Despite its success in treating melanoma and hematological malignancies, adoptive cell therapy (ACT) has had only limited effects in solid tumors. This is due in part to a lack of specific antigen targets, poor trafficking and infiltration, and immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we combined ACT with oncolytic virus vaccines (OVVs) to drive expansion and tumor infiltration of transferred antigen-specific T cells and demonstrated that the combination is highly potent for the eradication of established solid tumors. Consistent with other successful immunotherapies, this approach elicited severe autoimmune consequences when the antigen targeted was a self-protein. However, modulation of IFN-α/-β signaling, either by functional blockade or rational selection of an OVV backbone, ameliorated autoimmune side effects without compromising antitumor efficacy. Our study uncovers a pathogenic role for IFN-α/-β in facilitating autoimmune toxicity during cancer immunotherapy and presents a safe and powerful combinatorial regimen with immediate translational applications.
Scott R. Walsh, Donald Bastin, Lan Chen, Andrew Nguyen, Christopher J. Storbeck, Charles Lefebvre, David Stojdl, Jonathan L. Bramson, John C. Bell, Yonghong Wan
Usage data is cumulative from June 2019 through June 2020.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.