The observation that type III erythrocytes of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) are susceptible to hemolysis initiated by activated cobra venom factor complexes (CoFBb), whereas normal erythrocytes are resistant, implies that the PNH III cells are deficient in a membrane constituent that regulates this process. To isolate the inhibitory factor from normal erythrocytes, membrane proteins were first extracted with butanol and then subjected to sequential anion exchange, hydroxylapatite, and hydrophobic chromatography. Analysis by SDS-PAGE and silver stain of the inhibitory fractions showed a single band corresponding to a protein with an apparent Mr of 18 kD. PNH erythrocytes were incubated with incremental concentrations of the radiolabeled protein and then washed. In a dose-dependent fashion, the protein incorporated into the cell membrane and inhibited CoFBb-initiated lysis. This protein inhibitor functioned by restricting the assembly of the membrane attack complex at the level of C7 and C8 incorporation. By using a monospecific antibody to block the function of the inhibitor, it was shown that normal erythrocytes are rendered susceptible to CoFBb-initiated hemolysis. Analysis by Western blot of membrane proteins revealed that PNH III erythrocytes are deficient in the 18-kD protein. By virtue of its molecular weight and inhibitory activity, the 18-kD protein appears to be discrete from other previously described erythrocyte membrane proteins that regulate complement. These studies also indicate that the susceptibility of PNH III erythrocytes to reactive lysis is causally related to a deficiency of the 18-kD membrane inhibitor.
M H Holguin, L R Fredrick, N J Bernshaw, L A Wilcox, C J Parker
Cyclic variations in coronary blood flow (CFVs) in dogs with experimental coronary artery stenosis and endothelial injury appear to result primarily from the aggregation of platelets at the site of stenosis followed by dislodgement and distal embolization. Using this canine model, we tested the hypotheses: (a) that thrombin is an important mediator of CFVs in dogs with coronary stenoses and endothelial injury; (b) that inhibition of thrombin with heparin, or MCI-9038, a selective thrombin inhibitor, abolishes CFVs in this model; and (c) that abolition of CFVs by thrombin inhibition is time dependent. CFVs, produced in open-chest dogs by placing a flow-reducing plastic constrictor around the left anterior coronary artery, were monitored for either 30 min (group I) or 3 h (group II) before treatment with either heparin or 4-methyl-1-(N2-[(3-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-8-quinolinyl (MCI-9038). In group I, cyclic flow variations were abolished by heparin in 12 of 18 dogs and by MCI-9038 in 5 of 7 dogs. In group II, cyclic flow variations were not abolished by heparin in any of seven dogs and were abolished by MCI-9038 in only one of seven dogs. Thus, (a) thrombin appears to be an important mediator of cyclic flow variations in dogs with coronary artery stenosis and endothelial injury and (b) inhibition of thrombin abolishes CFVs after short but not prolonged periods of CFVs.
J F Eidt, P Allison, S Noble, J Ashton, P Golino, J McNatt, L M Buja, J T Willerson
Because plasma kallikrein activates human neutrophils, and in plasma prekallikrein (PK) circulates complexed with high molecular weight kininogen (HMWK), we determined whether HMWK could mediate kallikrein's association with neutrophils. HMWK antigen (237 +/- 61 ng HMWK/10(8) neutrophils) was present in lysates of washed human neutrophils. Little if any plasma HMWK was tightly bound and nonexchangeable with the neutrophil surface. Human neutrophils were found to possess surface membrane-binding sites for HMWK but no internalization was detected at 37 degrees C. 125I-HMWK binding to neutrophils was dependent upon Zn2+. Binding of 125I-HMWK to neutrophils was specific and 90% reversible. 125I-HMWK binding to neutrophils was saturable with an apparent Kd of 9-18 nM and 40,000-70,000 sites per cell. Upon binding to neutrophils, 125I-HMWK was proteolyzed by human neutrophil elastase (HNE) into lower relative molecular mass derivatives. Furthermore, HMWK found in neutrophils also served as a cofactor for HNE secretion because neutrophils deficient in HMWK have reduced HNE secretion when stimulated in plasma deficient in HMWK or with purified kallikrein. These studies indicate that human neutrophils contain a binding site for HMWK that could serve to localize plasma or neutrophil HMWK on their surface to possibly serve as a receptor for kallikrein and to participate in HNE secretion by this enzyme.
E J Gustafson, A H Schmaier, Y T Wachtfogel, N Kaufman, U Kucich, R W Colman
The primary functions of the gut are to absorb nutrients and exclude bacteria and their products. However, under certain circumstances the gut may lose its barrier function and serve as a reservoir for systemic microbial infections. These experiments were performed to determine the mechanisms whereby endotoxin causes bacteria to escape (translocate) from the gut. Bacteria translocated from the gut to the mesenteric lymph nodes of mice challenged with nonlethal doses of Escherichia coli 026:B6 or E. coli 0111:B4 endotoxin. Physical disruption of the gut mucosal barrier appears to be the primary mechanism whereby endotoxin promotes bacterial translocation. Mucosal injury and endotoxin-induced bacterial translocation were reduced by inhibition (allopurinol) or inactivation (tung-sten diet) of xanthine oxidase activity (P less than 0.01), but were not affected by the platelet-activation factor antagonists, SRI 63-441 or BN 52021. Because the inhibition or inactivation of xanthine oxidase activity reduced both the extent of mucosal injury and endotoxin-induced bacterial translocation, the effect of endotoxin on the gut appears to be mediated, at least to some degree, by xanthine oxidase-generated, oxygen-free radicals.
E A Deitch, L Ma, W J Ma, M B Grisham, D N Granger, R D Specian, R D Berg
Malignant prostatic carcinoma, a major cause of cancer mortality in males, most often metastasizes to secondary sites in bone. Frequently, the growth rate of the secondary tumor in bone marrow is considerably greater than that of the slowly growing primary prostatic tumor. We now report that two lines of human prostatic carcinoma cells proliferate in response to conditioned media from unstimulated human, rat, or bovine bone marrow. Nonprostatic tumor cell lines showed little or no growth response to the same medium. The proliferative activity found in bone marrow was not duplicated by any of a variety of purified growth factors including epidermal growth factor (EGF), acidic or basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor (TGF) alpha or beta, interleukins 1, 2, 3, 4 or 6, granulocyte (G), macrophage (M) or granulocyte-macrophage (GM) colony stimulating factor (CSF). Whereas a mixture of G-CSF, M-CSF, and IL 3 produced a mitogenic response in the prostatic carcinoma cells, these three factors were not present in our bone marrow samples in sufficient quantities to promote the observed proliferative response. To further identify the cellular source of the proliferative activity present in bone marrow-conditioned medium, we tested conditioned media made from human bone marrow stromal cells. The stromal cell conditioned medium stimulated increased growth of the prostatic carcinoma cells to levels equivalent to those observed with the bone marrow conditioned medium. These results suggest that novel mitogenic factors that are produced by bone marrow stromal cells and remain in the bone marrow cavity may account, in part, for the preferential growth of prostatic metastases in bone.
M Chackal-Roy, C Niemeyer, M Moore, B R Zetter
Lymphoproliferative disease of granular lymphocytes (LDGL) is a heterogeneous disorder and the pathogenesis is likely to be complex. Some patients with chronic active EBV (CAEBV) infection also have LDGL. To investigate the relationship between EBV infection and the pathogenesis of LDGL, we conducted a survey for EBV DNA sequences by Southern blot analysis of DNA obtained from the peripheral blood of seven patients with LDGL, including one with CAEBV infection. Interestingly, EBV DNA was detected in the sample from the patient with CAEBV infection, and in the samples from four other patients with CD3-LDGL. Moreover, a single band for the joined termini of the EBV genome was demonstrated in two samples, suggesting a clonal disorder of those LDGL. These findings strongly suggest that EBV may play a pathogenic role in some cases of LDGL.
