Post-heparin hepatic lipase activity is reduced in chronic renal failure (CRF). This could be due to reduced synthesis, decreased activity, and/or impaired secretion of the enzyme. Further, the factor(s) responsible for such derangements are not elucidated. We examined hepatic lipase metabolism in normal, 6-wk-old CRF rats, CRF-PTX (parathyroidectomized) rats, and CRF and normal rats treated with verapamil (CRF-V, normal-V) using liver homogenate, hepatic cell culture for 8 h, and in vitro liver perfusion. The Vmax of hepatic lipase in liver homogenate was significantly (P < 0.01) reduced and the Km was significantly (P < 0.01) increased in CRF rats, but the values were normal in CRF-PTX, CRF-V, and normal-V rats. Culture of hepatic cells for 8 h was associated with an increase in hepatic lipase activity but the increment in CRF rats was significantly (P < 0.01) lower than that of normal, CRF-PTX, CRF-V, and normal-V rats. Both parathyroid hormone (PTH)-(1-84) and 1-34 inhibited the production of hepatic lipase in cultured cells from normal, CRF-PTX, CRF-V, and normal-V rats. The expression of the mRNA of the hepatic lipase was significantly reduced in CRF animals with the ratio between it and that of house keeping gene G3DPH being 15 +/-3% compared to 40 +/- 1.3% in normal, 44+/-2.9% CRF-PTX, 44 +/- 5.4% in CRF-V, and 39 +/- 3.9% in normal-V rats. Infusion of heparin to the in vitro hepatic perfusion system increased the activity of hepatic lipase in the effluent in all groups of rat except in CRF animals. Infusion of PTH-(1-34) in dose of 10(-6) M into the liver perfusion system inhibited the increase in post-heparin hepatic lipase activity. The data show that in CRF (a) the mRNA of hepatic lipase is downregulated, and hepatic lipase production, activity and release are impaired, (b) that this is due to the state of secondary hyperparathyroidism of CRF since both acute and chronic excess of PTH were associated with these abnormalities, (c) and that prevention of excess PTH by PTX of CRF rats or blocking the effect of PTH by treatment with verapamil corrected the derangement in hepatic lipase metabolism.
M Klin, M Smogorzewski, Z Ni, G Zhang, S G Massry
Degranulated mast cells are present in human fatty streaks. Chymase in granules released from degranulated rat serosal mast cells, i.e., in granule remnants, proteolyzes human high density lipoprotein3 (HDL3), and so reduces its ability to induce cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells in vitro. In this study we found that remnant chymase, by proteolyzing human serum and human aortic intimal fluid, prevents these two physiologic fluids from effectively inducing cholesterol efflux from cultured macrophage foam cells. Inhibition was strongest when remnants were added to apolipoprotein AI (apoAI)-containing lipoproteins; the remnants had no effect on the weaker efflux produced by apoAI-deficient serum. Western blot analysis showed that granule remnants degrade apoAI in serum and in internal fluid. When released from remnants, chymase lost its ability to proteolyze HDL3 in the presence of serum. Thus, remnant chymase (but not isolated chymase) was able to resist the natural protease inhibitors present in serum and in intimal fluid. The results imply participation of exocytosed mast cell granules in foam cell formation in atherogenesis.
L Lindstedt, M Lee, G R Castro, J C Fruchart, P T Kovanen
At birth water is rapidly reabsorbed from the distal lung in preparation for alveolar gas exchange. To investigate a potential role for the AQP1 water channel in development, lung membranes from fetal and perinatal rats were analyzed by immunoblot. First expression of AQP1 was noted in fetal rat lung at E19 (19th day of the 21-day gestation). The level of AQP1 increased fivefold from the last gestational day to the first postnatal day and persisted at high levels into adulthood. Maternal corticosteroids increased expression of AQP1 in fetal lung, an effect also seen in adult rats. AQP1 mRNA increased in rat pups treated with corticosteroids, suggesting at least partial regulation at the level of transcription. Immunohistochemical analyses with anti-AQP1 demonstrated the protein in peribronchial vessels and visceral pleura at E21 with increased postnatal expression. AQP1 was not expressed in airway epithelium, and only occasional alveolar pneumocytes were labeled. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed AQP1 on both apical and basolateral membranes of endothelial cells. The ontogeny and corticosteroid induction of AQP1 in rat lung coincide with major physiological alterations in lung development; however, the distribution of AQP1 predicts the existence of other water channels in the alveolar epithelium.
