There are three common C2 protein alleles in caucasians, C2*C, C2*B, and C2*Q0, with allele frequencies of 0.96, 0.03, and 0.01, as well as Sst I RFLP variants of 2.75, 2.7, 2.65, 2.55, and 2.4 kb, with frequencies of 0.017, 0.533, 0.358, 0.017, and 0.075. Thus, C2*C is informatively split by the RFLP. Of 94 nonrandomly ascertained caucasian complotypes, 77 contained C2*C, four contained C2*Q0, and 13 had C2*B. None of the C2*C-containing complotypes carried the 2.75 kb Sst I fragment and all of the complotypes with C2*B or C2*Q0 carried it. All of the C2*Q0 alleles were associated with C4A*4, C4B*2 in the complotype S042 as previously reported. C2*B was usually (9/13) in the complotype SB42, occasionally (1/13 each) in SB45, SB41, SB(4,3)0, and SB31. Thus, the association of the C2 2.75-kb fragment was with C2*B and C2*Q0, not with C4A*4, C4B*2, or even C4A*4 alone. The complotype SC42 was associated with the 2.65-kb Sst I fragment in four of five instances and in a single example with the 2.7-kb fragment. C2*B and C2*Q0 possibly had a common evolutionary ancestor complotype which carried the 2.75-kb Sst I fragment, and BF*S, C4A*4, and C4B*2. C2*B (particularly as the haplotype HLA-Bw62, SB42, DR4) is associated with type 1 diabetes but C2*Q0 is protective.
S Simon, Z Awdeh, R D Campbell, P Ronco 2nd, S J Brink, G S Eisenbarth, E J Yunis, C A Alper