K Kawa-Ha, S Ishihara, T Ninomiya, K Yumura-Yagi, J Hara, F Murayama, A Tawa, K Hirai
vWF is a multimeric glycoprotein that serves as the major carrier in plasma of Factor VIII (FVIII). We have used an anti-human vWF MAb W5-6A to investigate the FVIII binding site on vWF. W5-6A inhibited FVIII binding to vWF-coated polystyrene tubes in a concentration-dependent manner with 90% inhibition of FVIII binding at a concentration of 10 micrograms/ml. The W5-6A epitope was identified by screening a vWF fragment library using the bacteriophage expression vector lambda gt11. DNA sequence analysis of 29 immunoreactive phage clones localized the W5-6A epitope to a nonadecapeptide spanning amino acid residues threonine 78 to threonine 96 at the amino-terminus of the mature vWF polypeptide. Purified beta-galactosidase/vWF fusion protein from one of these clones, vWF9, was incubated with radiolabeled W5-6A and caused near complete inhibition of W5-6A binding to vWF. Inhibitory activity was lost after vWF9 trypsinization or reduction and alkylation. These data indicate that (a) the antigenic determinant recognized by W5-6A localizes to a nonadecapeptide at the NH2 terminus of the mature vWF polypeptide, (b) disulfide bonds within vWF9 may be necessary to maintain the structure required for immunoreactivity with W5-6A, and (c) W5-6A recognizes an immunogenic region on vWF that may be at (or near) the major FVIII binding domain.
W F Bahou, D Ginsburg, R Sikkink, R Litwiller, D N Fass
The extrapancreatic actions of sulfonylureas on the glucose transport system were studied in the L6 line of cultured rat skeletal muscle cells. Insulin (10(-7) M) increased 2-deoxyglucose uptake in differentiated L6 myotubes by 30-40% after 8 h of incubation. The sulfonylurea tolazamide (0.6 mg/ml, 22 h) had no effect on glucose uptake in the absence of insulin, but increased insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake twofold. The total cellular content of glucose transporters was assessed with a monoclonal anti-transporter antibody by a solid-phase ELISA method. Insulin (8 h) increased the quantity of glucose transporters, with a maximal twofold increase at 10(-7) M and a dose-response curve similar to that for insulin stimulation of glucose uptake. In spite of its lack of effect on glucose uptake, tolazamide alone (0.6 mg/ml) increased the cellular content of transporters by 70%. The effects of insulin and tolazamide on transporter gene expression were studied with probes derived from Hep G2 glucose transporter cDNA. Insulin increased the transporter mRNA level 1.7-fold, tolazamide increased it 1.5-fold, and the combination of insulin and tolazamide increased transporter mRNA 3-fold. It is concluded that sulfonylureas, together with insulin, enhance glucose uptake in L6 skeletal muscle cells by increasing the number of functioning glucose transport molecules. The long-term regulation of the glucose transport system in skeletal muscle by insulin and sulfonylureas in vivo may involve similar changes in transporter function, number, and gene expression.
P H Wang, D Moller, J S Flier, R C Nayak, R J Smith
Cystic fibrosis (CF) respiratory epithelia exhibit abnormal anion transport that may be linked to abnormal lung defense. In these studies, we investigated whether primary cultures of CF respiratory epithelial cells regulate abnormally the sulfate content of high molecular weight glycoconjugates (HMG) participating in airways' mucosal defense. HMG, including glycosaminoglycans and mucin-type glycoproteins released spontaneously into medium and HMG released from cell surfaces by trypsin, were metabolically labeled with 35SO4- and [6-3H]-glucosamine (GlcN) or 35SO4- and [3H]serine. All three classes of HMG from CF cells exhibited 35S/3H labeling ratios 1.5-4-fold greater than HMG from normal or disease control cells. Differences for labeling ratios of HMG from CF cells were shown to be the consequence of increased 35SO4- incorporation rather than decreased peptide synthesis and release or HMG glycosylation. The buoyant density of CF mucin-type HMG also was increased, consistent with increased sulfation. These observations suggest that oversulfation of a spectrum of HMG is a genetically determined characteristic of CF epithelial cells and may play an important pathophysiological role by altering the properties of mucous secretions and/or the interactions between selected bacteria and HMG at the airways' surface.
P W Cheng, T F Boat, K Cranfill, J R Yankaskas, R C Boucher
In a previous study we provide evidence for a circuitous pathway by which circulating plasma proteins enter megakaryocyte granules by an endocytic mechanism and are returned to the circulation in platelets (1987. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 84:861-865). Horseradish peroxidase (40,000 mol wt) was injected into guinea pigs and its uptake into megakaryocyte organelles examined by electron microscopy and cytochemistry. In the present study we tested the ability of guinea pig megakaryocytes to take up intravenously injected albumin, IgG, and fibrinogen. We used two types of proteins to study the endocytic pathway: (a) heterologous human proteins, which were detected immunohistochemically using antibodies that do not crossreact with the native guinea pig counterparts; and (b) human and guinea pig proteins labeled with the small (250 mol wt), inert molecule, biotin, which were detected using an antibody against biotin. We detected all three of the injected proteins in bone marrow megakaryocytes in patterns identical to those of native counterparts. The injected protein consistently appeared in platelets 24 h later and was secreted in response to thrombin. We conclude that there are at least two mechanisms by which guinea pig megakaryocyte granules acquire proteins (a) endogenous synthesis, as demonstrated by others, and (b) endocytosis of plasma proteins synthesized by other types of cells.
P J Handagama, M A Shuman, D F Bainton
These studies explored the hypothesis that angiotensin II increases bicarbonate absorption in the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) by decreasing intracellular cAMP. In vivo microperfusion was performed in rat PCT with measurements of bicarbonate absorption and of tubular fluid cAMP delivery, as a reflection of intracellular cAMP. Intravenous angiotensin II potently increased S1 PCT bicarbonate absorption (348 +/- 11 to 588 +/- 8 peq/min.min, P less than 0.001) and decreased tubular fluid cAMP (18 +/- 2 to 12 +/- 2 fmol/mm.min, P less than 0.05). Parathyroid hormone had the expected opposite effects, which were additive to those of angiotensin II. Over a wide range of hormonal activities, there was an excellent inverse relationship between hormonally modulated bicarbonate absorption and cAMP delivery. Pertussis toxin pretreatment significantly attenuated (by 35-45%) the angiotensin-induced increase in bicarbonate absorption and decrease in cAMP delivery, indicating Gi-protein intermediation. Luminal dibutyryl cAMP abolished the transport response to angiotensin II. In conclusion, these in vivo results suggest angiotensin II stimulates bicarbonate absorption in the S1 PCT by a G1-mediated depression in intracellular cAMP.
F Y Liu, M G Cogan
We used an immunoperoxidase procedure to examine the tissue distribution of the platelet alpha-granule membrane protein, GMP-140. In addition to its presence in megakaryocytes and platelets, GMP-140 antigen was found in vascular endothelial cells of diverse human organs, but it was not detected in other types of secretory cells. [35S]Cysteine-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells synthesized a GMP-140 molecule containing complex N-linked oligosaccharides similar to those previously demonstrated in platelets and the megakaryocytic HEL cell line. Using an immunogold procedure on frozen thin sections of endothelial cells, we found GMP-140 antigen to be localized to membranes of electron-dense storage granules. In double-label experiments there was colocalization of GMP-140 with vWf, indicating that these granules are Weibel-Palade bodies. When endothelial cells were stimulated with histamine, GMP-140 rapidly redistributed to the plasma membrane. Immunoassays of cell lysates indicated that, relative to total cell protein, less GMP-140 is present in human umbilical vein endothelial cells than in platelets. The restricted expression of GMP-140 in secretory granules of platelets and endothelium suggests that it has a specific function in the vascular system rather than a general role related to inducible secretion.