L S King, S Nielsen, P Agre
This study was performed to determine effects of atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP) on neutrophils-induced endothelial injury which is known to play a role in the pathophysiology of ischemia/reperfusion myocardial injury and to examine whether the effects of ANP and BNP on neutrophils are modulated by neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP) in neutrophils themselves. The incubation of human neutrophils with ANP and BNP inhibited the neutrophils-induced detachment of cultured human endothelial cells (HEC). The inhibitory effect of ANP and BNP was associated with the suppressions of the neutrophils adhesiveness to HEC, CD18 expression on the neutrophils and elastase release from the neutrophils. Coincubation with UK73967 or phosphoramidon, inhibitors of NEP, potentiated all of the effects of ANP and BNP on the neutrophil functions, and the NEP inhibitors protected degradation of ANP and BNP by the neutrophils. NEP enzymatic activity in the particulate fractions and immunoreactive NEP expression were found to increase in the neutrophils from patients with early phase of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by 5.2- and by 4.2-fold of the neutrophils from patients with late phase of AMI, respectively. In an in vivo canine model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion, the intravenous administration of UK73967 suppressed the neutrophil adherence to endothelium and the neutrophil accumulation in the ischemic/reperfused myocardium. The results indicate that ANP and BNP, which are known to increase in AMI, modulate the neutrophil functions and exert protective effects against the neutrophils-induced endothelial cytotoxity. But the effects are suppressed due to their degradation by the neutrophil own NEP. Thus, neutrophil NEP, which also increases in AMI, may play a role in the pathophysiology of neutrophils-mediated ischemia/reperfusion endothelial and myocardial injury.
T Matsumura, K Kugiyama, S Sugiyama, M Ohgushi, K Amanaka, M Suzuki, H Yasue
To identify genes potentially implicated in atherogenesis, a cDNA library was constructed from human atherosclerotic aorta and differentially screened with 32P-labeled-cDNAs prepared from human normal and atherosclerotic aortas. Two cDNA clones exhibiting higher hybridization to the 32P-labeled cDNAs from atherosclerotic vessels were isolated and identified to be genes encoding L-ferritin and H-ferritin, respectively. Northern blot analysis confirmed that the expression of both ferritin genes was notably higher in human and rabbit atherosclerotic aortas than in their normal counterparts. A time-course study illustrated that both L- and H-ferritin mRNAs were markedly increased in aortas of rabbits after feeding with a high cholesterol diet for 6 wk, which was also the time period after which the formation of lesions became evident. In situ hybridization revealed that both L- and H-ferritin mRNAs were induced in endothelial cells and macrophages of human early lesions. The signals were also detected in the smooth muscle cells of advanced lesions. Immunostaining further identified the presence of ferritin protein in atherosclerotic lesions. On the other hand, Prussian blue stain revealed the presence of iron deposits in advanced lesions but not in early human or rabbit lesions. Further experiments with cultured human monocytic THP-1 cells and aortic smooth muscle cells demonstrated that ferritin mRNAs were subjected to up-regulation by treatment with IL-1 or TNF, while TGF, PDGF, and oxidized LDL did not affect the expression of either ferritin gene in both cell lines. Collectively, these results clearly demonstrate that ferritin genes are susceptible to induction in the course of plaque formation.
J H Pang, M J Jiang, Y L Chen, F W Wang, D L Wang, S H Chu, L Y Chau
Fibrin is deposited on the endothelial cell surface in the vasculature of murine methylcholanthrene A-induced sarcomas after injection of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Capillary endothelial cells of the tumor vascular bed become positive for tissue factor after TNF injection, based on immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization. Intravascular clot formation was not dependent on tissue factor derived from tumor cells, since in vessels of tumors not expressing tissue factor, TNF also induced fibrin/fibrinogen deposition. However, the time course of fibrin/fibrinogen deposition after TNF differed in tumors expressing no, little, or greater amounts of tissue factor. Fibrin/fibrinogen deposition was more rapid in tumors in which the neoplastic cells expressed tissue factor than in tumors not expressing tissue factor. In the tumors not expressing tissue factor, activation of coagulation was dependent on TNF-induced synthesis of tissue factor by host cells, i.e., endothelium or monocytes/macrophages. Intravenous somatic gene transfer with tissue factor cDNA in the antisense orientation (but not sense or vector alone) reduced intravascular fibrin/fibrinogen deposition and restored blood flow to the tumor, showing that de novo tissue factor expression is central in TNF-induced activation of the coagulation mechanism.
Y Zhang, Y Deng, T Wendt, B Liliensiek, A Bierhaus, J Greten, W He, B Chen, V Hach-Wunderle, R Waldherr, R Ziegler, D Männel, D M Stern, P P Nawroth
Development of the mammary gland during puberty, pregnancy, and lactation is controlled by steroid and peptide hormones and growth factors. To determine the role of the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in this process we developed a transgenic model using the whey acidic protein (WAP) gene to direct expression of rat IGF-I and human IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) to mammary tissue during late pregnancy and throughout lactation. High levels of expression of transgenic IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were seen in lobular-alveolar cells by in situ hybridization. There was no obvious effect on mammary development during pregnancy and lactation; indeed, mothers were capable of nursing their pups normally and the only structural difference seen in the mammary glands at peak lactation was an overall smaller size of the alveoli. We also evaluated the role of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in the remodeling of mammary tissue during involution. Compared with control animals, the process of involution was modified in both transgenic lines. The degree of apoptotic cells was lower in the WAP-IGF-I and WAP-BP-3 expressing mice. In addition, there was a more quiescent pattern of involution with residual lobular secretary ability and a muted host inflammatory reaction with fewer lumenal microcalcifications. These results demonstrate that IGF-I and IGFBP-3 may modulate the involutionary process of the lactating mammary gland.
