Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has revolutionized modern cancer therapy, arousing great interest in the neuro-oncology community. While several reports show that subsets of patients with glioma exhibit durable responses to immunotherapy, the efficacy of this treatment has not been observed for unselected patient populations, preventing its broad clinical implementation for gliomas and glioblastoma (GBM). To exploit the maximum therapeutic potential of ICB for patients with glioma, understanding the different aspects of glioma-related tumor immune responses is of critical importance. In this Review, we discuss contributing factors that distinguish subsets of patients with glioma who may benefit from ICB. Specifically, we discuss (a) the complex interaction between the tumor immune microenvironment and glioma cells as a potential influence on immunotherapy responses; (b) promising biomarkers for responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors; and (c) the potential contributions of peripheral immune cells to therapeutic responses.
Víctor A. Arrieta, Crismita Dmello, Daniel J. McGrail, Daniel J. Brat, Catalina Lee-Chang, Amy B. Heimberger, Dhan Chand, Roger Stupp, Adam M. Sonabend