R P McEver, J H Beckstead, K L Moore, L Marshall-Carlson, D F Bainton
The pancreatic stone protein and its secretory form (PSP-S) are inhibitors of CaCO3 crystal growth, possibly involved in the stabilization of pancreatic juice. We have established the structure of PSP-S mRNA and monitored its expression in chronic calcifying pancreatitis (CCP). A cDNA encoding pre-PSP-S has been cloned from a human pancreatic cDNA library. Its nucleotide sequence revealed that it comprised all but the 5' end of PSP-S mRNA, which was obtained by sequencing the first exon of the PSP-S gene. The complete mRNA sequence is 775 nucleotides long, including 5'- and 3'- noncoding regions of 80 and 197 nucleotides, respectively, attached to a poly(A) tail of approximately 125 nucleotides. It encodes a preprotein of 166 amino acids, including a prepeptide of 22 amino acids. No overall sequence homology was found between PSP-S and other pancreatic proteins. Some homology with several serine proteases was observed in the COOH-terminal region, however. The mRNA levels of PSP-S, trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, and colipase in CCP and control pancreas were compared. PSP-S mRNA was three times lower in CCP than in control, whereas the others were not altered. It was concluded that PSP-S gene expression is specifically reduced in CCP patients.
D Giorgi, J P Bernard, S Rouquier, J Iovanna, H Sarles, J C Dagorn
The role of complement receptors in phagocytosis of herpes simplex virus (HSV) by PMN was examined. Complement components were deposited on the surface of the virus particle in the presence or absence of specific anti-HSV antibodies. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the phagocytosis of fluorescence-labeled viruses and demonstrated that although a virion is able to associate with PMN in the presence of complement alone, the granulocyte is not triggered to mount a metabolic burst. Efficient stimulation of PMN occurs when complexes are formed consisting of virus, specific antibodies, and complement. To address the question whether the viruses were inside or outside the cell, a combined enhancement/quenching method was developed using ammonium chloride as a lysosomotropic agent and trypan blue as a quenching dye. The data indicate that Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis by PMN results in the ingestion of all cell-associated herpes virions. Interactions of virions through PMN-complement receptors CR1 and CR3 results solely in binding to the PMN but not in internalization. Interactions via both complement and Fc receptors cause synergistic stimulation of the PMN and result in very efficient association of viruses, greater than 80% of which were inside the cell.
J A Van Strijp, K P Van Kessel, M E van der Tol, J Verhoef
In five patients with hemophilia B and detectable Factor IX antigen, altered reactivity to a specific polyclonal antibody fraction or monoclonal anti-Factor IX antibodies was noted. Amplification of selected portions of their Factor IX genes by polymerase chain reaction allowed rapid identification of a single base transition in each of the five families tested. In a patient with severe hemophilia and an altered calcium binding domain, a G to A transition in exon II changed the codon for Glu-27 to Lys (Factor IXSeattle 3). Patients from two families with mild hemophilia with decreased reactivity to a MAb that binds to a site within the sequence coded for by exon IV had a G to A transition changing the codon for Gly-60 to Ser (Factor IXDurham). Two unrelated patients with moderately severe hemophilia lacked reactivity to another murine monoclonal anti-Factor IX which binds to an epitope in the amino-terminal half of the heavy chain of Factor IXa. In these patients, exon VIII contained a G to A transition changing Arg-248 to Gln (Factor IXSeattle 4).
S H Chen, A R Thompson, M Zhang, C R Scott
These studies were designed to elucidate how shorter (MCT) and longer (HCO) chain-length saturated triacylglycerols and cholesterol interact to alter steady-state plasma LDL-cholesterol levels. When either MCT or HCO was fed in the absence of cholesterol, there was little effect on receptor-dependent LDL transport but a 36-43% increase in LDL-cholesterol production. Cholesterol feeding in the absence of triacylglycerol led to significant suppression of receptor-dependent LDL transport and a 26-31% increase in LDL-cholesterol production. However, when the longer chain-length saturated triacylglycerol was fed together with cholesterol there was a marked increase in the suppression of receptor-dependent LDL transport and an 82% increase in production rate. Together, these two alterations accounted for the observed eightfold increase in plasma LDL-cholesterol concentration. In contrast, feeding the shorter chain-length saturated triacylglycerol with cholesterol actually enhanced receptor-dependent LDL transport while also causing a smaller increase (52%) in the LDL-cholesterol production rate. As a result of these two opposing events, MCT feeding had essentially no net effect on plasma LDL-cholesterol levels beyond that induced by cholesterol feeding alone.
L A Woollett, D K Spady, J M Dietschy
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) promotes in vitro transfer of cholesteryl ester (CE) and triglyceride (TG) between lipoproteins. We studied the function of CETP in vivo in rabbit lipoprotein metabolism using a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb, TP1) to CETP. Rabbits were injected with TP1 (n = 8), or irrelevant MAb or saline (control, n = 8), resulting in an initial 71% inhibition of CETP, which fell to 45% after 48 h. HDL CE rose in the inhibited animals, reaching levels that doubled initial and control values at 48 h (P less than 0.001). HDL TG fell reciprocally, but HDL protein did not change, suggesting a CE for TG exchange. VLDL CE/TG decreased. Rabbits were also given [3H]cholesteryl ether HDL (a CE analogue). CETP inhibition delayed the initial clearance of radioactivity from HDL (control 6.8 vs. TP1 4.1 pools/d) and plasma (7.8 vs. 5.2 pools/d). We conclude that CETP plays a quantitatively important role in HDL CE catabolism in the rabbit, promoting the exchange of TG for CE and the clearance of CE from plasma.
M E Whitlock, T L Swenson, R Ramakrishnan, M T Leonard, Y L Marcel, R W Milne, A R Tall
The cytokine IFN beta 2/IL-6 has recently been shown to regulate the expression of genes encoding hepatic acute phase plasma proteins. INF beta 2/IL-6 has also been shown to be identical to MGI-2, a protein that induces differentiation of bone marrow precursor cells toward mature granulocytes and monocytes. Accordingly, we have examined the effect of IFN beta 2/IL-6 on expression of the IL-1- and tumor necrosis factor-unresponsive acute phase protein alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1 AT) in human hepatoma-derived hepatocytes and in human mononuclear phagocytes. Purified human fibroblast and recombinant IFN beta 2/IL-6 each mediate a specific increase in steady-state levels of alpha 1 AT mRNA and a corresponding increase in net synthesis of alpha 1 AT in primary cultures of human peripheral blood monocytes as well as in HepG2 and Hep3B cells. Thus, the effect of IFN beta 2/IL-6 on alpha 1 AT gene expression in these cells is primarily due to an increase in accumulation of alpha 1 AT mRNA and can be distinguished from the direct, predominantly translational effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide on expression of this gene in monocytes and macrophages. The results indicate that IFN beta 2/IL-6 regulates acute phase gene expression, specifically alpha 1 AT gene expression, in extrahepatic as well as hepatic cell types.
D H Perlmutter, L T May, P B Sehgal
To explain the pathophysiological significance of endogenous atrial natriuretic polypeptide (ANP) in the development of hypertension, we examined the effect of chronic, repetitive administrations of MAb raised against alpha-rat ANP in two rat models of hypertension, spontaneously hypertensive rats of the stroke prone substrain (SHR-SP), and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt rats. Weekly intravenous administrations of MAb with high affinity for alpha-rat ANP, named KY-ANP-II (MAb[KY-ANP-II]), started at the age of 6 wk, significantly augmented the rise in blood pressure of SHR-SP, compared with control SHR-SP treated with another MAb with quite low affinity for alpha-rat ANP, named KY-ANP-I (MAb[KY-ANP-I]), throughout the observation period. The administrations of MAb[KY-ANP-II] had no significant effect on blood pressure of age-matched normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats, compared with those receiving MAb[KY-ANP-I]. Weekly administrations of MAb[KY-ANP-II] also significantly aggravated hypertension in DOCA-salt rats. Blood pressure of DOCA-salt rats treated with MAb[KY-ANP-II] was significantly higher than that of DOCA-salt rats treated with MAb[KY-ANP-I] throughout 8 wk of DOCA and 1% saline administration. The administration of MAb[KY-ANP-II] also significantly attenuated exaggerated diuresis and natriuresis in DOCA-salt rats compared with those treated with MAb[KY-ANP-I]. Elevated plasma cGMP levels of both SHR-SP and DOCA-salt rats were significantly reduced by the administration of MAb[KY-ANP-II]. These results suggest the compensatory role of augmented secretion of ANP in these hypertensive rats and support the concept that augmented secretion of ANP could represent an antihypertensive deterrent mechanism.
