The kidney glomerular capillaries are frequent sites of immune complex deposition and subsequent neutrophil accumulation in post-infectious and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. However, the mechanisms of neutrophil recruitment remain enigmatic, and there is no targeted therapeutic to avert this proximal event in glomerular inflammation. The uniquely human activating Fc receptor FcγRIIA promotes glomerular neutrophil accumulation and damage in anti–glomerular basement membrane–induced (anti-GBM–induced) glomerulonephritis when expressed on murine neutrophils. Here, we found that neutrophils are directly captured by immobilized IgG antibodies under physiological flow conditions in vitro through FcγRIIA-dependent, Abl/Src tyrosine kinase–mediated F-actin polymerization. Biophysical measurements showed that the lifetime of FcγRIIA-IgG bonds increased under mechanical force in an F-actin–dependent manner, which could enable the capture of neutrophils under physiological flow. Kidney intravital microscopy revealed that circulating neutrophils, which were similar in diameter to glomerular capillaries, abruptly arrested following anti-GBM antibody deposition via neutrophil FcγRIIA and Abl/Src kinases. Accordingly, inhibition of Abl/Src with bosutinib reduced FcγRIIA-mediated glomerular neutrophil accumulation and renal injury in experimental, crescentic anti-GBM nephritis. These data identify a pathway of neutrophil recruitment within glomerular capillaries following IgG deposition that may be targeted by bosutinib to avert glomerular injury.
Hiroshi Nishi, Kazuhiro Furuhashi, Xavier Cullere, Gurpanna Saggu, Mark J. Miller, Yunfeng Chen, Florencia Rosetti, Samantha L. Hamilton, Lihua Yang, Spencer P. Pittman, Jiexi Liao, Jan M. Herter, Jeffrey C. Berry, Daniel J. DeAngelo, Cheng Zhu, George C. Tsokos, Tanya N. Mayadas
Thiazide diuretics are among the most widely used treatments for hypertension, but thiazide-induced hyponatremia (TIH), a clinically significant adverse effect, is poorly understood. Here, we have studied the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of patients hospitalized with TIH. In a cohort of 109 TIH patients, those with severe TIH displayed an extended phenotype of intravascular volume expansion, increased free water reabsorption, urinary prostaglandin E2 excretion, and reduced excretion of serum chloride, magnesium, zinc, and antidiuretic hormone. GWAS in a separate cohort of 48 TIH patients and 2,922 controls from the 1958 British birth cohort identified an additional 14 regions associated with TIH. We identified a suggestive association with a variant in SLCO2A1, which encodes a prostaglandin transporter in the distal nephron. Resequencing of SLCO2A1 revealed a nonsynonymous variant, rs34550074 (p.A396T), and association with this SNP was replicated in a second cohort of TIH cases. TIH patients with the p.A396T variant demonstrated increased urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2 and metabolites. Moreover, the SLCO2A1 phospho-mimic p.A396E showed loss of transporter function in vitro. These findings indicate that the phenotype of TIH involves a more extensive metabolic derangement than previously recognized. We propose one mechanism underlying TIH development in a subgroup of patients in which SLCO2A1 regulation is altered.
James S. Ware, Louise V. Wain, Sarath K. Channavajjhala, Victoria E. Jackson, Elizabeth Edwards, Run Lu, Keith Siew, Wenjing Jia, Nick Shrine, Sue Kinnear, Mahli Jalland, Amanda P. Henry, Jenny Clayton, Kevin M. O’Shaughnessy, Martin D. Tobin, Victor Schuster, Stuart Cook, Ian P. Hall, Mark Glover
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is driven by mutations in PKD1 and PKD2 genes. Recent work suggests that epigenetic modulation of gene expression and protein function may play a role in ADPKD pathogenesis. In this study, we identified SMYD2, a SET and MYND domain protein with lysine methyltransferase activity, as a regulator of renal cyst growth. SMYD2 was upregulated in renal epithelial cells and tissues from Pkd1-knockout mice as well as in ADPKD patients. SMYD2 deficiency delayed renal cyst growth in postnatal kidneys from Pkd1 mutant mice. Pkd1 and Smyd2 double-knockout mice lived longer than Pkd1-knockout mice. Targeting SMYD2 with its specific inhibitor, AZ505, delayed cyst growth in both early- and later-stage Pkd1 conditional knockout mouse models. SMYD2 carried out its function via methylation and activation of STAT3 and the p65 subunit of NF-κB, leading to increased cystic renal epithelial cell proliferation and survival. We further identified two positive feedback loops that integrate epigenetic regulation and renal inflammation in cyst development: SMYD2/IL-6/STAT3/SMYD2 and SMYD2/TNF-α/NF-κB/SMYD2. These pathways provide mechanisms by which SMYD2 might be induced by cyst fluid IL-6 and TNF-α in ADPKD kidneys. The SMYD2 transcriptional target gene Ptpn13 also linked SMYD2 to other PKD-associated signaling pathways, including ERK, mTOR, and Akt signaling, via PTPN13-mediated phosphorylation.