S Neuenschwander, A Schwartz, T L Wood, C T Roberts Jr, L Hennighausen, D LeRoith
Group II PLA2 has been implicated in inflammatory processes in both man and other animals and has been shown to be involved in inflammatory conditions, such as arthritis and sepsis. Transgenic mice expressing the human group II PLA2 gene have been generated using a 6.2-kb genomic fragment. These mice express the group II PLA2 gene abundantly in liver, lung, kidney, and skin, and have serum PLA2 activity levels approximately eightfold higher than nontransgenic littermates. The group II PLA2 transgenic mice reported here exhibit epidermal and adnexal hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, and almost total alopecia. The chronic epidermal hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis seen in these mice is similar to that seen in a variety of dermatopathies, including psoriasis. However, unlike what is seen with these dermatopathies, no significant inflammatory-cell influx was observed in the skin of these animals, or in any other tissue examined. These mice provide an important tool for examining group II PLA2 expression, and for determining the role of group II PLA2 in normal and disease physiology. They serve as an in vivo model for identifying inhibitors of group II PLA2 activity and gene expression.
D S Grass, R H Felkner, M Y Chiang, R E Wallace, T J Nevalainen, C F Bennett, M E Swanson
When primary cultures of guinea pig gastric mucosal cells were exposed to heat (43 degree C), ethanol, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), or diamide, heat shock proteins (HSP90, HSP70, HSP60, and HSC73) were rapidly synthesized. The extent of each HSP induction varied with the type of stress. Ethanol, H2O2, and diamide increased the syntheses of several other undefined proteins besides the HSPs. However, none of these proteins were induced by exposure to heat or the reagents, when intracellular glutathione was depleted to <10% of the control level by pretreatment with DL-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine. Gel mobility shift assay using a synthetic oligonucleotide coding HSP70 heat shock element showed that glutathione depletion inhibited the heat- and the reagent-initiated activation of the heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and did not promote the expression of HSP70 mRNA. Immunoblot analysis with antiserum against HSF1 demonstrated that the steady-state level of HSF1 was not changed in glutathione-depleted cells, but glutathione depletion inhibited the nuclear translocation of HSF1 after exposure to heat stress. These results suggest that intracellular glutathione may support early and important biochemical events in the acquisition by gastric mucosal cells of an adaptive response to irritants.
K Rokutan, T Hirakawa, S Teshima, S Honda, K Kishi
Anti-double-stranded (ds) DNA antibodies are not only an important diagnostic marker for SLE, but also play an important role in tissue injury. Microbial antigen may be a stimulus for the production of these antibodies. We isolated 99D.7E, an IgG2b monoclonal antibody from a nonautoimmune BALB/c mouse that is cross-reactive with both dsDNA and phosphorylcholine, the dominant hapten on the pneumococcal cell wall. While partially protective against a bacterial challenge, 99D.7E is also pathogenic to the kidney. To identify those molecular motifs that confer on anti-PC antibodies the potential for autoreactivity, we created a panel of 99D.7E mutants with single amino acid substitutions in the heavy chain, and examined the changes in antigen binding and renal deposition. Our results support the hypothesis that charge and affinity for dsDNA are not adequate predictors of the pathogenicity of anti-DNA antibodies. Differential renal damage from anti-dsDNA antibodies may be due to differences in fine specificity, rather than differential affinity for dsDNA. Importantly, high affinity IgG antibodies cross-reactive with bacterial and self antigen exist and can display pathogenic potential, suggesting that defects in peripheral regulation of B cells, activated by foreign antigen but cross-reactive with self antigen, might lead to autoimmune disorders.
C Putterman, W Limpanasithikul, M Edelman, B Diamond
Nitric oxide is a short-lived free radical and physiological mediator which has the potential to cause cytotoxicity. Studies were conducted to investigate whether nitric oxide, and the potent oxidant peroxynitrite, were generated in brain during experimental carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in the rat. Nitric oxide production was documented by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and found to be increased by ninefold immediately after CO poisoning. Evidence that peroxynitrite was generated was sought by looking for nitrotyrosine in the brains of CO-poisoned rats. Nitrotyrosine was found deposited in vascular walls, and also diffusely throughout the parenchyma in inummocytochemical studies. The affinity and specificity of an anti-nitrotyrosine antibody was investigated and a solid phase immunoradiochemical assay was developed to quantity nitrotyrosine in brain homogenates. A 10-fold increase in nitrotyrosine was found in the brains of CO-poisoned rats. Platelets were involved with production of nitrotyrosine in the early phase of exposure to CO. However, nitrotyrosine formation and leukocyte sequestration were not decreased in thrombocytopenic rats poisoned with CO according to the standard model. When rats were pre-treated with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-nitroarginine methyl ester, formation of both nitric oxide and nitrotyrosine in response to CO poisoning were abolished, as well as leukocyte sequestration in the microvasculature, endothelial xanthine dehydrogenase conversion to xanthine oxidase, and brain lipid peroxidation. We conclude that perivascular reactions mediated by peroxynitrite are important in the cascade of events which lead to brain oxidative stress in CO poisoning.