H Itoh, K Nakao, M Mukoyama, T Yamada, K Hosoda, G Shirakami, N Morii, A Sugawara, Y Saito, S Shiono
A 27-yr-old woman with lifelong severe exercise intolerance manifested by muscle fatigue, lactic acidosis, and prominent symptoms of dyspnea and tachycardia induced by trivial exercise was found to have a skeletal muscle respiratory chain defect characterized by low levels of reducible cytochromes a + a3 and b in muscle mitochondria and marked deficiency of cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) as assessed biochemically and immunologically. Investigation of the pathophysiology of the exercise response in the patient revealed low maximal oxygen uptake (1/3 that of normal sedentary women) in cycle exercise and impaired muscle oxygen extraction as indicated by profoundly low maximal systemic arteriovenous oxygen difference (5.8 ml/dl; controls = 15.4 +/- 1.4, mean +/- SD). The increases in cardiac output and ventilation during exercise, normally closely coupled to muscle metabolic rate, were markedly exaggerated (more than two- to threefold normal) relative to oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production accounting for prominent tachycardia and dyspnea at low workloads. Symptoms in our patient are similar to those reported in other human skeletal muscle respiratory chain defects involving complexes I and III, and the exaggerated circulatory response resembles that seen during experimental inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. These results suggest that impaired oxidative phosphorylation in working muscle disrupts the normal regulation of cardiac output and ventilation relative to muscle metabolic rate in exercise.
R G Haller, S F Lewis, R W Estabrook, S DiMauro, S Servidei, D W Foster
Antibodies to aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (anti-Jo-1, anti-PL-7, anti-PL-12) have been found in the serum of some patients with polymyositis (PM). Patients with these antibodies have an unusually high rate of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in association with their PM. Two patients (K.J. and B.T.) with severe ILD and PM were found to have antibodies to a cytoplasmic antigen, but tests to determine whether the antigen was an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase were negative, including tests of KJ serum for inhibitory effects on the 20 synthetases. KJ immunoprecipitates did not contain tRNA, in contrast to antisynthetase sera. When IgG samples were added to a reticulocyte in vitro translation system at a concentration of 0.3 mg/ml, KJ IgG inhibited globin mRNA translation by 98%, while anti-Jo-1 IgG inhibited 62% and normal IgG had little effect. Thus, both anti-KJ and the antisynthetases are directed at antigens that are involved in translation and protein synthesis, and both are associated with the syndrome of lung disease and PM. This syndrome may be associated with antibodies to translation-related proteins in general, which may have implications for the link of PM and enteroviruses, which are mRNA viruses.
I N Targoff, F C Arnett, L Berman, C O'Brien, M Reichlin
The effect of various primary and secondary bile acids on the rates of synthesis of all major bile acids was studied in the live rat with an extracorporal bile duct. Bile acid synthesis was determined using HPLC based on mass or by isotope dilution. Derepressed rates of bile acid synthesis (30-54 h) were inhibited by an infusion of taurocholic acid only at a supraphysiological dose of 500 mumol/kg per h, but not at 300 mumol/kg per h, which approximates the initial bile acid secretion (250 mumol/kg per h). When administered together with taurocholic acid (200 mumol/kg per h) only a high dose of taurochenodeoxycholic acid (100 mumol/kg per h) decreased taurocholic but not tauromuricholic or taurochenodeoxycholic acid synthesis. The only bile acid suppressing taurocholic acid (36-71%) and taurochenodeoxycholic acid (up to 33%) formation at an infusion rate close to the normal portal flux was deoxy- or taurodeoxycholic acid at 15-50 mumol/kg per h. It may be concluded that deoxycholic acid and possibly other secondary bile acids are much more potent inhibitors than primary bile acids.
E F Stange, J Scheibner, H Ditschuneit
Because alveolar fibrin is a prominent histologic feature of diffuse lung injury in baboons, we hypothesized that local abnormalities of pathways of fibrin turnover would favor fibrin deposition in the alveolar space. To test this hypothesis, procoagulant and fibrinolytic activities were characterized in serial bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of baboons with evolving diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) induced by exposure to 100% O2. BAL procoagulant activity, characterized mainly as the tissue factor-Factor VII complex, was markedly increased after induction of DAD. Extrinsic pathway inhibitor was likewise increased in BAL during evolving DAD but was insufficient to control coagulation. Urokinase-like fibrinolytic activity was usually detectable in baseline BAL but was undetectable after 7 d of O2. DAD BAL contained significantly increased plasminogen levels, plasmin inhibitor activity sufficient to neutralize all plasmin produced by BAL plasminogen activator found in control BAL and detectable plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Antiplasmin activity was due, in part, to increased alpha 2-antiplasmin. These changes correlated with quantitatively increased alveolar fibrin deposition demonstrated by histologic and morphometric analyses. Multiple abnormalities of pathways of fibrin turnover occur concurrently in the alveolar compartment of the lungs of baboons with DAD, which collectively predispose to diffuse alveolar fibrin deposition.
S Idell, J Peters, K K James, D S Fair, J J Coalson
Human small cell lung cancers (SCLC) and cell lines derived therefrom are phenotypically heterogeneous concerning neuroendocrine differentiation. Unlike most SCLC tumors and cell lines that express poorly differentiated neuroendocrine phenotypes, the SCLC cell line DMS 53 exhibits mature endocrine differentiation features, including unusually high expression of the gene for the peptide hormone, calcitonin (CT). We now report that introduction of the viral Harvey ras (v-rasH) oncogene into DMS 53 cells via retroviral infection, with resultant constitutive expression, results in increased features of neuroendocrine differentiation. 7-10 d after infection the cells demonstrated altered morphology, increased CT secretion, increased CT gene expression, markedly diminished cellular proliferation, and nearly abolished methylcellulose cloning efficiency. This response of DMS 53 cells to v-rasH is unlike the tumor progression effects we have previously observed in other SCLC lines. Significantly, the differentiation response that follows expression of the virally introduced v-rasH oncogene in DMS 53 cells is similar to that of neoplastic neuroendocrine cell lines derived from adrenal pheochromocytes and thyroid C cells. The effects of constitutive v-rasH expression in DMS 53 SCLC cells and other neuroendocrine cell lines suggest an important role for rasH or related genes in neuroendocrine differentiation.
M Mabry, T Nakagawa, S Baylin, O Pettengill, G Sorenson, B Nelkin
Tryptophan ethyl ester, a lipid-soluble tryptophan derivative, was used to bypass defective gastrointestinal neutral amino acid transport in a child with Hartnup disease. The child's baseline tryptophan concentrations in serum (20 +/- 6 microM) and cerebrospinal fluid (1.0 +/- 0.2 microM) were persistently less than 50% of normal values. Cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), a serotonin metabolite, was also less than 50% of normal (21 +/- 2 ng/ml). Serum tryptophan concentrations increased only modestly and briefly after an oral challenge with 200 mg/kg of oral L-tryptophan, reflecting the absorptive defect. An oral challenge with 200 mg/kg of tryptophan ethyl ester resulted in a prompt increase in serum tryptophan to a peak of 555 microM. Sustained treatment with 20 mg/kg q6h resulted in normalization of serum (66 +/- 15 microM) and cerebrospinal fluid tryptophan concentrations (mean = 2.3 microM). Cerebrospinal fluid 5-HIAA increased to more normal concentrations (mean = 33 ng/ml). No toxicity was observed over an 8-mo period of treatment, chronic diarrhea resolved, and body weight, which had remained unchanged for 7 mo before ester therapy, increased by approximately 26%. We concluded that tryptophan ethyl ester is effective at circumventing defective gastrointestinal neutral amino acid transport and may be useful in the treatment of Hartnup disease.
