Liver transplantation can be a life-saving treatment for end-stage hepatic disease. Unfortunately, some recipients develop ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) that leads to poor short- and long-term outcomes. Recent work has shown neutrophils contribute to IRI by undergoing NETosis, a form of death characterized by DNA ejection resulting in inflammatory extracellular traps. In this issue of the JCI, Hirao and Kojima et al. report that sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) expression induced by liver transplant–mediated IRI triggers NETosis. They also provide evidence that neutrophil expression of the carcinoembryonic antigen–related cell adhesion molecule-1 (CC1) long isoform inhibited NETosis by controlling S1P receptor–mediated autophagic flux. These findings suggest stimulating regulatory mechanisms that suppress NETosis could be used to prevent IRI.
Davide Scozzi, Andrew E. Gelman