Human Factor VIII desialylated by treatment with Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (ASVIII) aggregated human platelets in the absence of ristocetin in platelet-rich plasma and, to a lesser extent, in washed platelet suspensions. Aggregation is accompanied by thromboxane formation and is completely inhibited by EDTA. Aspirin blocks the second phase of aggregation and abolishes thromboxane production. Subaggregating doses of ASVIII and of either ADP, epinephrine, or collagen produce prompt and complete platelet aggregation. Bernard-Soulier syndrome platelets either did not aggregate with ASVIII (Two cases) or showed markedly decreased aggregation (one cases). Factor VIII complex was prepared from the plasma of two patients with variant von Willebrand's disease (sialic acid content 142 and 75 nmol/mg, respectively); neither protein generated platelet-aggregating activity upon desialylation. [3H]ASVIII binds rapidly to platelets and 37 degrees C, while tritiated, fully sialylated factor VIII binds to a negligible extent. As little as 1--2 micrograms ASVIII bound/10(9) platelets is capable of inducing platelet aggregation. ASVIII may be a useful tool for investigating platelet-Factor VIII interactions in the absence of ristocetin. Furthermore, desialylated Factor VIII might play a physiologic role in Factor VIII-mediated platelet reactions in vivo.
L De Marco, S S Shapiro
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced immortalization of adult human B lymphocytes is suppressed by physiologic concentrations of human plasma lipoproteins. Several inhibitory mechanisms appear to be operative. First, low density lipoproteins (LDL) directly reduce the ability of EBV to transform human B cells. Second, LDL as well as intermediate and very low density lipoproteins modulate early inductive events rendering the B cell refractory to transforming signals from EBV. Third, LDL also selectively inhibit an EBV-inducible step that occurs within 24 h after transformation. Finally, very low density lipoproteins can abrogate the ongoing, cellular proliferation of EBV-transformed, established B cell lines. The plasma lipoproteins may therefore prevent the emergence of EBV-transformed malignant B cell clones in vivo. Conceivably, on this basis, environmental and genetic influences on plasma lipoprotein concentrations may affect the global distribution of Burkitt's lymphoma, a lymphoid malignancy putatively caused by EBV.
F V Chisari, L K Curtiss, F C Jensen
Osmoregulation was studied in near term and age-matched Sprague-Dawley rats. Basal plasma osmolality (Posm) and plasma sodium (PNa) were 281±3 mosmol/kg and 134±3 meq/liter, respectively, on the 20th gestational day compared with 292±3 mosmol/kg and 140±1 meq/liter in virgin animals (P < 0.001), whereas Purea and plasma water content were similar in pregnant and control rats. These differences could not be reproduced in animals receiving progesterone, estrone, or a combination of progesterone and estradiol for 2 wk.
Jacques A. Durr, Barbara Stamoutsos, Marshall D. Lindheimer
Although dietary potassium deficiency (KD) results in an increase in plasma renin activity (PRA), the mechanism of this effect has not been elucidated. In the present study, isolated kidneys from normal rats or from rats made KD by diet were perfused at constant pressure (120 mm Hg) with a Krebs-Ringer-Bicarbonate medium containing albumin. KD led to an increase in PRA (3.6 vs. 1.1 ng angiotensin I ml per h, P less than 0.01), which was associated with a decrease in macula densa (MD) fluid delivery as estimated by urine flow (70 vs. 166 microliters/min per g, P less than 0.005), and an increase in renal vascular resistance (RVR) as perfusion flow rate was decreased from 34 to 24 ml/min per g, P less than 0.005. The increase in PRA was independent of the MD because PRA could not be suppressed when macula densa delivery was increased by perfusing KD kidneys with hypooncotic albumin. Moreover, when kidneys were made nonfiltering by perfusing with hyperconcotic albumin, PRA remained increased in KD kidneys (8.1 vs. 3.5 ng angiotensin I ml per h, P less than 0.01) despite the absence of MD delivery. Because the increase in PRA in both filtering and nonfiltering KD kidneys was associated with an increase in RVR, filtering and nonfiltering kidneys were perfused with the vasodilator papaverine. Despite lower tissue K levels in KD kidneys (278 vs. 357 mu eq/g, P less than 0.01), RVR and PRA were normalized in both filtering and nonfiltering KD kidneys perfused with papaverine. In conclusion, PRA is increased in the KD isolated perfused kidney. This increase occurs independently of both the MD and of tissue K levels and is mediated by the renal vascular receptor.
S L Linas
An average of 5--9% of human peripheral blood of T lymphocytes from rosettes with autologous erythrocytes (ARFT). This population responded only slightly against autologous and allogeneic non-T cells. In contrast, T cells that did not form rosettes with autologous erythrocytes (NRFT) proliferated to a greater degree in auto- and allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR) and also in reactions to trinitrophenyl (TNP) modified autologous non-T cells (TNP-auto-MLR) as compared with ARFT or unfractionated T cells. The ARFT populations could suppress the increased allogeneic (allo)MLR and TNP-auto-MLR of NRFT when the ARFT were added to the NRFT at the beginning of the cultures. Fluorescence-activated cell-sorter (FACS) analysis of these freshly obtained T cell fractions using monoclonal antibodies to subpopulations of T cells did not demonstrate any selective gain or less of T cell subsets in the ARFT and NRFT as compared with unfractionated T cells. But when each T cell fraction was cultured separately for a week in the presence of autologous non-T cells (auto-MLR) and the cells were again analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorter, there was an increase in OKT8-positive cells (suppressor/cytotoxic subset) only in the ARFT fraction. The above findings strongly suggest that suppressor T cells are generated from the ARFT fraction during an auto-MLR, these may then regulate the responses on NRFT.