A J Jonas, I J Butler
The effect of graded, physiologic hyperinsulinemia (+5, +15, +30, +70, +200 microU/ml) on oxidative and nonoxidative pathways of glucose and FFA metabolism was examined in nine lean non-insulin dependent diabetic patients (NIDDM) and in eight age- and weight-matched control subjects. Glucose and FFA metabolism were assessed using stepwise insulin clamp in combination with indirect calorimetry and infusion of [3H]3-glucose/[14C]palmitate. The basal rate of hepatic glucose production (HGP) was higher in NIDDM than in control subjects, and suppression of HGP by insulin was impaired at all but the highest insulin concentration. Glucose disposal was reduced in the NIDD patients at the three highest plasma insulin concentrations, and this was accounted for by defects in both glucose oxidation and nonoxidative glucose metabolism. In NIDDs, suppression of plasma FFA by insulin was impaired at all five insulin steps. This was associated with impaired suppression by insulin of plasma FFA turnover, FFA oxidation (measured by [14C]palmitate) and nonoxidative FFA disposal (an estimate of reesterification of FFA). FFA oxidation and net lipid oxidation (measured by indirect calorimetry) correlated positively with the rate of HGP in the basal state and during the insulin clamp. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that insulin resistance is a general characteristic of glucose and FFA metabolism in NIDDM, and involves both oxidative and nonoxidative pathways. The data also demonstrate that FFA/lipid and glucose metabolism are interrelated in NIDDM, and suggest that an increased rate of FFA/lipid oxidation may contribute to the impaired suppression of HGP and diminished stimulation of glucose oxidation by insulin in these patients.
L C Groop, R C Bonadonna, S DelPrato, K Ratheiser, K Zyck, E Ferrannini, R A DeFronzo
Pleural tuberculosis constitutes a human model of local protective immunity to mycobacterial infection as the disease is usually self-limited and recurrent pleurisy is rare. To identify potentially protective antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 37 human pleural fluid B cell clones were established using EBV and their supernatants assayed by ELISA and Western blot for antibody reactivity with M. tuberculosis sonicate and culture filtrate. One antibody identified 29,000, 31,000, and 33,000 bands in culture filtrate, and 31,000, 33,000, and 47,000 bands in sonicate; its species reactivity by ELISA was limited to M. tuberculosis. Eight antibodies identified a 31,000 band in culture filtrate and a 68,000 band in M. tuberculosis sonicate, suggesting recognition of a secreted antigen. The species crossreactivity of these eight antibodies extended to M. avium. Six antibodies identified multiple bands and had crossreactivity that included M. avium and M. kansasii. There was no reactivity with recombinant M. tuberculosis 65,000 antigen. Tuberculous pleurisy may prove useful in the identification of potentially protective mycobacterial antigens, particularly those secreted during active infection, and thus accessible to the human immune response.
R S Wallis, S L Alde, D V Havlir, M H Amir-Tahmasseb, T M Daniel, J J Ellner
Escherichia coli hemolysin has been implicated as a pathogenicity factor in extraintestinal E. coli infections including sepsis. In the present study the effects of intravascular administration of hemolysin were investigated in isolated blood-free perfused rabbit lungs. Low concentrations of the toxin in the perfusate (0.05-5 hemolytic units/ml, corresponding to approximately 5-500 ng/ml), caused a dose- and time-dependent release of potassium, thromboxane A2, and prostaglandin I2, but not of lactate dehydrogenase, into the recirculating medium, as well as a dose-dependent liberation of the prostanoids into the bronchoalveolar space. These events were paralleled by a dose-dependent pulmonary hypertension, and studies with different inhibitors collectively indicated that the vasoconstrictor response was mediated predominantly by pulmonary thromboxane generation. In addition, E. coli hemolysin elicited a protracted, dose-dependent increase in the lung capillary filtration coefficient, which was independent of the prostanoid-mediated pressor response and resulted in severe pulmonary edema formation. We conclude that E. coli hemolysin can elicit thromboxane-mediated pulmonary hypertension combined with severe vascular leakage in isolated lungs in the absence of circulating inflammatory cells and humoral mediator systems, mimicking the key events in the development of acute respiratory failure in states of septicemia.
W Seeger, H Walter, N Suttorp, M Muhly, S Bhakdi
The anorexia associated with acute and chronic inflammatory or infectious conditions is poorly understood. Our objectives were to explore the anorexigenic effects of interleukin-1 (IL-1) in the rat. Recombinant human (rh) IL-1 beta, murine (rm) IL-1 alpha and to a lesser extent rhIL-1 alpha significantly reduced food intake at greater than or equal to 4.0 micrograms/kg i.p. but not at lower doses, in young (200-250 g) meal-fed rats on chow diets. The anorexic effect appears to be mediated by prostaglandins since pretreatment with ibuprofen completely blocked it, and a fish oil based diet abolished it, in comparison to corn oil or chow diets. Fish oil feeding also decreased basal and IL-1 stimulated prostaglandin E2 production by tissues in vitro (liver, brain, peritoneal macrophages) and in the whole body. Constant intravenous infusions of lower doses of IL-1 also diminished food intake, though intravenous boluses did not (reflecting rapid renal clearance). Chronic daily administration of IL-1 caused persistent inhibition of food intake for 7-17 d in chow and corn oil fed rats, but had no effect in fish oil fed rats. There was an attenuation of the effect (tachyphylaxis) after 7 d in corn oil and chow fed rats, but slowed weight gain and lower final weights were observed after 17-32 d of daily IL-1. Old (18-20 mo Fisher 344) rats showed less sensitivity to IL-1 induced anorexia. In conclusion, IL-1 is anorexigenic in the rat, but this is influenced by the structural form of IL-1, the route and chronicity of administration, the source of dietary fat, and the age of the animal. The ability of prior fat intake to influence the anorexic response to IL-1 represents a novel nutrient-nutrient interaction with potential therapeutic implications.
M K Hellerstein, S N Meydani, M Meydani, K Wu, C A Dinarello
The expression of lymphotoxin (LT) mRNA and cytokine in human tonsillar B cells and B cell lines was examined by Northern blots and cytotoxicity assays, respectively. In tonsillar B cells, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or Staphylococcus aureus Cowan l (SAC) alone induced low levels of LT mRNA accumulation. However, SAC and anti-mu were strongly synergistic with PMA in this induction. Peak LT mRNA expression in tonsillar B cells stimulated by PMA plus SAC occurred between 48 and 72 h and was approximately half as much as that in PMA plus anti-CD3-stimulated T cells. Cyclosporine A was not effective in inhibiting LT mRNA accumulation by stimulated tonsillar B cells. A number of B cell lines could also be stimulated by PMA to express LT mRNA. Peak accumulation of LT mRNA in the cell line RPMI 1788 stimulated with PMA peaked about 8 h. A23187 in combination with PMA caused this accumulation to increase slightly and to peak earlier. The cytotoxic effects in the supernatants of stimulated B cells were contributed mostly by LT. The results indicate that tonsillar B cells are important in LT production and that there are important differences in the stimulation requirements for LT production and in LT mRNA expression kinetics between tonsillar B cells and B cell lines.
S S Sung, L K Jung, J A Walters, E W Jeffes 3rd, G A Granger, S M Fu
We investigated regulation of cardiac adenylate cyclase in 29-d-old BIO 14.6 Syrian hamsters, which inherit cardiomyopathy as an autosomal recessive trait. Pharmacologic stimulation of adenylate cyclase in cardiac membranes with isoproterenol, fluoride ion, guanine nucleotide, forskolin, and manganous ion indicated that there was defective coupling of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein that stimulates adenylate cyclase (Gs) to adenylate cyclase. Cyc complementation assays revealed congruent to 50% less Gs activity in cardiac and skeletal muscle from cardiomyopathic hamsters. Despite this decrease in functional Gs, there were no changes in immunologic levels of the alpha-subunit of Gs (alpha Gs) or in levels of mRNA encoding alpha Gs. The defect in Gs bioactivity was limited to cardiac and skeletal muscle, occurred only in animals homozygous for the dystrophic trait, and was demonstrable before any cardiac abnormalities were evident on light microscopy. By contrast, cardiac levels of beta-adrenergic receptors were not different in cardiac membranes from BIO 14.6 hamsters. We conclude that a functional defect in alpha Gs may contribute to a contractile abnormalities in the cardiomyopathic BIO 14.6 hamster. However, the etiology of the alpha Gs defect remains obscure.
