Defining mechanism(s) that maintain tissue stem quiescence is important for improving tissue regeneration, cell therapies, aging, and cancer. We report here that genetic ablation of Id2 in adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) promotes increased HSC activation and differentiation, which results in HSC exhaustion and bone marrow failure over time. Id2Δ/Δ HSCs showed increased cycling, ROS production, mitochondrial activation, ATP production, and DNA damage compared with Id2+/+ HSCs, supporting the conclusion that Id2Δ/Δ HSCs are less quiescent. Mechanistically, HIF-1α expression was decreased in Id2Δ/Δ HSCs, and stabilization of HIF-1α in Id2Δ/Δ HSCs restored HSC quiescence and rescued HSC exhaustion. Inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (ID2) promoted HIF-1α expression by binding to the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein and interfering with proteasomal degradation of HIF-1α. HIF-1α promoted Id2 expression and enforced a positive feedback loop between ID2 and HIF-1α to maintain HSC quiescence. Thus, sustained ID2 expression could protect HSCs during stress and improve HSC expansion for gene editing and cell therapies.
Brad L. Jakubison, Tanmoy Sarkar, Kristbjorn O. Gudmundsson, Shweta Singh, Lei Sun, Holly M. Morris, Kimberly D. Klarmann, Jonathan R. Keller