Insulin and IGF-1 are essential for adipocyte differentiation and function. Mice lacking insulin and IGF-1 receptors in fat (FIGIR-KO, fat-specific IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor–KO) exhibit complete loss of white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT), glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis, and cold intolerance. To determine the role of FOXO transcription factors in the altered adipose phenotype, we generated FIGIR-KO mice with fat-specific KO of fat-expressed Foxos [Foxo1, Foxo3, Foxo4] (F-Quint–KO). Unlike FIGIR-KO mice, F-Quint–KO mice had normal BAT, glucose tolerance, insulin-regulated hepatic glucose production, and cold tolerance. However, loss of FOXOs only partially rescued subcutaneous WAT and hepatosteatosis, did not rescue perigonadal WAT or systemic insulin resistance, and led to even more marked hyperinsulinemia. Thus, FOXOs play different roles in insulin/IGF-1 action in different adipose depots, being most important in BAT, followed by subcutaneous WAT and then by visceral WAT. Disruption of FOXOs in fat also led to a reversal of insulin resistance in liver, but not in skeletal muscle, and an exacerbation of hyperinsulinemia. Thus, adipose FOXOs play a unique role in regulating crosstalk between adipose depots, liver, and β cells.
Erica P. Homan, Bruna B. Brandão, Samir Softic, Abdelfattah El Ouaamari, Brian T. O’Neill, Rohit N. Kulkarni, Jason K. Kim, C. Ronald Kahn
Usage data is cumulative from August 2021 through May 2022.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.