P D Kessler, A E Cates, C Van Dop, A M Feldman
Cutaneous neurofibromas, characteristic lesions of neurofibromatosis 1, are composed of an abundant extracellular matrix and nerve connective tissue-derived cell types: Schwann cells, perineurial cells, and fibroblasts. In this study, the extracellular matrix gene expression by these cells was examined under culture conditions that allowed them to be metabolically active and readily identifiable by morphologic and immunocytochemical criteria. Northern hybridizations demonstrated expression of genes for type I, III, IV, and VI collagens, as well as for fibronectin, laminin, and elastin. In situ hybridizations revealed that all three cell types expressed pro alpha 1 (I), pro alpha 2 (VI), and laminin B1 chain genes. However, fibroblasts did not contain [35S]cDNA-mRNA hybrids specific for type IV collagen, whereas both Schwann cells and perineurial cells expressed these genes. Perineurial cells and fibroblasts readily expressed the fibronectin gene whereas Schwann cells were essentially devoid of the corresponding mRNA. Perineurial cells also expressed the gene for laminin A chain. The results indicate that the extracellular matrix gene expression profiles of Schwann cells, perineurial cells, and fibroblasts are distinct: all three cell types are capable of expressing some of the genes for extracellular matrix components, such as type I and VI collagens, whereas Schwann cells and perineurial cells may have the primary role in synthesizing basement membrane zone components, type IV collagen and laminin. These observations potentially relate to the mechanisms of growth and development of human neurofibromas. The results attest to the applicability of the methodology utilized here to study other human tumors with mixed cell populations.
S Jaakkola, J Peltonen, V Riccardi, M L Chu, J Uitto
High levels of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) protect against coronary heart disease susceptibility, but the metabolic mechanisms underlying elevated HDL-C levels are poorly understood. We now report the turnover of isologous radioiodinated HDL apolipoproteins, apo A-I and apo A-II, in 15 female subjects on a metabolic diet with HDL-C levels ranging from 51 to 122 mg/dl. The metabolic parameters, fractional catabolic rate (FCR) and absolute synthetic rate (SR), were determined for apo A-I and apo A-II in all subjects. There was an inverse correlation between plasma HDL-C and the FCR of apo A-I and apo A-II (r = -0.75, P less than 0.001, and r = -0.54, P = 0.036, respectively), but no correlation with the SR of either apo A-I or apo A-II (r = 0.09, and r = -0.16, respectively, both P = NS). Apo A-I levels correlated inversely with apo A-I FCR (r = -0.64, P = 0.01) but not with apo A-I SR (r = 0.30, P = NS). In contrast, plasma levels of apo A-II did not correlate with apo A-II FCR (r = -0.38, P = 0.16), but did correlate with apo A-II SR (r = 0.65, P = 0.009). Further analysis showed that apo A-I and apo A-II FCR were inversely correlated with the HDL-C/apo A-I + A-II ratio (r = -0.69 and -0.61, P = 0.005 and 0.015, respectively). These data suggest that: (a) low HDL apolipoprotein FCR is the predominant metabolic mechanism of elevated HDL-C levels; (b) apo A-I FCR is the primary factor in controlling plasma apo A-I levels, but apo A-II SR is the primary factor controlling plasma apo A-II levels; (c) low HDL apolipoprotein FCR is associated with a lipid-rich HDL fraction. These findings elucidate aspects of HDL metabolism which contribute to high HDL-C levels and which may constitute mechanisms for protection against coronary heart disease.
E A Brinton, S Eisenberg, J L Breslow
Anti-Ro autoantibodies found in sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and related diseases precipitate four RNAs (hY1-hY5) from human cell extracts. We identified two patient sera that selectively immunoprecipitated from such extracts the Ro particle containing the hY5 RNA (RohY5 particle). Using cell fractions either enriched in or depleted of RohY5 particles, we have shown that these sera contain autoantibodies that target an antigenic determinant on the 60-kD Ro polypeptide that is expressed only on RohY5 particles and is absent on the Ro particles containing the hY1-hY4 RNAs (RohY1-hY4 particles). In a competitive inhibition assay using a cell fraction enriched in RohY1-hY4 particles but depleted of RohY5 particles, four of six control anti-Ro sera were also shown to contain antibodies reactive with the epitope specific for the RohY5 particle. Thus anti-RohY5 antibodies frequently occur in tandem with anti-Ro antibodies, but are not detected unless inhibition assays are performed. Finally, anti-RohY5 specific sera do not immunoprecipitate any Ro particles from various nonhuman cell lines. In contrast to other autoantibodies in systemic lupus and related diseases that bind conserved regions on conserved polypeptides, this observation suggests that a portion of the anti-Ro response targets a nonconserved epitope on a conserved autoantigen.
G Boire, J Craft
During acute-phase illness, serum of patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) contain complement-fixing antibodies (Ab) to peripheral nerve myelin (PNM). We investigated PNM lipids as putative antigens for these Ab since GBS serum retained significant reactivity to PNM treated with protease. Ab binding to specific lipids was studied with a C1 fixation and transfer (C1FT) assay using fractions of PNM lipid reincorporated into liposomes as antigen targets or to lipids on HPTLC plates with peroxidase-labeled goat Ab to human IgM. Reactivity was detected to a neutral glycolipid (NGL) of human PNM with a similar number of carbohydrates residues to that of Forssman hapten (Forss). Anti-NGL Ab titers in GBS patients (50-220 U/ml) were significantly elevated over disease and normal controls (0-5 and 0-6 U/ml). We studied possible antigenic cross-reactivity of these Ab with Forss by first quantitating Ab activity with C1FT assay and liposomes containing Forss. All 12 GBS sera tested showed titers (54-272 U/ml) significantly elevated over 11 disease controls (0-22 U/ml) and 25 normal controls (0-11 U/ml). GBS serum Ab reacted with Forss isolated from dog nerve or sheep erythrocytes on HPTLC plates. Further, absorption of 80-100% of anti-NGL Ab activity and 17-97% of anti-PNM Ab activity from eight GBS patient serums was accomplished with liposomes containing Forss but not with control liposomes. In seven GBS patients anti-NGL Ab activity represented only a portion of anti-PNM Ab activity. These results suggest that a glycolipid with antigenic cross-reactivity to Forssman hapten may be responsible for some of the anti-PNM Ab activity in GBS.
C L Koski, D K Chou, F B Jungalwala
Using an experimental model of ascending aortic banding in the rat, we examined whether coronary circulation abnormalities in hypertrophied hearts are reversible after debanding. 4-wk banding produced significant increases in in vivo left ventricular (LV) pressure (194 +/- 13 vs. 114 +/- 9 mmHg in shamoperated controls) and LV dry wt/body wt (48 +/- 5% above controls). In isolated hearts perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer, coronary flow rate (CFR) was estimated under nonworking conditions. During maximal vasodilation after 1 min-ischemia, CFR at a coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) of 100 mmHg and CFR/myocardidial mass at CPPs of 100 and 150 mmHg decreased significantly (72 +/- 5%; 53 +/- 4 and 61 +/- 4% of controls). 1 or 4 wk after debanding, LV systolic pressures were similar to control values, and the degree of myocardial hypertrophy decreased to levels 23 +/- 6 (P less than 0.01) and 11 +/- 6% (P less than 0.01) above their control values, respectively. At 1 wk there was no significant increase in CFR/myocardial mass, compared to values in the banded group (67 +/- 8 vs. 53 +/- 4% of controls at 100 mmHg and 67 +/- 9 vs. 61 +/- 4% at 150 mmHg of CPP). At 4 wk, CFR and the ratio had increased toward normal. Thus, decreased coronary perfusion in hypertrophied hearts is completely reversible.