S Kumagai, I Scher, I Green
The oxidative decarboxylation of amino acids by a system consisting of myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride has been demonstrated previously by others and the process has been considered to be part of the microbicidal armamentarium of some phagocytic leukocytes. We were able to translate these earlier observations, made on model systems, to intact guinea pig granulocytes. We could demonstrate differences in the cellular handling of peptide-linked amino acids as particles, compared with free amino acids. Specific inhibitors were used to explore two routes of oxidative decarboxylation: (a) the myeloperoxidase-catalyzed direct decarboxylation-deamination reaction, and (b) oxidation of alpha-keto acids after transamination of amino acids. These inhibitors were cyanide, azide, and tapazole for the former pathway, and amino-oxyacetate for the latter. Amino-oxyacetate profoundly inhibited the decarboxylation of free 14C-amino acids (alanine and aspartate) in both resting and stimulated cells, but had only a minimal effect on 14CO2 production from ingested insoluble 14C-protein. On the other hand, the peroxidase inhibitors cyanide, azide, and tapazole dramatically inhibited the production of 14CO2 from ingested particulate 14C-protein, but had only small effects on the decarboxylation of free amino acid. Soluble, uniformly labeled 14C-protein was not significantly converted to 14CO2 even in the presence of phagocytizable polystyrene beads. These observation suggest that the amino acids taken up by phagocytosis (e.g., as denatured protein particles) are oxidatively decarboxylated and deaminated in the phagosomes by the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system; soluble free amino acids that enter the cytoplasm by diffusion or transport are oxidatively decarboxylated after transamination by the normal cellular amino acid oxidative pathway.
S K Adeniyi-Jones, M L Karnovsky
The binding of vasopressin to human circulating blood cells was examined. Direct binding studies with preparations of single cell types indicated that the mononuclear phagocyte system is almost entirely responsible for binding of the hormone. Binding of 125I-8-L-arginine vasopressin (AVP) (40 pM) in the presence of excess unlabeled hormone was saturable (2.8 +/- 0.4 fmol/2 x 10(6) cells per ml), was linear with cell number, was dependent upon the concentration of the radioligand used, and was reversible. Binding equilibrium was achieved in 30--40 min at 22 degrees C. Scatchard analysis of binding at this time showed an apparent dissociation constant of 25 +/- 0.21 pM, providing an estimate of 640 +/- 80 sites/cell. Pretreatment of the cells with cytochalasin B, an agent that can block phagocytosis, did not modify radioligand binding, which indicates that 125I-AVP uptake by the cells is due to binding and not to endocytosis. Specificity of vasopressin-sensitive sites on mononuclear phagocytes was demonstrated with a series of vasopressin analogues with various degrees of antidiuretic potency, and with peptide hormones that bind to specific receptors on circulating blood cells but that lack antidiuretic activity. AVP (40 pM) elevated the intracellular level of cyclic AMP from 137 +/- 8.6 to 350 +/- 20.5 pmol/mg cell protein. The binding affinities of the various analogues were correlated with their ability to stimulate intracellular cyclic AMP synthesis (Lys8-vasopressin less than deamino(8-D-Arg)-vasopressin less than oxytocin).
L H Block, R Locher, W Tenschert, W Siegenthaler, T Hofmann, E Mettler, W Vetter
Platelet cyclooxygenase appears to be more sensitive to aspirin than the arterial endothelial cell cyclooxygenase. To investigate the dose-related effects of aspirin on platelet-vessel wall interaction in acute vascular injury, male New Zealand White rabbits were treated with either (a) aspirin (150 mg/kg body wt; n = 6), (b) aspirin (30 mg/kg; n = 6), or (c) vehicle (n = 10). After treatment, autologous 111In-platelets were injected and deendothelialization of a 10-cm long segment of abdominal aorta was induced by a balloon catheter. Rabbits were killed 3 h after injury and radioactive counts and percentages of injected radioactivity per gram dry weight of tissue or blood were determined. The 30 mg aspirin group had a significantly lower radioactive count (62.13 +/- SD 6.07 x 10(3) cpm) and percentage of injected radioactivity (0.024 +/- 0.003%) per gram dry weight of damaged aortic tissue than the control (1,167.82 +/- 212.31 x 10(3) cpm/g tissue and 0.435 +/- 0.079%, respectively). By contrast, the 150-mg aspirin group had an elevation of radioactive counts (4,343.12 +/- 556.98 cpm) and percentage (1.632 +/- 0.246%) per gram dry weight of damaged tissue. Infusion of exogenous PGI2 was associated with reduction of lesion radioactivity. These findings were supported by ultrastructural findings. Examined under transmission electron microscopy, the injured aortic wall of 30-mg group was covered throughout the segment by a single layer of platelets without detectable platelet aggregates, while that of the 150-mg group was diffusely packed with multiple layers of platelets. The findings demonstrate that aspirin (30 mg/kg) prevents platelet aggregate formation at the injured arterial wall, whereas 150 mg/kg promotes platelet thrombus formation.
