Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and progressive β cell dysfunction. Excess glucose and lipid impair β cell function in islet cell lines, cultured rodent and human islets, and in vivo rodent models. Here, we examined the mechanistic consequences of glucotoxic and lipotoxic conditions on human islets in vivo and developed and/or used 3 complementary models that allowed comparison of the effects of hyperglycemic and/or insulin-resistant metabolic stress conditions on human and mouse islets, which responded quite differently to these challenges. Hyperglycemia and/or insulin resistance impaired insulin secretion only from human islets in vivo. In human grafts, chronic insulin resistance decreased antioxidant enzyme expression and increased superoxide and amyloid formation. In human islet grafts, expression of transcription factors
Chunhua Dai, Nora S. Kayton, Alena Shostak, Greg Poffenberger, Holly A. Cyphert, Radhika Aramandla, Courtney Thompson, Ioannis G. Papagiannis, Christopher Emfinger, Masakazu Shiota, John M. Stafford, Dale L. Greiner, Pedro L. Herrera, Leonard D. Shultz, Roland Stein, Alvin C. Powers
Models of chronic metabolic stress.