H Ischiropoulos, M F Beers, S T Ohnishi, D Fisher, S E Garner, S R Thom
Thioredoxin is a small ubiquitous protein with multiple biological functions, including cellular defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. In the present study, we investigated the role of human thioredoxin (hTRX) in the acquisition of cellular resistance to cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (CDDP). The expression and activity of hTRX in Jurkat T cells was dose-dependently enhanced by exposure to CDDP, as determined by immunoblot analysis and insulin reducing assay. Furthermore, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase analysis using the hTRX promoter-reporter gene construct revealed that treatment of Jurkat cells with CDDP caused transcriptional activation of the hTRX gene, which might be mediated through increased generation of intracellular reactive oxygen intermediates. To examine the biological significance of hTRX induction, we established hTRX-overexpressing derivatives of L929 fibrosarcoma cells by stable transfection with the hTRX cDNA. The clones, which constitutively expressed the exogenous hTRX, displayed increased resistance to CDDP-induced cytotoxicity, compared with the control clones. After exposure to CDDP, the control cells showed a significant increase in the intracellular accumulation of peroxides, whereas the hTRX-transfected cells did not. Taken together, these results suggest that overexpressed hTRX is responsible for the development of cellular resistance to CDDP, possibly by scavenging intracellular toxic oxidants generated by this anticancer agent.
T Sasada, S Iwata, N Sato, Y Kitaoka, K Hirota, K Nakamura, A Nishiyama, Y Taniguchi, A Takabayashi, J Yodoi
The antibody response to H. influenzae type b (Hib) is pauciclonal, and is dominated by antibodies using the VkappaA2 gene. Navajos have a 5-10-fold increased incidence of Hib disease compared with control populations. We hypothesized that a polymorphism in one of the genes in this oligoclonal response may lead to increased disease susceptibility. Since the predominant A2+ anti-Hib antibodies have high avidity for Hib and can be unmutated, the A2 Vkappa gene was analyzed. Over half of the Navajos studied, but only one control individual, had a new allele of A2, termed A2b, with three changes from the published A2 germline sequence. One of the changes was in the recombination signal sequence, suggesting that the A2b allele might not undergo V-J rearrangement very frequently. This possibility was confirmed by analyzing the relative frequency of non-productive A2 rearrangements in A2a/b heterozygous Navajos. Many fewer A2b rearrangements were observed, showing that the A2b allele is defective in its ability to undergo rearrangement. The prevalence of this allele in Navajos may play a role in their increased susceptibility to invasive Hib disease. If so, it would underscore the importance of the germline Ig repertoire for protective antibody responses to pathogenic bacteria in unimmunized children.
A J Feeney, M J Atkinson, M J Cowan, G Escuro, G Lugo
Since dopamine produced by the kidney is an intrarenal regulator of sodium transport, an abnormality of the dopaminergic system may be important in the pathogenesis of hypertension. In the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), in spite of normal renal production of dopamine and receptor density, there is defective transduction of the D1 receptor signal in renal proximal tubules, resulting in decreased inhibition of sodium transport (Na+/H+ exchanger [NHE] and Na+/K+ATPase activity) by dopamine. To determine if impaired D1 receptor regulation of NHE in proximal tubules is related to hypertension, studies were performed in a F2 generation from female Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and male SHR crosses. A D1 agonist, SKF 81297, inhibited (37.6 +/- 4.7%) NHE activity in brush border membranes of normotensive F2s (systolic blood pressure < 140 mm Hg, n = 7) but not in hypertensive F2s (n = 21). Furthermore, a D1 agonist, SKF 38393, when infused into the renal artery, dose dependently increased sodium excretion in normotensive F2s (n = 3) without altering renal blood flow but was inactive in hypertensive F2s (n = 21). Since the major D1 receptor gene expressed in renal proximal tubules is the D1A subtype, we determined the importance of this gene in the control of blood pressure in mice lacking functional D1A receptors. Systolic blood pressure was greater in homozygous (n = 6) and heterozygous (n = 5) mice compared to normal sex matched litter mate controls (n = 12); moreover, the mice lacking one or both D1A alleles developed diastolic hypertension. The cosegregation with hypertension of an impaired D1 receptor regulation of renal sodium transport and the development of elevated systolic and diastolic pressure in mice lacking one or both D1A alleles suggest a causal relationship of the D1A receptor gene with hypertension.