K K Wu, Y C Chen, E Fordham, C H Ts'Ao, G Rayudu, D Matayoshi
In an attempt to delineate the nature of the immunoreactive neurophysins in oat cell carcinomas of the lung with ectopic vasopressin production, tumor neurophysins were characterized by gel filtration and by electrophoresis. In all of the five tumor tissues, activities of both vasopressin and nicotine-stimulated neurophysin (NSN) determined by radioimmunoassay were demonstrated. A small amount of oxytocin as well as estrogen-stimulated neurophysin was detected in three of the tissues. When tissue extract was subjected to Sephadex G-50 gel filtration in 0.2 N acetic acid, the major portion of immunoreactive NSN emerged in the fractions corresponding to the molecular size of 10,000. The migration pattern of NSN in these fractions on electrophoresis was qualitatively the same as that of NSN extracted from human posterior pituitary glands. In addition to this major neurophysin, immunoreactive NSN with the molecular size of 20,000 was consistently demonstrated in three tumor extracts. This high molecular weight form of neurophysin represented 6.5--8.7% of total NSN immunoactivities in each tumor extract and its elution profile was not changed when analyzed under denaturating conditions in 6 M guanidine hydrochloride. On electrophoresis, it migrated near the gamma globulin region; however, the peak was broad suggesting that it consists of more than two different molecular populations. A substantial portion of the high molecular weight NSN appears to be a glycoprotein judging from its binding to concanavalin A. When the high molecular weight from of neurophysin was incubated with trypsin, essentially all of the activities were converted into NSN with the molecular size of 10,000. Moreover, an equimolar amount of vasopressin was liberated after the treatment, the elution pattern of which closely resembled that of synthetic arginine vasopressin. When a lower concentration of trypsin was used, some of the 20,000-dalton neurophysin exhibited activities of both NSN and vasopressin. Since the antivasopressin serum used in this study appeared to be directed toward the ring portion side of vasopressin, these results suggest that this 20,000-dalton neurophysin is, in all probability, a common precursor to vasopressin and neurophysin, and that vasopressin may be located in the middle of the precursor molecule.
T Yamaji, M Ishibashi, S Katayama
Eight untrained, obese females (greater than 30% body fat), ages 25-33 yr, were studied before, at 1 wk, and after 6 wk while taking either of two 830-kcal/d diets: carbohydrate-containing (CC) group (n = 4): 35% protein, 29% fat, 36% carbohydrate-restricted (CR) group (n = 4): 35% protein, 64% fat, 1% carbohydrate. Endurance, at approximately 75% of VO2max (maximum oxygen uptake) on a cycle decreased from base line by 50% at 1 and 6 wk in the CR group, but there was no change in the CC group. Preexercise muscle glycogen (vastus lateralis) did not change significantly in the CC group, but was decreased by 49% in the CR group after 1 wk, and by 51% after 6 wk. There was a close correlation between percent decrease in resting muscle glycogen and percent decrease in endurance (r = 0.79, P less than 0.01). The mean fasting and exercise plasma glucose concentration was lower in the CR group than in the CC group after 6 wk, but no subject became hypoglycemic during exercise. Serum FFA, lactate, pyruvate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, insulin, and glucagon changed similarly in the two groups during exercise at base line, 1 and 6 wk. Glycerol concentration was higher in the CR group during exercise only after 6 wk. Increases in serum lactate concentrations, and a mean exercise respiratory quotient of 0.93 suggested that cycle exercise at approximately 75% VO2max used predominantly glucose as a fuel. Conclusions: Resting muscle glycogen and endurance, during cycle exercise at approximately 75% VO2max, were maintained during a 36% carbohydrate, 830-kcal/d diet. In contrast, significant decreases, occurred in resting muscle glycogen and endurance, during similar exercise, after 6 wk of a 1% carbohydrate, 830-kcal/d diet.
C Bogardus, B M LaGrange, E S Horton, E A Sims
To determine the relationship between platelet secretion and prothrombin conversion in whole blood, the release of platelet factor 4 and the generation of a Xa-specific cleavage product of prothrombin, fragment 1 + 2, were measured during the coagulation of whole blood. There was a parallel increase in the concentration of the two proteins. Over the first 5 min of incubation, platelet factor 4 concentration increased 6 ng/ml per min, and after 6-7 min, the rate of release increased to 750 ng/ml per min. Over the initial 5-7 min of incubation, fragment 1 + 2 concentration increased 1.5 pmol/ml per min with a subsequent increase of 45 pmol/ml per min. Incubation with 10 μM prostaglandin E1 or 15 μM prostaglandin I2 inhibited secretion of platelet factor 4 and delayed the onset of the rapid phase of fragment 1 + 2 generation by 8 min, while stimulation of platelet secretion with 1 μg/ml collagen suspension enhanced production of fragment 1 + 2. The addition of either 10 μM epinephrine or 100 ng/ml collagen suspension to whole blood did not affect either platelet factor 4 release or fragment 1 + 2 generation, although the combination of 3 μM epinephrine and 100 ng/ml collagen suspension enhanced platelet release and prothrombin cleavage.
