BACKGROUND We investigated residual β cell function in Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) study participants with an average 35-year duration of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).METHODS Serum C-peptide was measured during a 4-hour mixed-meal tolerance test. Associations with metabolic outcomes and complications were explored among nonresponders (all C-peptide values after meal <0.003 nmol/L) and 3 categories of responders, classified by peak C-peptide concentration (nmol/L) as high (>0.2), intermediate (>0.03 to ≤0.2), and low (≥ 0.003 to ≤0.03).RESULTS Of the 944 participants, 117 (12.4%) were classified as responders. Residual C-peptide concentrations were associated with higher DCCT baseline concentrations of stimulated C-peptide (P value for trend = 0.0001). Residual C-peptide secretion was not associated with current or mean HbA1c, HLA high-risk haplotypes for T1DM, or the current presence of T1DM autoantibodies. The proportion of subjects with a history of severe hypoglycemia was lower with high (27%) and intermediate (48%) residual C-peptide concentrations than with low (74%) and no (70%) residual C-peptide concentrations (P value for trend = 0.0001). Responders and nonresponders demonstrated similar rates of advanced microvascular complications.CONCLUSION β Cell function can persist in long-duration T1DM. With a peak C-peptide concentration of >0.03 nmol/L, we observed clinically meaningful reductions in the prevalence of severe hypoglycemia.TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00360815 and NCT00360893.FUNDING Division of Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (DP3-DK104438, U01 DK094176, and U01 DK094157).
Rose A. Gubitosi-Klug, Barbara H. Braffett, Susan Hitt, Valerie Arends, Diane Uschner, Kimberly Jones, Lisa Diminick, Amy B. Karger, Andrew D. Paterson, Delnaz Roshandel, Santica Marcovina, John M. Lachin, Michael Steffes, Jerry P. Palmer, the DCCT/EDIC Research Group
Flow chart of participation in the C-peptide study.