F E Albrecht, J Drago, R A Felder, M P Printz, G M Eisner, J E Robillard, D R Sibley, H J Westphal, P A Jose
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy (MD-EBS) is a disease characterized by generalized blistering of the skin associated with muscular involvement. We report that the skin of three MD-EBS patients is not reactive with antibodies 6C6, 10F6, or 5B3 raised against the intermediate filament-associated protein plectin. Immunofluorescence and Western analysis of explanted MD-EBS keratinocytes confirmed a deficient expression of plectin, which, in involved skin, correlated with an impaired interaction of the keratin cytoskeleton with the hemidesmosomes. Consistent with lack of reactivity of MD-EBS skin to plectin antibodies, plectin was not detected in skeletal muscles of these patients. Impaired expression of plectin in muscle correlated with an altered labeling pattern of the muscle intermediate filament protein desmin. A deficient immunoreactivity was also observed with the monoclonal antibody HD121 raised against the hemidesmosomal protein HD1. Furthermore, immunofluorescence analysis showed that HD1 is expressed in Z-lines in normal skeletal muscle; whereas this expression is deficient in patient muscle. Colocalization of HD1 and plectin in normal skin and muscle, together with their impaired expression in MD-EBS tissues, strongly suggests that plectin and HD1 are closely related proteins. Our results therefore provide strong evidence that, in MD-EBS patients, the defective expression of plectin results in an aberrant anchorage of cytoskeletal structures in keratinocytes and muscular fibers leading to cell fragility.
Y Gache, S Chavanas, J P Lacour, G Wiche, K Owaribe, G Meneguzzi, J P Ortonne
A novel 14-amino acid peptide, with stress-protein-like sequences, exhibiting neuroprotection at unprecedented concentrations, is revealed. This peptide prevented neuronal cell death associated with the envelope protein (GP 120) from HIV, with excitotoxicity (N-methyl d-aspartate), with the beta amyloid peptide (putative cytotoxin in Alzheimer's disease), and with tetrodotoxin (electrical blockade). The peptide was designed to contain a sequence derived from a new neuroprotective protein secreted by astroglial cells in the presence of vasoactive intestinal peptide. The neurotrophic protein was isolated by sequential chromatographic methods combining ion exchange, size separation, and hydrophobic interaction. The protein (mol mass, 14 kD and pI, 8.3 +/- 0.25) was named activity-dependent neurotrophic factor, as it protected neurons from death associated with electrical blockade. Peptide sequencing led to the synthesis of the novel 14-amino acid peptide that was homologous, but not identical, to an intracellular stress protein, heat shock protein 60. Neutralizing antiserum to heat shock protein 60 produced neuronal cell death that could be prevented by cotreatment with the novel protein, suggesting the existence of extracellular stress-like proteins with neuroprotective properties. These studies identify a potent neuroprotective glial protein and an active peptide that provide a basis for developing treatments of currently intractable neurodegenerative diseases.
D E Brenneman, I Gozes
Rates of intestinal absorption and surface hydrolysis are determined by the interaction of two barriers: poorly stirred fluid adjacent to the mucosa, and the epithelial cell. These two barriers commonly are modeled as a fixed, flat layer of epithelium covered by a fixed thickness of unstirred fluid. To more accurately simulate these barriers in a villous mucosa, maltase activity (measured in vitro) was distributed over an anatomically correct model of rat jejunal villi. We then determined what interaction of the aqueous and epithelial barriers best predicted in vivo maltose hydrolysis rates measured over a broad range of infusate concentrations. Hydrolysis was accurately predicted by a model in which unstirred fluid extended from 20 microm over the villous tips throughout the intervillous space. In this model, the depth of diffusion into the intervillous space is inversely proportional to the efficiency of epithelial handling of the solute. As a result, both the aqueous barrier and the functional surface area are variables rather than constants. Some implications of our findings (relative to the conventional model) include: higher predicted Vmax, efficient handling of low concentrations of a solute at the villous tips while high concentrations must penetrate thick aqueous barriers, and sensitive regulation of transport rates via ease of access to the intervillous space.
M D Levitt, C Fine, J K Furne, D G Levitt
Induction of heat shock proteins (hsp) most likely is a homeostatic mechanism in response to metabolic and environmental insults. We have investigated signal transduction mechanisms involved in alpha1, adrenergic receptor stimulation of hsp7O gene expression in isolated aortas with age. We found that alpha1 adrenergic agonists directly induced hsp70 mRNA in rat aorta in vitro; the alpha1, selective antagonist prazosin blocked this effect whereas chloroethylclonidine, an antagonist which has some selectivity for alpha1B receptors, was ineffective. This response was insensitive to pertussis toxin and was partially blocked by the protein kinase C inhibitor H7. Removal of extracellular calcium attenuated induction of hsp70 mRNA but not the induction of c-fos or c-myc. The induction of hsp70 mRNA by either norepinephrine or by phorbol dibutyrate was blunted in aortas from old (24-27 mo) rats whereas c-fos responses were not diminished in the older vessels. The hsp70 response to elevated temperature (42 degrees C) was not changed with age. Activation of hsp70 expression most likely involves a pertussis toxin insensitive G protein which activates protein kinase C, and requires extracellular calcium. With age, hsp70 gene expression induced by stimulation of alpha1 adrenergic receptors is markedly attenuated, which could modify responses to stress or vascular injury with aging.