Mary Ellen Rybak, Herbert K. Lau, Barbara Tomkins, Robert D. Rosenberg, Robert I. Handin
Biochemical and immunological properties of lymphocytes were measured repetitively over a period of 40 mo during enzyme replacement by transfusion in a child with adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency and severe combined immunodeficiency disease. Catalytically defective ADA protein is present in the child's cells. ADA activity in his lymphocytes is 7 nmol/min per 108 cells with 51 ng of ADA protein/108 cells by radioimmunoassay. ADA activities in normal cord and adult lymphocytes average 193 and 92 nmol/min per 108 cells, respectively, with 429 and 223 ng of ADA protein/108 cells. Deoxy(d)ATP accumulates in the patient's erythrocytes and lymphocytes. Transfusion of irradiated packed erythrocytes partially corrects the metabolic defects. Frank metabolic relapse occurs if transfusions are discontinued for several months. The amounts of dATP in erythrocytes and lymphocytes averaged 13 and 2 times normal, respectively, during periods when transfusions were administered every 2-4 wk. Deoxyguanosine triphosphate and deoxycytidine triphosphate in lymphocytes were normal on 11 occasions, but deoxyribosylthymine triphosphate was ninefold increased. On 11 occasions dATP was measured in lymphocytes and erythrocytes isolated simultaneously. There was a positive, but statistically insignificant, correlation between amounts of dATP in the two types of cells (r = 0.25,P > 0.1). The absolute peripheral lymphocyte count was correlated with the activity of ADA in circulating erythrocytes and with the response of lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin (r = 0.64, P < 0.01; r = 0.49, P < 0.05). Response of lymphocytes to stimulation by phytohemagglutinin in vitro and absolute peripheral lymphocyte counts were not significantly correlated with levels of dATP in the erythrocyte or lymphocyte during periods of intensive therapy. Although there was objective improvement during enzyme replacement, the child remained immunodeficient and biochemically abnormal.
John J. Hutton, Dan A. Wiginton
To evaluate the effects of glucocorticoids on the Na-K pump in human subjects, were evaluated the intracellular sodium and potassium, 42K influx across and the [3H]ouabain binding to cell membranes of intact human erythrocytes from a group of subjects taking glucocorticoids and a group of normal subjects. Intracellular sodium concentration was lower (7.2 +/- 0.4 vs. 10.9 +/- 0.2 mmol/liter cell water) and intracellular potassium concentration higher (149.8 +/- 1.5 vs. 137.2 +/- 1.2 mmol/liter cell water) in erythrocytes from steroid-treated patients. In spite of a significantly decrease intracellular sodium which normally diminishes ouabain-sensitive 42K influx, the ouabain-sensitive K influx was unchanged in erythrocytes from the steroid-treated group. Maximum [3H]ouabain binding was markedly higher in the steroid-treated group (835 +/- 44 vs. 449 +/- 11 sites/cell). There was close linear correlation between [3H]ouabain binding and inhibition of K pump, suggesting the specificity of ouabain binding to Na-K pump sites on the cell membrane. Association kinetics for ouabain were similar in the two groups despite the marked difference in the amount of [3H]ouabain binding. External potassium concentration required for half-maximum ouabain-sensitive K influx was identical in the two groups. Thus, the additional Na-K pump sites in the steroid-treated group were qualitatively similar to those in normals. These results suggest that administration of glucocorticoids leads to an increase in the number of Na-K pump sites. The increase in the number of Na-K pump sites may explain the low levels of intracellular sodium and higher cell potassium observed in steroid-treated subjects.
D M Kaji, U Thakkar, T Kahn
These studies investigate the role of L lymphocytes in regulating terminal B lymphocyte differentiation. L cells have abundant Fc IgG receptors and comprise 10--15% of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). L cells lack the conventional markers of B and T lymphocytes and in culture, do not develop into B cells, T cells, or macrophages. Additionally, use of monoclonal antibodies failed to detect on L cells, surface antigens specific for B cells, T cells, and macrophages. In these studies, purified L cell subpopulations depleted of macrophages were co-cultured with autologous PBMC in the presence of pokeweed mitogen and at the end of 8 d, development of intracytoplasmic immunoglobulin (Ig) was determined. L cells were depleted of B and T cells by rosetting techniques and, in addition, by cytotoxicity techniques using monoclonal-specific antisera to T cells. In 14 individuals, L cells when co-cultured with PBMC, enhanced Ig synthesis by 83% +/- 62 SD, and also enhanced cell proliferation. Radiated L cells lost enhancing properties. To study the role of their high density Fc IgG receptors, L cells pretreated with IgG antibody-sensitized erythrocytes were used (i.e., after lysis of rosettes). Such L cells significantly inhibited Ig synthesis (by greater than 50%) despite promoting cell proliferation. Antibody-sensitized erythrocyte-rosetted macrophages did not inhibited Ig synthesis. Thus, positive and negative influences can be mediated by the same cell, depending on the state of Fc-receptor stimulation. Such cells may play a more prominent role in "feed-back" regulation of Ig synthesis by virtue of having abundant Fc IgG receptors.
P I Lobo
The alpha-globin polypeptide is encoded by two adjacent genes, alpha 1 and alpha 2. In the normal diploid state (alpha alpha/alpha alpha) all four alpha-globin genes are expressed. Loss or dysfunction of one or more of these genes leads to deficient alpha-globin production and results in alpha-thalassemia. We present a technique to differentially assess the steady-state levels of the alpha 1- and alpha-2-globin messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts and thus delineate the relative level of expression of the two alpha-globin loci in a variety of alpha-thalassemia states. Only alpha 1 mRNA was produced in the alpha-thalassemia-2 haplotype (-alpha) (one of the two alpha-globin genes deleted from chromosome 16). This confirms previous gene mapping data which demonstrate deletion of the alpha 2 gene. The triple alpha-globin gene haplotype (alpha alpha alpha) is the reciprocal of the alpha-thalassemia-2 haplotype and thus contains an extra alpha 2-globin gene. RNA from this haplotype contained a greater than normal level of alpha 2-relative to alpha 1-globin mRNA. This data implies that the extra alpha 2 gene in the triple alpha-globin haplotype is functional. We detected a relative instability of the alpha 2-globin mRNA encoding the alpha-globin structural mutant Constant Spring. This instability may contribute to the low level of expression of the alpha-Constant Spring protein. In a Chinese patient with nondeletion hemoglobin-H disease (- -/alpha alpha T) (both alpha-globin genes are present but not fully functional) a normal ratio was maintained between the levels of alpha 1- and alpha 2-globin mRNA, implying that mRNA production from both alpha-globin genes is suppressed in a balanced manner. These observations extended previous findings concerning the structural rearrangements in the deletion types of alpha-thalassemia and the pathophysiology of two nondeletion variants.
