C6-ceramide limited neointimal hyperplasia after balloon angioplasty in rabbit carotid arteries. (a–c) Hematoxylin and eosin–stained sections from excised arteries 2 weeks after angioplasty. (a) Sham-treated control artery. (b) Artery treated with a balloon coated with DMSO/ethanol (1:1, vol/vol) displays marked neointimal hyperplasia. (c) Artery treated with a C6-ceramide–coated balloon displays minimal neointimal hyperplasia. Bar, 200 μm. Reprinted with permission (49).