J H Chin, M Okazaki, Z W Hu, J W Miller, B B Hoffman
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a hypersensitivity lung disease characterized by Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) colonization, IgE and IgG anti-Af antibodies, pulmonary infiltrates, bronchiectasis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Little is known regarding T cell responses and their role in the pathogenesis of ABPA. To examine T cell reactivity to Af antigens, T cell clones (TCC) specific to the Asp f 1 antigen, an 18-kD protein of Af, were established from the peripheral blood of three ABPA patients. The majority of TCC isolated from ABPA patients, and specific for the Asp f 1 allergen of Af, are IL-4 producing CD4+ cells of the Th2 phenotype. Further analysis in this study revealed that the majority of TCC reacted to mainly two epitopes of Asp f 1, while the remaining TCC reacted to three additional "minor" epitopes. Blocking studies using monoclonal antibodies specific for class II HLA-D region gene products showed that most TCC, 19/21, were restricted by HLA-DR molecules, and the remaining two clones by HLA-DP molecules. The use of a panel of HLA-matched and mismatched EBV-transformed B cells as antigen presenting cells revealed that the HLA-DR restriction was mediated exclusively by either the HLA-DR2 or HLA-DR5 alleles. Genotyping of DRB1 gene products showed that class II presentation for most clones was not restricted to a single allele, representing DRB1 gene products of either HLA-DR2 or DR5. These studies offer insight into the cellular and molecular determinants which contribute to the immunopathophysiology of ABPA.
B Chauhan, A p Knutsen, P S Hutcheson, R G Slavin, C J Bellone
We investigated the signaling pathways mediating 1-pS Ca2+ channel activation by PDGF in cultured rat mesangial cells. In cell-attached patches, intrapipette PDGF-BB (PDGF B chain homodimer isoform) (50 ng/ml) dramatically stimulates channel activity (P < 0.003, n = 6). Tyrosine kinase inhibition (100 microM genistein or 10 microM tryphostin 9) abolished PDGF-induced channel activation (P < 0.02, n = 6). In excised patches, the effect of tyrosine kinase inhibition could be reversed by 200 microM GTPgammaS (P < 0.02, n = 4). In contrast, 200 microM GDPbetaS inhibited PDGF-induced channel activity (P < 0.04, n = 6). Pertussis toxin (250 ng/ml) had no effect on PDGF-induced channel activity (P = 0.45, n = 6). When excised patches were exposed to anti-Ras antibody (5 microg/ml), PDGF-induced channel activity was abolished (P < 0.002, n = 11). Western immunoblots revealed that PDGF-BB binding stimulates the formation of a membrane-bound complex consisting of growth factor receptor-binding protein 2, son of sevenless, and the PDGF-beta receptor. Complex formation was abolished by genistein. In mesangial cells, the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of the PDGF-beta receptor stimulates the formation of a membrane-bound growth factor receptor-binding protein 2/son of sevenless/PDGF-beta receptor complex and activation of the pertussis toxin-insensitive GTP-binding protein, p21-Ras, which leads to the opening of 1-pS Ca2+ channels.
H Ma, H Matsunaga, B Li, B Schieffer, M B Marrero, B N Ling
Cross-linking of fibrinogen at its COOH-terminal gamma chain cross-linking site occurs in the presence of factor XIIIa due to self-association at a constitutive D domain site ("gammaXL"). We investigated the contribution of COOH-terminal regions of fibrinogen Aalpha chains to the gammaXL site by comparing the gamma chain cross-linking rate of intact fibrinogen (fraction I-2) with that of plasma fraction I-9, plasmic fraction I-9D, and plasmic fragment D1, which lack COOH-terminal Aalpha chain regions comprising approximately 100, approximately 390, and 413 residues, respectively. The cross-linking rates were I-2 > I-9 > 1-9D = D1, and indicated that the terminal 100 or more Aalpha chain residues enhance gammaXL site association. Fibrinogen Dusart, whose structural abnormality is in the COOH-terminal "alphaC" region of its Aalpha chain (Aalpha R554C-albumin), is associated with thrombophilia ("Dusart Syndrome"), and is characterized functionally by defective fibrin polymerization and clot structure, and reduced plasminogen binding and tPA-induced fibrinolysis. In the presence of XIIIa, the Dusart fibrinogen gamma chain cross-linking rate was about twice that of normal, but was normalized in proteolytic fibrinogen derivatives lacking the Aalpha chain abnormality, as was reduced plasminogen binding. Electron microscopy showed that albumin-bound Dusart fibrinogen "alphaC" regions were located in the vicinity of D domains, rather than at their expected tethered location near the fibrinogen E domain. In addition, there was considerable fibrinogen aggregation that was attributable to increased intermolecular COOH-terminal Aalpha chain associations promoted by untethered Dusart fibrinogen aC domains. We conclude that enhanced Dusart fibrinogen self-assembly is mediated through its abnormal alphaC domains, leads to increased gammaXL self-association and gamma chain cross-linking potential, and contributes to the thrombophilia that characterizes the "Dusart Syndrome."