S A Liebhaber, Y W Kan
Very few normal human peripheral blood T cells are capable of binding autologous erythrocytes to form rosettes, whereas in the T cell population activated by concanavalin A (Con A) the autorosette levels are markedly enhanced. Fractionation of the Con A-activated T cells with autologous erythrocytes into autorosetting and nonrosetting cells demonstrates that suppressor, but not helper, activity resides in the autorosetting population, whereas the reverse is true of the nonrosetting population. Both these activities are found to be Con A dependent. The Con A-induced human suppressor cells can be identified and separated from the Con A-induced human helper cells by the autorosette technique. Studies on the surface properties of autorosetting and nonrosetting T cells indicate that there is little correlation between the activated suppressor and helper T cell subsets defined by autorosette technique and either those defined by monoclonal antibodies (which are able to distinguish these subsets in the resting but not activated T cells) or those defined by Fc receptors. Since the autorosetting T cell population (which acts as suppressor cells) bears receptors for peanut agglutinin, the nature of Con A-induced human suppressor cells appears to be analogous to that of Con A-induced murine suppressor cells.
T Sakane, M Honda, Y Taniguchi, H Kotani
Erythrocytes from three patients with severe hemolytic anemia, marked erythrocyte fragmentation, and elliptocytic poikilocytosis, were studied in terms of both their membrane protein composition and their mechanical characteristics. Erythrocytes from the patients' parents and one minimally affected and one normal sibling were also studied. Morphologic observations implied that the severely affected patients suffered from homozygous hereditary elliptocytosis because erythrocytes of both parents and the one minimally affected sibling showed moderate elliptocytosis on smear, whereas those of an unaffected sibling had normal morphology. The parallel findings of markedly reduced levels of band 4.1 in the erythrocyte membrane proteins of the patients and an intermediate reduction in the cells of the parents and the putative heterozygous sibling, suggest that the elliptocytic shape of the cells was related to the reduced levels of band 4.1. Additional studies showed marked abnormalities in cellular deformability and membrane fragility in the erythrocytes from the homozygous patients. Importantly, these changes were also closely proportional to the reduced levels of band 4.1, suggesting a central role for this protein in the maintenance of normal membrane stability and normal cell shape. It seems likely that this role for band 4.1 is intimately related to its known biochemical connection to the "membrane skeleton" through its linkage with spectrin and actin.
G Tchernia, N Mohandas, S B Shohet
The effect of thyrotropin (TSH) on the ADP-ribosylation of endogenous thyroid cell acceptor proteins was examined. Cells were “permeabilized” at 4°C in hypotonic medium and then exposed to [32P]- or [3H-adenine]NAD+. The net incorporation of labeled ADP-ribose was measured by trichloroacetic acid precipitation. TSH (100 mU/ml) enhanced ADP-ribosylation with a maximum effect after 30-60 min in the majority of experiments. TSH stimulation was observed even when the incubation contained 1,000-fold more exogenous NAD+ than the amount of NAD+ contributed by the permeabilized cells, indicating an effect on enzymatic activity rather than an alteration in NAD+ pool size or specific activity. No incorporation of radioactivity from labeled NAD+ was observed in cells not rendered permeable to NAD+ by hypotonic shock. TSH did not increase the rate of disappearance of trichloroacetic-precipitable radioactivity and did not contain intrinsic NAD+ glycohydrolase activity. Alkali and snake venom phosphodiesterase, but not ribonuclease or deoxyribonuclease digestion of trichloroacetic acid precipitable thyroid cell radioactivity, revealed primarily 5′-AMP, consistent with an effect of TSH on mono-ADP ribosylation. Nicotinamide and thymidine (50 mM) inhibited both basal and TSH-stimulated ADP-ribosylation of thyroid cell protein. Dibutyryl cyclic (c)AMP (0.1 mM) inhibited endogenous ADP-ribosylation by ∼35% but had no effect at lower concentrations. 0.5 mM isobutylmethylxanthine inhibited this reaction by ∼60%.