S Isoyama, N Ito, M Kuroha, T Takishima
Assessed by high performance liquid chromatographic and amino acid sequence determinations, approximately one half (n = 4) of A peptide in fibrinogen Stony Brook (phi SB) contained the A alpha 16Arg----Cys substitution. To examine its functional behavior, mutant molecule-rich soluble subfractions that partly or fully lacked their normal A peptide were obtained from cryoprecipitates or from incoagulable material, respectively. Such subfractions consistently induced a more pronounced decrease (n = 3) in the turbidity of normal polymerizing fibrin than that induced by normal fibrinogen, by whole phi SB (n = 4) or by fibrinogen from an unrelated homozygous proband. These subfractions also exhibited decreased (12-50% of normal controls, fibrinogen 30-590 nM, n = 5) ADP-induced aggregation support of gel-sieved platelets, a decrease not demonstrable by whole phi SB, by fibrinogen from the homozygous proband, or by enrichment of the latter with normal soluble fibrin. A single isolate displaying diminished platelet aggregation support was 125I-labeled and examined further. It exhibited decreased binding to platelets, and Scatchard analysis indicated decreased binding affinity but normal maximum binding. We infer that phi SB contained heterodimers that exhibited these distinct functional properties when their normal A peptide had been cleaved.
D K Galanakis, A Henschen, E I Peerschke, M Kehl
Previous studies have demonstrated higher levels of adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) catalytic activity in obese subjects, and in response to a meal. To examine the cellular mechanism of this increase in activity, LPL activity, immunoreactive mass, and mRNA level were measured in lean and obese subjects both before and 4 h after a carbohydrate-rich meal. Heparin-releasable (HR) LPL activity was approximately 2.5-fold higher in the 15 obese subjects, when compared with six lean subjects. However, there was no difference in LPL immunoreactive mass between the lean and obese subjects. In response to the meal, there was a 2.2-fold increase in total adipose tissue LPL activity in the lean subjects due to an increase in both the HR fraction, as well as the adipose fraction extracted with detergents. However, no increase in LPL immunoreactive mass was observed in any adipose tissue LPL fraction, resulting in an increase in LPL specific activity in response to the meal. In the obese subjects, there was no significant increase in LPL activity in response to feeding, and also no increase in immunoreactive mass or specific activity. After extraction of RNA, there was no difference in either the relative proportion of the 3.6- and 3.4-kb human LPL mRNA transcripts, nor in the quantity of LPL mRNA in response to feeding. Thus, these data suggest that the increase in LPL activity under these conditions occurs through a posttranslational activation of a previously inactive LPL precursor.
J M Ong, P A Kern
Using the pH-sensitive dye 2,7-bis(carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxy-fluorescein and a continuously perfused subconfluent hepatocyte monolayer cell culture system, we studied rat hepatocyte intracellular pH (pHi) regulation in the presence (+HCO3-) and absence (-HCO3-) of bicarbonate. Baseline pHi was higher (7.28 +/- 09) in +HCO3- than in -HCO3- (7.16 +/- 0.14). Blocking Na+/H+ exchange with amiloride had no effect on pHi in +HCO3- but caused reversible 0.1-0.2-U acidification in -HCO3- or in +HCO3- after preincubation in the anion transport inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-disulfonic acid stilbene (DIDS). Acute Na+ replacement in +HCO3- alos caused acidification which was amiloride independent but DIDS inhibitible. The recovery of pHi from an intracellular acid load (maximum H+ efflux rate) was 50% higher in +HCO3- than in -HCO3-. Amiloride inhibited H+ effluxmax by 75% in -HCO3- but by only 27% in +HCO3-. The amiloride-independent pHi recovery in +HCO3- was inhibited 50-63% by DIDS and 79% by Na+ replacement but was unaffected by depletion of intracellular Cl-, suggesting that Cl-/HCO3- exchange is not involved. Depolarization of hepatocytes (raising external K+ from 5 to 25 mM) caused reversible 0.05-0.1-U alkalinization, which, however, was neither Na+ nor HCO3- dependent, nor DIDS inhibitible, findings consistent with electroneutral HCO3- transport. We conclude that Na+-HCO3- cotransport, in addition to Na+/H+ exchange, is an important regulator of pHi in rat hepatocytes.
D Gleeson, N D Smith, J L Boyer
The 41-kD antigen of Borrelia burgdorferi is an immunodominant protein that is recognized early by antibodies in sera from Lyme disease patients and known to be associated with the endoflagella. We identified the 41-kD endoflagellar antigen to be a single polypeptide with an apparent isoelectric point (pI) of 6.5 by two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis. This polypeptide, which we designated P41F alpha, was heavily labeled by 125I in 2-D autoradiographs of B. burgdorferi whole-cell lysates and was recognized by a murine monoclonal antibody (MCB1) and human antisera in 2-D immunoblots. NH2-terminal sequence analysis showed 80% homology between P41F alpha and the 33-kD endoflagellar protein of Treponema pallidum. Results of indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA), Triton X-114 phase partitioning, and agglutination studies suggested a possible surface exposure of the polypeptide. Silver stained 2-D gels also revealed the presence of another 41-kD species, with an apparent pI of 6.6 (designated P41 beta), which was not radioiodinated in 2-D autoradiographs, and was not recognized by MCB1 or human antisera. NH2-terminal sequence analysis of P41 beta revealed no homology with P41F alpha, leading to the conclusion that they are not related.
J L Coleman, J L Benach
This study examined the diversity of Na+ channel gene expression in intact cardiac tissue and purified myocardial cells. The screening of neonatal rat myocardial cell cDNA libraries with a conserved rat brain Na+ channel cDNA probe, resulted in the isolation and characterization of a putative rat cardiac Na+ channel cDNA probe (pCSC-1). The deduced amino acid sequence of pCSC-1 displayed a striking degree of homology with the eel, rat brain-1, and rat brain-2 Na+ channel, thereby identifying pCSC-1 as a related member of the family of Na+ channel genes. Northern blot analysis revealed the expression of a 7-kb CSC-1 transcript in rat cardiac tissue and purified myocardial cells, but little or no detectable expression of CSC-1 in rat brain, skeletal muscle, denervated skeletal muscle, or liver. Using RNase protection and Northern blot hybridization with specific rat brain Na+ channel gene probes, expression of the rat brain-1 Na+ channel was observed in rat myocardium, but no detectable expression of the rat brain-2 gene was found. This study provides evidence for the expression of diverse Na+ channel mRNAs in rat myocardium and presents the initial characterization of a new, related member of the family of Na+ channel genes, which appears to be expressed in a cardiac-specific manner.
M N Sills, Y C Xu, E Baracchini, R H Goodman, S S Cooperman, G Mandel, K R Chien
Acetaldehyde is known to form covalent adducts with tubulin and to inhibit microtubule formation. Available evidence indicates that lysine residues are prominently involved in adduct formation. Previous work has shown that lysines on tubulin can be divided into two general classes based upon their reactivity toward acetaldehyde; those of normal reactivity ("bulk" lysines) and a highly reactive lysine (HRL) located on the alpha-polypeptide subunit. We took advantage of the fact that the HRL is unreactive when tubulin is in the microtubule form to differentiate the effects of bulk from HRL adducts on tubulin polymerization. Under conditions where both bulk lysines and HRL formed adducts, 0.2 mol acetaldehyde/mol tubulin caused complete inhibition of polymerization. When we modified bulk lysines, but not HRL, tubulin polymerized essentially normally. Finally, when we first blocked bulk lysines on microtubules (HRL unreactive) using unlabeled acetaldehyde and then measured the amount of [14C]acetaldehyde adduct formed with tubulin after depolymerization (HRL reactive), 0.08 mol acetaldehyde/mol tubulin resulted in completely impaired polymerization. These data show that microtubule formation is very sensitive to even small mole fractions of acetaldehyde-modified tubulin (especially with HRL) and further suggest that small amounts of acetaldehyde adduct could be damaging to cytoskeleton function in the cell.