M W Mosesson, K R Siebenlist, J f Hainfeld, J S Wall, J Soria, C Soria, J P Caen
While it is well established that people with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus have defects in both insulin secretion and action, the relative contribution of each to glucose intolerance is not known. Therefore, nondiabetic (lean and obese) and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects were studied on two occasions. On each occasion, insulin secretion was inhibited with somatostatin and glucose was infused in a pattern and amount that mimicked the systemic delivery rate normally observed after ingestion of 50 g of glucose. Insulin also was infused so as to mimic postprandial insulin profiles observed in separate groups of diabetic and nondiabetic subjects after food ingestion. Glucose turnover was measured using the isotope dilution method. A delayed pattern of insulin delivery (i.e., a "diabetic" insulin profile) led to higher (P < 0.05) glucose concentrations in all groups; however, the effects were transient, resulting in only a modest increase in the integrated glycemic responses. An isolated defect in insulin action had little effect on peak glucose concentration; however, it prolonged the duration of hyperglycemia, leading to a 2.5-4.2-fold increase (P < 0.05) in the integrated glycemic response. A combined defect in the pattern of insulin secretion and action was additive rather than synergistic. Both defects caused hyperglycemia by altering suppression of endogenous glucose release and stimulation of glucose disposal. Whereas obese diabetic and nondiabetic subjects had comparable defects in glucose clearance, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects also had defects in hepatic insulin action. Thus, abnormalities in the pattern of insulin secretion and action alone or in combination impair glucose tolerance. An isolated defect in insulin action has a more pronounced and prolonged effect than does an isolated change in the pattern of insulin secretion. Hepatic and extrahepatic insulin resistance results in marked and sustained hyperglycemia.
A Basu, A Alzaid, S Dinneen, A Caumo, C Cobelli, R A Rizza
This study examined the effectiveness of antisense oligonucleotides targeted to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) to inhibit endotoxin-induced upregulation of ICAM-1 and neutrophil emigration and compared the apparent role of ICAM-1 when examined using antisense oligonucleotides, anti-ICAM-1 antibodies, and ICAM-1 mutant mice. Antisense oligonucleotides inhibited upregulation of ICAM-1 mRNA at 4 and 24 h after instillation of endotoxin in a dose-dependent manner. Neutrophil emigration into the alveolar spaces at 24 h was inhibited by 59%, similar to inhibition using the anti-ICAM-1 antibodies 3E2 (58%) and YN1/1 (75%). No inhibition was observed in the ICAM-1 mutant compared to wild-type mice. These data show that antisense oligonucleotides targeted to ICAM-1 inhibit the endotoxin-induced upregulation of ICAM-1 in the lung and are as effective as anti-ICAM-1 antibodies in preventing neutrophil emigration. The incomplete inhibition by either antisense oligonucleotides or antibodies suggests that alternative adhesion pathways that do not require ICAM-1 are important in neutrophil emigration in the lungs. The disparity in the role of ICAM-1 when evaluated using antisense or antibodies compared to mutant mice suggests that either these inhibitors are exerting additional effects on endothelial cells other than blockade of ICAM-1 or mutant mice have upregulated the ICAM-1-independent pathways to compensate for the long-term loss of ICAM-1.
T Kumasaka, W M Quinlan, N A Doyle, T P Condon, J Sligh, F Takei, A l Beaudet, C F Bennett, C M Doerschuk
Adrenomedullin (ADM) is a newly discovered endogenous vasorelaxing and natriuretic peptide. Recently, we have reported that plasma ADM is increased in severe congestive heart failure (CHF) in humans and that increased immunohistochemical staining is observed in the failing human ventricular myocardium. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that the failing human ventricle secretes ADM and that circulating ADM progressively increases with the severity of clinical CHF. Plasma ADM was significantly increased in human CHF (39.8 +/- 3.6 pg/ml, P < 0.001 vs. normal) as compared with normal subjects (14.4 +/- 2.7 pg/ml). Plasma ADM was increased in mild CHF (NYHA class II, 30.1 +/- 3.4 pg/ml, P < 0.01 vs. normal), moderate CHF (NYHA class III, 31.5 +/- 3.0 pg/ml, P < 0.01 vs. normal), and severe CHF (NYHA class IV, 66.1 +/- 9.4 pg/ml, P < 0.001 vs. normal). In 13 patients with CHF in whom plasma samples were obtained from aorta (AO), coronary sinus (CS) and anterior interventricular vein (AIV), there was a significant step-up in plasma ADM between AO and AIV (50.6 +/- 9.3 pg/ml and 62.1 +/- 11.1 pg/ml, respectively, P < 0.01) and between AO and CS (50.6 +/- 9.3 pg/ml and 58.6 +/- 11.4 pg/ml, respectively, P < 0.05). The current study demonstrates that the failing human heart secretes ADM in human CHF suggesting contribution to the increase in plasma ADM, and indicates for the first time an additional endocrine system of cardiac origin which is activated in human CHF and may function in cardiorenal regulation.