Sebastiano Filetti, Basil Rapoport
The response of uteroplacental blood flow (UBF) to angiotensin II is controversial. Moreover, the relationship of the uterine and systemic responses to infused angiotensin II is not well understood. Thus, in eight chronically instrumented, near-term pregnant sheep, we have determined the relationships between the dose and duration of constant systemic infusions of angiotensin II ([Val5] ANG II) and changes in UBF, uterine vascular resistance (UVR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and systemic vascular resistance (SVR). [Val5] ANG II caused dose-dependent increases in UVR and MAP at all doses studied (P less than 0.05). The response in UBF was bidirectional, with increases at doses less than or equal to 1.15 microgram/min and decreases at greater than or equal to 2.29 micrograms/min (P less than 0.05). Increases in UBP occurred when the relative rise (delta) in MAP greater than delta UVR, whereas UBF was unchanged when delta MAP = delta UVR and decreased when delta MAP less than delta UVR. SVR also rose in a dose-dependent fashion (P less than 0.05); delta SVR was greater than delta UVR at doses less than or equal to 2.29 micrograms [Val5] ANG II/min (P less than 0.01). In studies of the effect of duration of [Val5] ANG II infusions, UBF increased at all doses during the 1st min, followed by stabilization at 4--5 min, with eventual decreases at doses greater than or equal to 2.29 micrograms/min and increases at doses less than 2.29 micrograms/min. The relationship between the changes in MAP and UVR to the response of UBF was as noted above. It is evident that (a) [Val5] NAG II is uterine vasoconstrictor, (b) changes in UBF are dependent upon relative changes in perfusion pressure and UVR, which in turn are dependent upon both the dose and duration of a [Val5] ANG II infusion, and (c) the uteroplacental vasculature is relatively refractory to the vasoconstricting effects of low doses of [Val5] ANG II.
R P Naden, C R Rosenfeld
Primary cultured adult rat hepatocytes were used to study regulation of thyroid hormone deiodination. Control studies showed that these cells survived for at leas 4 d, during which time they actively deiodinated both the phenolic (5'-) and non-phenolic (5-) rings of L-thyroxine (T4),3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine, and 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine. Increasing the substate concentration caused a decrease in fractional iodide release and a corresponding increase in conjugation with sulfate and glucuronide. Propylthiouracil strongly inhibited the 5'-deiodinase activity and caused only a slight decrease in 5-deiodinase activity. Thus, these monolayer-cultured cells preserved many of the properties of normal hepatocytes. Incubation with combinations of insulin, glucagon, and/or glucose for 5 h showed that insulin stimulated T4 5'-deiodination, whereas glucagon inhibited the insulin stimulation but had no effect in the absence of insulin. Glucose had no effect and did not alter the effect of the hormones. The insulin-enhanced deiodination increased between 1 and 5 h, which suggests that the previous inability to demonstrate an insulin effect was due to the short survival of the in vitro liver systems used in those studies. The present data suggest that the inhibition of T4 5'-deiodination observed during fasting, and its restoration by refeeding, may be related to the effects of feeding on insulin and glucagon release rather than on glucose per se.
K Sato, J Robbins
A human neutrophil lysosomal protease interacts at physiologic pH with a 62,000--67,000-mol wt plasma protein substrate to generate a vasoactive, smooth muscle-contracting "neutral" peptide. The peptide product of this system, previously designated the "neutral" peptide-generating pathway, was generated from purified components and purified by Bio-Gel P2 gel filtration and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography with a 50--60% yield of starting activity. The purified peptide had an amino acid composition of Asx, Pro, Val, Ile, Tyr, Phe, His, Arg, a composition identical to that of angiotensin II. The peptide and synthetic angiotensin II each filtered at 48--52% bed volume on Bio-Gel P2, had an isoelectric point of Ph 7.8--8.1 at 4 degrees C, migrated 3 cm toward the cathode during pH 6.4 low-voltage paper electrophoresis, and had a retention time of 44.8 min during reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. In addition, the functional activity of the peptide at each purification step correlated with angiotensin II content determined by specific radioimmunoassay. The amino acid sequence of 25 nmol of the peptide was Asp-Arg-Val-Try-Ile-His-Pro-Phe, the same covalent structure as that of angiotensin II. Therefore, under physiologic conditions, in the absence of renin or angiotensin converting enzyme, a human neutrophil neutral protease cleaves a plasma protein to yield angiotensin II. This pathway provides a mechanism through which the neutrophil may alter local blood flow during inflammation by generation of a potent vasoactive peptide.
B U Wintroub, L B Klickstein, K W Watt
To test an artificial surfactant in vivo, six 120-d gestational age lambs were treated at birth with a mixture of a 9:1 M ratio of [14C]dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPC) and phosphatidylglycerol at a dose of 100 mg DPC/kg. Nine other lambs were not treated. The mean PO2 values of the lambs treated with artificial surfactant were 65.7 +/- 11 mm Hg vs. 24.8 +/- 1.6 mm Hg for the untreated lambs (P less than 0.001). All lambs then were treated with 50 mg/natural surfactant lipid per kg, which promptly improved PO2 in all lambs. The PO2 values of those lambs previously treated with artificial surfactant remained greater than 100 mm Hg for 2.5 +/- 0.5 h vs. 0.9 +/- 0.3 h for lambs untreated with artificial surfactant (P less than 0.01). The pH and PCO2 values were not strikingly different between the two groups of lambs. Airway samples taken from lambs treated with artificial surfactant before treatment with natural surfactant had minimal surface tensions of 32 +/- 2.9 dyn/cm, whereas the artificial surfactant reisolated from these samples by centrifugation had minimum surface tension of 0 dyn/cm. The minimum surface tension of artificial surfactant was inhibited by fetal lung fluid from the premature lambs, whereas the minimum surface tension of natural surfactant was much less sensitive to inhibition. Artificial surfactant did not improve the pressure-volume characteristics of unventilated premature lung, whereas natural surfactant did. The change in specific activity of [14C]DPC following treatment with natural surfactant indicated that approximately 50% of the DPC initially administered was no longer associated with the airways.