S L Smith, R B Jennett, M F Sorrell, D J Tuma
Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiency is an inborn error of purine metabolism. Mutant HPRT gene sequences from patients deficient in enzyme activity have previously been characterized by cDNA cloning or amino acid sequencing techniques. The presence of HPRT-specific mRNA in nearly all deficient subjects, as well as the small size of the HPRT mRNA (1,400 bp), make the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) an alternative for the identification of mutations at this locus. In this report we use the PCR to identify previously undetermined mutations in HPRT mRNA from B lymphoblasts derived from 10 deficient individuals. Six of these variants contain single point mutations, three contain deletions, and one contains a single nucleotide insertion. Several of these mutations map near previously identified HPRT variants, and are located in evolutionarily conserved regions of the molecule.
B L Davidson, S A Tarlé, T D Palella, W N Kelley
Multiple isoenzymes of the Na+,K+-ATPase (alpha, alpha+, and alpha 3) have been identified by molecular cloning (Shull, G. E., J. Greeb, and J. B. Lingrel. 1986. Biochemistry. 25:8125-8132; and Schneider, J. W., R. W. Mercer, and E. J. Benz, Jr. 1987. Clin. Res. 35:585A. [Abstr.]). At least one of these, the alpha 3 chain, represents a novel form for which protein products and enzymatic activities are just beginning to be defined in rodents. We have recently demonstrated that expression of alpha 3 is largely confined to neuromuscular tissues of fetal and adult rats (Schneider, J. W., R. W. Mercer, M. Gilmore-Hebert, M. F. Utset, C. Lai, A. Greene, and E. J. Benz, Jr. 1988. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 85:284-288). We now report that certain human leukemia cell lines including HL60, HEL, and Molt 4 express mRNA for both alpha and alpha 3 isoforms of Na+,K+-ATPase; mRNA was not detected in several other cell lines, including K562 and U937; no cell lines expressed alpha+ mRNA. In uninduced HL60 cells, alpha 3 mRNA comprised 20-30% of total Na+,K+-ATPase mRNA. Furthermore, in HL60 and HEL cells, both alpha and alpha 3 mRNA declined after induction of maturation by DMSO, retinoic acid, or hemin. However, the reduction in alpha 3 mRNA was far more dramatic. alpha 3 mRNA virtually disappeared, but alpha mRNA declined by only approximately 50%. In contrast, when maturation of HL60 cells along the monocyte/macrophage lineage was induced by exposure to phorbol esters, alpha 3 mRNA remained abundant. Moreover, mRNA for the beta subunit of the Na+,K+-ATPase increased dramatically. Our results demonstrate that the alpha 3 isoform, formerly thought to be confined to neuromuscular tissues, is expressed in restricted lineages of hematopoietic origin. These leukemia cell lines should provide a useful model for analyzing regulation of the alpha 3 isoform gene and characterization of alpha 3 isoform activities.
M Gilmore-Hebert, J W Schneider, A L Greene, N Berliner, C A Stolle, K Lomax, R W Mercer, E J Benz Jr
We examined whether GTP binding proteins (G proteins) regulate sodium conducting channels in the apical membrane of renal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells and thereby modulate sodium absorption. Patch clamp studies were conducted on inside-out patches of the apical membrane of IMCD cells grown in primary culture. Guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) and the nonhydrolyzable GTP analogue, GTP gamma S, which activate G proteins, increased the open probability of the cation channel. In contrast, the nonhydrolyzable GDP analogue, GDP beta S, which decreases G protein activity, inhibited the channel. Pertussis toxin also reduced the open probability of the channel. Addition of the alpha *i-3 subunit of Gi to the solution bathing the cytoplasmic surface of the membrane increased the open probability in a dose-dependent manner (2-200 pM). The threshold concentration for activation by alpha *i-3 was 2 pM. Activation of the cation channel by alpha *i-3 was not mediated via a protein kinase. The IMCD is the first polarized epithelium in which an ion channel has been shown to be directly regulated by a G protein. Thus, G proteins are important elements in regulating sodium absorption by the IMCD.
D B Light, D A Ausiello, B A Stanton
Dermal fibroblasts from a patient with CHILD syndrome (an acronym for congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform erythroderma and limb defects) were obtained and successfully maintained in culture. Fibroblasts from an area of chronically hyperkeratotic skin were compared with fibroblasts from the corresponding contralateral area of normal skin in regard to proliferative activity and to both unstimulated and stimulated generation of PGE2, an eicosanoid with documented effects on both epidermal cell and fibroblast function. Compared with the uninvolved skin fibroblasts, those from involved skin showed (a) a slower rate of proliferation, (b) a cyclical pattern of PGE2 synthesis, and (c) an approximately 20-fold greater synthesis of PGE2 in response to human purified IL-1, a cytokine known to be secreted by epidermal keratinocytes. Furthermore, we were able to demonstrate that the cyclical generation of PGE2 by the involved skin fibroblasts is responsible for their slower rate of growth when compared with the uninvolved skin fibroblasts. These data document a phenotypic dichotomy between the uninvolved and involved skin fibroblasts in CHILD syndrome that may be exploited to increase our understanding of the nature of dermal influences that may affect epidermal growth and differentiation.
M E Goldyne, M L Williams
We examined the hypothesis that proton-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase (H-K-ATPase) mediates K absorption and acidification in the inner stripe of the outer medullary collecting duct (OMCDi). Rabbits were fed a low-K diet (0.55% K) for 7-14 d because we have demonstrated previously that this low-K diet stimulates K-absorptive flux by the OMCDi. Proton secretion was measured as net total CO2 flux (JTCO2) by microcalorimetry. After basal collections, either vehicle or an inhibitor of gastric H-K-ATPase, omeprazole (0.1 mM), was added to the perfusate during the second period. Addition of vehicle to the perfusate changed neither the transepithelial voltage (VT, in millivolts) nor the JTCO2. In contrast, the addition of omeprazole (0.1 mM) to the perfusate abolished JTCO2 (from 14.5 +/- 5.6 to -0.1 +/- 3.1 pmol.mm-1.min-1) without significantly affecting VT. In additional experiments, in 16 tubules there was significant net K absorption (JK) of 5.0 +/- 1.0 pmol.mm-1.min-1 during the basal period, which exceeded the rate of K absorption that could be attributed to a paracellular voltage-mediated pathway (JKP = 1.0 +/- 0.4 pmol.mm-1.min-1, P less than 0.01). Administration of vehicle did not significantly affect either VT or JK. However, omeprazole abolished JK (from 5.1 +/- 1.0 to 0.1 +/- 2.5 pmol.mm-1.min-1) without affecting VT or JNa. The present results demonstrate that the OMCDi possesses an active, omeprazole-sensitive acidification and K-absorptive mechanism. These findings are consistent with the presence of H-K-ATPase activity in this nephron segment.
C S Wingo
Human monocytes adhere to fibronectin, but the receptor (or receptors) mediating this interaction has not been clearly identified. To examine the nature of this receptor, human monocytes were obtained by counter-current elutriation and were found to adhere to immobilized fibronectin but not to vitronectin or von Willebrand factor. Antibodies and peptides were used to determine whether monocyte adherence to immobilized fibronectin was mediated by a receptor similar to that which mediates the adherence of fibroblasts to fibronectin. Antibodies against both the alpha and beta subunits of the fibroblast fibronectin receptor (VLA-5) inhibited monocyte adherence to fibronectin. These antibodies immunoprecipitated two surface proteins from monocytes that migrated at 140 and 120 kD under nonreducing conditions. Surface proteins with identical apparent molecular weights were immunoprecipitated from surface-labeled MG-63 cells, a fibroblast-like cell line. A synthetic peptide containing the Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS) sequence also inhibited monocyte adherence to fibronectin. cDNA hybridization experiments revealed the presence of mRNA for both the alpha and beta subunits of the fibroblast fibronectin receptor in human monocytes. We conclude that circulating monocytes express a fibronectin receptor that is structurally and functionally very similar, if not identical, to the fibronectin receptor in adherent fibroblasts, and that this receptor mediates monocyte adherence to immobilized fibronectin.
D L Brown, D R Phillips, C H Damsky, I F Charo