Linda Xiaoyan Li, Lucy X. Fan, Julie Xia Zhou, Jared J. Grantham, James P. Calvet, Julien Sage, Xiaogang Li
Aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) are benign tumors of the adrenal gland that constitutively produce the salt-retaining steroid hormone aldosterone and cause millions of cases of severe hypertension worldwide. Either of 2 somatic mutations in the potassium channel KCNJ5 (G151R and L168R, hereafter referred to as KCNJ5MUT) in adrenocortical cells account for half of APAs worldwide. These mutations alter channel selectivity to allow abnormal Na+ conductance, resulting in membrane depolarization, calcium influx, aldosterone production, and cell proliferation. Because APA diagnosis requires a difficult invasive procedure, patients often remain undiagnosed and inadequately treated. Inhibitors of KCNJ5MUT could allow noninvasive diagnosis and therapy of APAs carrying KCNJ5 mutations. Here, we developed a high-throughput screen for rescue of KCNJ5MUT-induced lethality and identified a series of macrolide antibiotics, including roxithromycin, that potently inhibit KCNJ5MUT, but not KCNJ5WT. Electrophysiology demonstrated direct KCNJ5MUT inhibition. In human aldosterone-producing adrenocortical cancer cell lines, roxithromycin inhibited KCNJ5MUT-induced induction of CYP11B2 (encoding aldosterone synthase) expression and aldosterone production. Further exploration of macrolides showed that KCNJ5MUT was similarly selectively inhibited by idremcinal, a macrolide motilin receptor agonist, and by synthesized macrolide derivatives lacking antibiotic or motilide activity. Macrolide-derived selective KCNJ5MUT inhibitors thus have the potential to advance the diagnosis and treatment of APAs harboring KCNJ5MUT.
Ute I. Scholl, Laura Abriola, Chengbiao Zhang, Esther N. Reimer, Mark Plummer, Barbara I. Kazmierczak, Junhui Zhang, Denton Hoyer, Jane S. Merkel, Wenhui Wang, Richard P. Lifton
Natriuretic regulation of extracellular fluid volume homeostasis includes suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, pressure natriuresis, and reduced renal nerve activity, actions that concomitantly increase urinary Na+ excretion and lead to increased urine volume. The resulting natriuresis-driven diuretic water loss is assumed to control the extracellular volume. Here, we have demonstrated that urine concentration, and therefore regulation of water conservation, is an important control system for urine formation and extracellular volume homeostasis in mice and humans across various levels of salt intake. We observed that the renal concentration mechanism couples natriuresis with correspondent renal water reabsorption, limits natriuretic osmotic diuresis, and results in concurrent extracellular volume conservation and concentration of salt excreted into urine. This water-conserving mechanism of dietary salt excretion relies on urea transporter–driven urea recycling by the kidneys and on urea production by liver and skeletal muscle. The energy-intense nature of hepatic and extrahepatic urea osmolyte production for renal water conservation requires reprioritization of energy and substrate metabolism in liver and skeletal muscle, resulting in hepatic ketogenesis and glucocorticoid-driven muscle catabolism, which are prevented by increasing food intake. This natriuretic-ureotelic, water-conserving principle relies on metabolism-driven extracellular volume control and is regulated by concerted liver, muscle, and renal actions.
Kento Kitada, Steffen Daub, Yahua Zhang, Janet D. Klein, Daisuke Nakano, Tetyana Pedchenko, Louise Lantier, Lauren M. LaRocque, Adriana Marton, Patrick Neubert, Agnes Schröder, Natalia Rakova, Jonathan Jantsch, Anna E. Dikalova, Sergey I. Dikalov, David G. Harrison, Dominik N. Müller, Akira Nishiyama, Manfred Rauh, Raymond C. Harris, Friedrich C. Luft, David H. Wassermann, Jeff M. Sands, Jens Titze
Natalia Rakova, Kento Kitada, Kathrin Lerchl, Anke Dahlmann, Anna Birukov, Steffen Daub, Christoph Kopp, Tetyana Pedchenko, Yahua Zhang, Luis Beck, Bernd Johannes, Adriana Marton, Dominik N. Müller, Manfred Rauh, Friedrich C. Luft, Jens Titze
Dominantly inherited isolated polycystic liver disease (PCLD) consists of liver cysts that are radiologically and pathologically identical to those seen in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, but without clinically relevant kidney cysts. The causative genes are known for fewer than 40% of PCLD index cases. Here, we have used whole exome sequencing in a discovery cohort of 102 unrelated patients who were excluded for mutations in the 2 most common PCLD genes,
Whitney Besse, Ke Dong, Jungmin Choi, Sohan Punia, Sorin V. Fedeles, Murim Choi, Anna-Rachel Gallagher, Emily B. Huang, Ashima Gulati, James Knight, Shrikant Mane, Esa Tahvanainen, Pia Tahvanainen, Simone Sanna-Cherchi, Richard P. Lifton, Terry Watnick, York P. Pei, Vicente E. Torres, Stefan Somlo
Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) causes 15% of chronic kidney disease cases. A mutation in 1 of over 40 monogenic genes can be detected in approximately 30% of individuals with SRNS whose symptoms manifest before 25 years of age. However, in many patients, the genetic etiology remains unknown. Here, we have performed whole exome sequencing to identify recessive causes of SRNS. In 7 families with SRNS and facultative ichthyosis, adrenal insufficiency, immunodeficiency, and neurological defects, we identified 9 different recessive mutations in
Svjetlana Lovric, Sara Goncalves, Heon Yung Gee, Babak Oskouian, Honnappa Srinivas, Won-Il Choi, Shirlee Shril, Shazia Ashraf, Weizhen Tan, Jia Rao, Merlin Airik, David Schapiro, Daniela A. Braun, Carolin E. Sadowski, Eugen Widmeier, Tilman Jobst-Schwan, Johanna Magdalena Schmidt, Vladimir Girik, Guido Capitani, Jung H. Suh, Noëlle Lachaussée, Christelle Arrondel, Julie Patat, Olivier Gribouval, Monica Furlano, Olivia Boyer, Alain Schmitt, Vincent Vuiblet, Seema Hashmi, Rainer Wilcken, Francois P. Bernier, A. Micheil Innes, Jillian S. Parboosingh, Ryan E. Lamont, Julian P. Midgley, Nicola Wright, Jacek Majewski, Martin Zenker, Franz Schaefer, Navina Kuss, Johann Greil, Thomas Giese, Klaus Schwarz, Vilain Catheline, Denny Schanze, Ingolf Franke, Yves Sznajer, Anne S. Truant, Brigitte Adams, Julie Désir, Ronald Biemann, York Pei, Elisabet Ars, Nuria Lloberas, Alvaro Madrid, Vikas R. Dharnidharka, Anne M. Connolly, Marcia C. Willing, Megan A. Cooper, Richard P. Lifton, Matias Simons, Howard Riezman, Corinne Antignac, Julie D. Saba, Friedhelm Hildebrandt
Outer retinal and renal glomerular functions rely on specialized vasculature maintained by VEGF that is produced by neighboring epithelial cells, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and podocytes, respectively. Dysregulation of RPE- and podocyte-derived VEGF is associated with neovascularization in wet age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), choriocapillaris degeneration, and glomerular thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Since complement activation and genetic variants in inhibitory complement factor H (CFH) are also features of both ARMD and TMA, we hypothesized that VEGF and CFH interact. Here, we demonstrated that VEGF inhibition decreases local CFH and other complement regulators in the eye and kidney through reduced VEGFR2/PKC-α/CREB signaling. Patient podocytes and RPE cells carrying disease-associated CFH genetic variants had more alternative complement pathway deposits than controls. These deposits were increased by VEGF antagonism, a common wet ARMD treatment, suggesting that VEGF inhibition could reduce cellular complement regulatory capacity. VEGF antagonism also increased markers of endothelial cell activation, which was partially reduced by genetic complement inhibition. Together, these results suggest that VEGF protects the retinal and glomerular microvasculature, not only through VEGFR2-mediated vasculotrophism, but also through modulation of local complement proteins that could protect against complement-mediated damage. Though further study is warranted, these findings could be relevant for patients receiving VEGF antagonists.
Lindsay S. Keir, Rachel Firth, Lyndsey Aponik, Daniel Feitelberg, Susumu Sakimoto, Edith Aguilar, Gavin I. Welsh, Anna Richards, Yoshihiko Usui, Simon C. Satchell, Valeryia Kuzmuk, Richard J. Coward, Jonathan Goult, Katherine R. Bull, Ruchi Sharma, Kapil Bharti, Peter D. Westenskow, Iacovos P. Michael, Moin A. Saleem, Martin Friedlander
Fibrotic disease is associated with matrix deposition that results in the loss of organ function. Pericytes, the precursors of myofibroblasts, are a source of pathological matrix collagens and may be promising targets for treating fibrogenesis. Here, we have shown that pericytes activate a TLR2/4- and MyD88-dependent proinflammatory program in response to tissue injury. Similarly to classic immune cells, pericytes activate the NLRP3 inflammasome, leading to IL-1β and IL-18 secretion. Released IL-1β signals through pericyte MyD88 to amplify this response. Unexpectedly, we found that MyD88 and its downstream effector kinase IRAK4 intrinsically control pericyte migration and conversion to myofibroblasts. Specific ablation of MyD88 in pericytes or pharmacological inhibition of MyD88 signaling by an IRAK4 inhibitor in vivo protected against kidney injury by profoundly attenuating tissue injury, activation, and differentiation of myofibroblasts. Our data show that in pericytes, MyD88 and IRAK4 are key regulators of 2 major injury responses: inflammatory and fibrogenic. Moreover, these findings suggest that disruption of this MyD88-dependent pathway in pericytes might be a potential therapeutic approach to inhibit fibrogenesis and promote regeneration.
Irina A. Leaf, Shunsaku Nakagawa, Bryce G. Johnson, Jin Joo Cha, Kristen Mittelsteadt, Kevin M. Guckian, Ivan G. Gomez, William A. Altemeier, Jeremy S. Duffield