Alloantibodies in presensitized transplant candidates deposit complement membrane attack complexes (MACs) on graft endothelial cells (ECs), increasing risk of CD8+ T cell–mediated acute rejection. We recently showed that human ECs endocytose MACs into Rab5+ endosomes, creating a signaling platform that stabilizes NF-κB–inducing kinase (NIK) protein. Endosomal NIK activates both noncanonical NF-κB signaling to synthesize pro–IL-1β and an NLRP3 inflammasome to process and secrete active IL-1β. IL-1β activates ECs, increasing recruitment and activation of alloreactive effector memory CD4+ T (Tem) cells. Here, we report that IFN-γ priming induced nuclear expression of IL-15/IL-15Rα complexes in cultured human ECs and that MAC-induced IL-1β stimulated translocation of IL-15/IL-15Rα complexes to the EC surface in a canonical NF-κB–dependent process in which IL-15/IL-15Rα transpresentation increased activation and maturation of alloreactive CD8+ Tem cells. Blocking NLRP3 inflammasome assembly, IL-1 receptor, or IL-15 on ECs inhibited the augmented CD8+ Tem cell responses, indicating that this pathway is not redundant. Adoptively transferred alloantibody and mouse complement deposition induced IL-15/IL-15Rα expression by human ECs lining human coronary artery grafts in immunodeficient mice, and enhanced intimal CD8+ T cell infiltration, which was markedly reduced by inflammasome inhibition, linking alloantibody to acute rejection. Inhibiting MAC signaling may similarly limit other complement-mediated pathologies.
Catherine B. Xie, Bo Jiang, Lingfeng Qin, George Tellides, Nancy C. Kirkiles-Smith, Dan Jane-wit, Jordan S. Pober