M Ikegami, A Jobe, H Jacobs, S J Jones
Cyclooxygenase inhibitors prevent the pulmonary vasomotor changes in response to low-dose endotoxin. We, therefore, explored the role of two highly vasoactive prostanoids, thromboxane A2, a vasoconstrictor, and prostacyclin, a vasodilator, in the transient pulmonary vasoconstriction and subsequent loss of alveolar hypoxis vasoconstriction (AHPV) that follows endotoxin. AHPV was tested in the dog with a double-lumened endotracheal tube allowing ventilation of one lung with nitrogen as a hypoxic challenge while the other lung was ventilated with oxygen to maintain systemic oxygenation. Relative distribution of perfusion to the two lungs was assessed with intravenous 133Xe and external scintillation detectors. The stable metabolites of thromboxane and prostacyclin, i.e., thromboxane B2 and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α were measured in plasma with radioimmunoassay. 15 μg/kg i.v. of endotoxin induced no rise in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), but prevented AHPV so that the initial 33% (±2 SEM) decrease in perfusion to the hypoxic lung became only a 2% (±1) decrease. Circulating levels of thromboxane and prostacyclin concurrently rose (P < 0.01) from nondetectable levels to 380 pg/ml (±40) and 360 pg/ml (±130). 150 μg/kg of endotoxin induced a transient rise in PVR from 4.09 to 9.00 mm Hg/liter per min in association (r = 0.89, P < 0.01) with a sharp rise in thromboxane levels to 4,460 pg/ml (±1,350) whereas prostacyclin levels were elevated less markedly to 550 pg/ml (±400). Prostaglandin F2α, another vasoconstrictor, was not elevated. 30 min after endotoxin when PVR was again base line and AHPV lost, thromboxane fell significantly (P < 0.01) to 2,200 pg/ml (±1,100) whereas prostacyclin remained elevated at 360 pg/ml (±135), a level similar to that seen when 15 μg/kg of endotoxin induced loss of AHPV. Indomethacin prevented the rise in thromboxane and prostacyclin after endotoxin as well as the changes in pulmonary vasomotor tone. Thus, a complex interaction between thromboxane and prostacyclin is involved in the pulmonary vasomotor response to low-dose endotoxin.
C. A. Hales, L. Sonne, M. Peterson, D. Kong, M. Miller, W. David Watkins
The effect of removal of peritubular protein on the reabsorption of various solutes and water was examined in isolated rabbit proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) perfused in vitro. In 22 PCT perfused with ultrafiltrate (UF) and bathed in serum, volume absorption (Jv) was 1.44 nl/mm per min and potential difference (PD) was -3.6 mV. When these same PCT were bathed in a protein-free UF, Jv was reduced 38% without a change in PD. Simultaneous measurements of total CO2 net flux (JTCO2) and glucose efflux (JG) showed that less than 2% of the decrease in JV could be accounted for by a reduction in JTCO2 and JG, suggesting that removal of peritubular protein inhibited sodium chloride transport (JNaCl). Therefore, in eight additional PCT, JNaCl was measured, in addition to PD, Jv, JG, and JTCO2. In these PCT, the decrease in total solute transport induced by removal of bath protein was 201.7 +/- 37.5 posmol/mm per min. JG decreased slightly (9.1 +/- 3.9 posmol/mm per min); NaHCO3 transport did not change (9.2 +/- 6.6 posmol/mm per min); but JNaCl decreased markedly (160.6 +/- 35.7 posmol/mm per min). 80% of the decrease in Jv could be accounted for by a decrease in JNaCl. In 13 additional PCT perfused with simple NaCl solutions, a comparable decrease in Jv and JNaCl was observed when peritubular protein was removed without an increase in TCO2 backleak. In summary, removal of peritubular protein reduced Jv and JNacl, but did not significantly alter PD, JG, JTCO2, or TCO2 backleak. The failure to inhibit JG and JTCO2, known sodium-coupled transport processes, indicates that protein removal does not primarily affect the Na-K ATPase pump system. Furthermore, since PD and TCO2 backleak were not influenced, it is unlikely that protein removal increased the permeability of the paracellular pathway. We conclude that protein removal specifically inhibits active transcellular or passive paracellular NaCl transport.
C A Berry, M G Cogan
To study the relationship between islet hormonal secretion and intracellular content of five elements, a rat islet perifusion technique was used in 24 paired experiments. Control and experimental chambers each containing 100 islets, received 2.8 and 16.7 mM D-glucose, respectively. Effluent was collected frequently for hormone measurements. At eight different time intervals form 0--30 min islets were fixed and prepared for scanning electron microscopy. Over 900 unobscured alpha and beta cells were selected by size and shape criteria. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis was applied to each single cell to determine relative content of calcium (Ca), potassium (K), sodium (Na), chlorine (Cl), and phosphorus (P). Experimental chambers exhibited typical acute (0--9 min) and second phase (10--30 min) insulin secretion in association with suppression of glucagon release after 10 min. At 2 min an abrupt upward K spike in both alpha and beta cells was followed at 3--4 min with a 1.5- to 2-fold rise of Ca and a reciprocal decrease in K, Na, Cl, and P. From 3 to 30 min biphasic insulin secretion. Reduced alpha cell calcium after 6 min preceded suppression of glucagon secretion. After 2 min K related inversely to Ca content in both alpha and beta cells. These results could not be reproduced when D-galactose was substituted for D-glucose. We conclude that sequential changes of Ca content that are reciprocally related to K are predictive of beta cell insulin release and suppression of alpha cell glucagon secretion.
