neurodegenerative diseases.
Xue Wang, Mariet Allen, Özkan İş, Joseph S. Reddy, Frederick Q. Tutor-New, Monica Castanedes Casey, Minerva M. Carrasquillo, Stephanie R. Oatman, Yuhao Min, Yan W. Asmann, Cory Funk, Thuy Nguyen, Charlotte C.G. Ho, Kimberly G. Malphrus, Nicholas T. Seyfried, Allan I. Levey, Steven G. Younkin, Melissa E. Murray, Dennis W. Dickson, Nathan D. Price, Todd E. Golde, Nilufer Ertekin-Taner
Ribonuclease 7 (RNase 7) is an antimicrobial peptide that prevents urinary tract infections (UTI); however, it is yet unknown how RNASE7 genetic variations affect its antimicrobial activity and its mitigation of UTI risk. This study determined whether the RNASE7 SNP rs1263872 is more prevalent in children with UTI and defined how rs1263872 affects RNase 7’s antimicrobial activity against uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). We performed genotyping for rs1263872 in 2 national UTI cohorts, including children enrolled in the Randomized Intervention for Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux trial or the Careful Urinary Tract Infection Evaluation study. Genotypes from these cohorts were compared with those of female controls with no UTI. To assess whether rs1263872 affects RNase 7’s antimicrobial activity, we generated RNase 7 peptides and genetically modified urothelial cultures encoding wild-type RNase 7 and its variant. Compared with controls, girls in both UTI cohorts had an increased prevalence of the RNASE7 variant. Compared with the missense variant, wild-type RNase 7 peptide showed greater bactericidal activity against UPEC. Wild-type RNase 7 overexpression in human urothelial cultures reduced UPEC invasive infection compared with mutant overexpression. These results show that children with UTI have an increased prevalence of RNASE7 rs1263872, which may increase UTI susceptibility by suppressing RNase 7’s antibacterial activity.
Keith R. Pierce, Tad Eichler, Claudia Mosquera Vasquez, Andrew L. Schwaderer, Aaron Simoni, Steven Creacy, David S. Hains, John D. Spencer
No posts were found with this tag.