Gastric carcinogenesis is mediated by complex interactions among Helicobacter pylori, host, and environmental factors. Here, we demonstrate that H. pylori augmented gastric injury in INS-GAS mice under iron-deficient conditions. Mechanistically, these phenotypes were not driven by alterations in the gastric microbiota; however, discovery-based and targeted metabolomics revealed that bile acids were significantly altered in H. pylori–infected mice with iron deficiency, with significant upregulation of deoxycholic acid (DCA), a carcinogenic bile acid. The severity of gastric injury was further augmented when H. pylori–infected mice were treated with DCA, and, in vitro, DCA increased translocation of the H. pylori oncoprotein CagA into host cells. Conversely, bile acid sequestration attenuated H. pylori–induced injury under conditions of iron deficiency. To translate these findings to human populations, we evaluated the association between bile acid sequestrant use and gastric cancer risk in a large human cohort. Among 416,885 individuals, a significant dose-dependent reduction in risk was associated with cumulative bile acid sequestrant use. Further, expression of the bile acid receptor transmembrane G protein–coupled bile acid receptor 5 (TGR5) paralleled the severity of carcinogenic lesions in humans. These data demonstrate that increased H. pylori–induced injury within the context of iron deficiency is tightly linked to altered bile acid metabolism, which may promote gastric carcinogenesis.
Jennifer M. Noto, M. Blanca Piazuelo, Shailja C. Shah, Judith Romero-Gallo, Jessica L. Hart, Chao Di, James D. Carmichael, Alberto G. Delgado, Alese E. Halvorson, Robert A. Greevy, Lydia E. Wroblewski, Ayushi Sharma, Annabelle B. Newton, Margaret M. Allaman, Keith T. Wilson, M. Kay Washington, M. Wade Calcutt, Kevin L. Schey, Bethany P. Cummings, Charles R. Flynn, Joseph P. Zackular, Richard M. Peek Jr.