M Jougasaki, R J Rodeheffer, M M Redfield, K Yamamoto, C M Wei, L J McKinley, J C Burnett Jr
Gene products of all three distinct nitric oxide synthases are present in the mammalian kidney. This mosaic topography of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms probably reflects distinct functional role played by each enzyme. While nitric oxide (NO) is cytotoxic to isolated renal tubules, inhibition of NO production in vivo invariably results in the aggravation of renal dysfunction in various models of acute renal failure. We reasoned that the existing ambiguity on the role of nitric oxide in acute renal failure is in part due to the lack of selective NOS inhibitors. Phosphorothioated derivatives of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeting a conserved sequence within the open reading frame of the cDNA encoding the inducible NOS (iNOS) were designed to produce a selective knock-down of this enzyme. In vivo use of these antisense constructs attenuated acute renal failure in rats subjected to renal ischemia. This effect was due, at least in part, to the rescue of tubular epithelium from lethal injury. Application of antisense constructs did not affect endothelial NOS, as evidenced by a spared NO release after the infusion of bradykinin during in vivo monitoring with an NO-selective microelectrode. In conclusion, the data provide direct evidence for the cytotoxic effects of NO produced via iNOS in the course of ischemic acute renal failure, and offer a novel method to selectively prevent the induction of this enzyme.
E Noiri, T Peresleni, F Miller, M S Goligorsky
Recent studies have suggested that nonsterol, mevalonate-derived metabolites are implicated in the control of vascular tone and blood pressure. Because of the metabolic importance of farnesyl pyrophosphate, a 15-carbon (C15) intermediate of the cholesterol pathway, the vasoactive properties of the farnesyl motif were investigated. Two farnesyl analogues were used: farnesol, the natural dephosphorylated form of farnesyl pyrophosphate, and N-acetyl-S-trans,trans-farnesyl-L-cysteine (AFC), a synthetic mimic of the carboxyl terminus of farnesylated proteins. Both compounds inhibited NE-induced vasoconstriction in rat aortic rings at micromolar concentration. Their action was rapid, dose dependent, and reversible. Shorter (C10) and longer (C20) isoprenols as well as N-acetyl-S-geranyl-L-cysteine (C10) did not inhibit the response to NE. In contrast, N-acetyl-S-geranylgeranyl-L-cysteine (C20), exhibited vasoactive properties similar to AFC. It was further demonstrated that AFC and farnesol inhibited KCl and NaF-induced contractions, suggesting a complex action on Ca2+ channels and G protein-dependent pathways. Finally, the effect of farnesol and AFC on the NE response was reproduced in human resistance arteries. In conclusion, mevalonate-derived farnesyl analogues are potent inhibitors of vasoconstriction. The study suggests that farnesyl cellular availability is an important determinant of vascular tone in animals and humans, and provides a basis for exploring farnesyl metabolism in humans with compromised vascular function as well as for using farnesyl analogues as regulators of arterial tone in vivo.
J B Roullet, H Xue, J Chapman, P McDougal, C M Roullet, D A McCarron
Ischemic preconditioning signals through protein kinase C (PKC) to protect against myocardial infarction. This protection is characterized by diminished intracellular acidification. Acidification is also a feature of apoptosis, and several agents act to prevent apoptosis by preventing acidification through activation of ion channels and pumps to promote cytoplasmic alkalinization. We characterized metabolic inhibition, recovery, and preconditioning through a PKC-dependent pathway in cardiomyocytes isolated from adult rabbit hearts. Preconditioning reduced loss of viability assessed by morphology and reduced DNA nicking. Blockade of the vacuolar proton ATPase (VPATPase) prevented the effect of preconditioning to reduce metabolic inhibition-induced acidosis, loss of viability, and DNA nicking. The beneficial effect of Na+/H+ exchange inhibition, which is thought to be effective through reduced intracellular Na+ and Ca++, was also abrogated by VPATPase blockade, suggesting that acidification even in the absence of Na+/H+ exchange may lead to cell death. We conclude that a target of PKC in mediating preconditioning is activation of the VPATPase with resultant attenuation of intracellular acidification during metabolic inhibition. Inhibition of the "death protease," interleukin-1-beta converting enzyme or related enzymes, also protected against the injury that followed metabolic inhibition. This observation, coupled with the detection of DNA nicking in cells subjected to metabolic inhibition, suggests that apoptotic cell death may be preventable in this model of ischemia/reperfusion injury.
R A Gottlieb, D L Gruol, J Y Zhu, R L Engler