We tested the hypothesis that hyperpnea-induced bronchoconstriction (HIB) and hyperpnea-induced bronchovascular hyperpermeability (HIBVH) are mediated through stimulation of NK-1 and NK-2 receptors in guinea pigs. We first established the efficacy and selectivity of (+/-) CP-96,345 (3 mg/kg i.v.) and of SR-48,968 (300 micrograms/kg i.v.) as NK-1 and NK-2 antagonists, respectively. (+/-) CP-96,345 substantially attenuated bronchoconstriction and systemic vascular leak caused by administration of Sar9,Met(O2)11-Substance P (a specific NK-1 agonist), but had no effect upon bronchoconstriction induced by selective NK-2 stimulation with Nle10-Neurokinin A[4-10]. Conversely, SR-48,968 antagonized the bronchoconstrictor response to Nle10-NKA[4-10], right-shifting the dose-response curve by 2 log units, but had no effect on Sar9, Met(O2)11-SP-induced bronchoconstriction. Anesthetized, tracheostomized, opened-chest male Hartley guinea pigs were pretreated with (+/-) CP-96,345 (3 mg/kg i.v.), SR-48,968 (300 micrograms/kg i.v.), or their respective vehicles, and Evans blue dye (30 mg/kg i.v.) to label circulating albumin. 10 min isocapnic dry gas hyperpnea (12 ml/kg, 150 breaths/min) provoked HIB and HIBVH in vehicle-treated animals. (+/-) CP-96,345 reduced the magnitude of HIB by one-half (peak posthyperpnea RL 7.8 +/- 1.9 [SE] times prehyperpnea baseline versus 16.1 +/- 2.6, vehicle-treated; P < or = 0.0001, ANOVA); SR-48,968 blocked HIB more completely (peak posthyperpnea RL 5.1 +/- 1.7 [SE] times prehyperpnea baseline versus 19.3 +/- 2.8, vehicle-treated; P < 0.0001, ANOVA). Neither drug reduced HIBVH. We conclude that dry gas hyperpnea causes bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs through activation of tachykinin receptors. The differential effects of neurokinin receptor blockade on HIB and HIBVH demonstrate that hyperpnea-induced airflow obstruction is not primarily a consequence of hyperpnea-induced bronchovascular leak.
J Solway, B M Kao, J E Jordan, B Gitter, I W Rodger, J J Howbert, L E Alger, J Necheles, A R Leff, A Garland