Despite its central position in oncogenic intracellular signaling networks, the role of mTORC1 in epithelial development has not been studied extensively in vivo. Here, we have used the epidermis as a model system to elucidate the cellular effects and signaling feedback sequelae of mTORC1 loss of function in epithelial tissue. In mice with conditional epidermal loss of the mTORC1 components Rheb or Rptor, mTORC1 loss of function unexpectedly resulted in a profound skin barrier defect with epidermal abrasions, blistering, and early postnatal lethality, due to a thinned epidermis with decreased desmosomal protein expression and incomplete biochemical differentiation. In mice with mTORC1 loss of function, we found that Rho kinase (ROCK) signaling was constitutively activated, resulting in increased cytoskeletal tension and impaired cell-cell adhesion. Inhibition or silencing of ROCK1 was sufficient to rescue keratinocyte adhesion and biochemical differentiation in these mice. mTORC1 loss of function also resulted in marked feedback upregulation of upstream TGF-β signaling, triggering ROCK activity and its downstream effects on desmosomal gene expression. These findings elucidate a role for mTORC1 in the regulation of epithelial barrier formation, cytoskeletal tension, and cell adhesion, underscoring the complexity of signaling feedback following mTORC1 inhibition.
Kaushal Asrani, Akshay Sood, Alba Torres, Dan Georgess, Pornima Phatak, Harsimar Kaur, Amber Dubin, C. Conover Talbot Jr., Loubna Elhelu, Andrew J. Ewald, Bo Xiao, Paul Worley, Tamara L. Lotan
Usage data is cumulative from November 2019 through November 2020.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.