R K Kalkhoff, K A Siegesmund
The activities of then glycine cleavage system in the liver and brain of patient with nonketotic hyperglycinemia was extremely low as compared with those of control human liver and brain. The activities of glycine decarboxylase (P-protein) and the aminomethyl carrier protein (H-protein), two of the four protein components of the glycine cleavage system, were considerably reduced in both the liver and brain; the extent of reduction was greater in the H-protein. The activity of the T-protein was normal. Purified H-protein from the patient did not react with lipoamide dehydrogenase, and titration of thiol groups with [2,3-14C]N-ethylmaleimide suggested that this H-protein is devoid of lipoic acid. This structural abnormality in the H-protein is considered to constitute the primary molecular lesion in this patient with non-ketotic hyperglycinemia. Immunochemical studies using an antibody specific for P-protein showed that the patient was due to reduction of the catalytic activity of the protein rather than a decrease in the actual amount of the P-protein. Partial inactivation of P-protein could result secondarily from impaired metabolism of glycine resulting from deficiency in the activity of H-protein. However, the H-protein from the patient could stimulate the P-protein catalyzed exchange of the carboxyl carbon of glycine with 14CO2, although the specific activity of the purified H-protein from the patient was only 4% of that of control human H-protein. The content of H-protein in the liver of the patient was approximately 35% of that of control human liver.
K Hiraga, H Kochi, K Hayasaka, G Kikuchi, W L Nyhan
2-cyclohexene-1-one and diethyl maleate specifically decrease reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) by direct conjugation, and by interaction with the glutathione-s-transferase system. Using these two nontoxic reagents we have examined the effect of decreased GSH levels on five parameters of PMN activation: superoxide generation, release of the lysosomal enzymes lysozyme and beta-glucuronidase, and increases in the influx of Na+ and Ca2+. When PMN pretreated with 2-cyclohexene-1-one or diethyl maleate were incubated with formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) or the proteolytic fragment of the fifth component membrane of complement, C5a, agents that interact with surface membrane receptors, increases in all five parameters were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. For O-2 generation and lysosomal enzyme release the ID50 for 2-CHX-1 was 40--90 micrometers corresponding with a 30--50% decrease in intracellular GHS. In contrast stimulation of treated PMN by the divalent cation ionophore A23187 or 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid was much less sensitive to depressed GSH; the ID50 for 2-cyclohexene-1-one was 1 mM or greater, corresponding with an 80--90% decrease in GSH. The effect of lowered GSH was not the result of decreased binding of FMLP to surface receptors because [3H]-FMLP binding studies demonstrated a two- to three-fold increase in the number of available binding sites. These data indicate that normal GSH levels are necessary for the transduction of the activation signal from the exterior to the interior of the PMN, but once initiated the activation sequence proceeds normally despite markedly lowered intracellular GSH.
H J Wedner, L Simchowitz, W F Stenson, C M Fischman
Cultured leukemic T and null lymphocytes are highly sensitive to growth inhibition by thymidine, as well as the other deoxynucleosides, deoxyguanosine and deoxyadenosine. By contrast, Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B lymphocytes are relatively resistant to deoxynucleosides. Growth inhibition is associated with the development of high deoxyribotriphosphate pools after exposure to the respective deoxynucleotides. We show that malignant T and null lymphocytes are deficient in ecto-ATPase activity. We show this cell surface enzyme to be of broad specificity, capable of degrading both ribotriphosphates and deoxyribotriphosphates. High levels of this ecto-enzyme are found in deoxynucleoside-resistant, Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B lymphocytes. Ecto-ATPase deficiency may represent a mechanism for increased sensitivity to deoxynucleoside growth inhibition.
R M Fox, S K Piddington, E H Tripp, M H Tattersall
Herpes gestationis (HG) is a rare, autoimmune, vesiculobullous disease of pregnancy or the puerperium characterized by the deposition of complement (and occasionally immunoglobulin) within the lamina lucida of the cutaneous basement membrane zone. We have studied 23 patients with a history of HG, 20 of whom had typical immunofluorescence findings during the active phase of their disease. HLA typing showed HLA-DR3 in 61% of patients (controls 22%, Pc less than 0.005) and the combination of DR3, DR4 in 43% (controls 3%, Pc less than 0.00001). The most striking finding of this study was that the greatest risk of HG is associated with the concurrent presence of two specific histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR antigens.
J K Shornick, P Stastny, J N Gilliam
Prostaglandins and related compounds are active mediators of inflammation, but data concerning their role in the pathogenesis of the glomerulonephritis of New Zealand Black x New Zealand White (NZB x NZW) F1 mice are conflicting. Dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5), a fatty acid analogue of arachidonic acid (C20:4), has been shown to impair platelet aggregation in humans, apparently through inhibition of the synthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. We report here the effects of a diet high in EPA on the development of renal disease and survival in female NZB x NZW F1 mice. Animals from 4--5 wk of age were fed diets containing 25% lipid, supplied either as beef tallow or menhaden oil, with fatty acid analysis of less than 0.05 and 14.4% EPA, respectively. In the first experiment, by 13.5 mo of age, mice on the beef tallow diet had all (9/9) developed proteinuria and the majority (6/9) had died, with renal histologic examination revealing severe glomerulonephritis. In contrast, none of 10 menhaden oil-fed animals had developed proteinuria, and all were alive at this time (P less than 0.005 for both proteinuria and survival). In a second experiment using 50 mice in each dietary group, 56% of the beef tallow group vs. none of the menhaden oil group had developed proteinuria at 9 mo of age (P less than 0.005). Native DNA binding at 6 mo of age was 23.9 +/- 14.7 vs. 10.1 +/- 9.7% in the beef and menhaden oil groups, respectively (P less than 0.01). Weights were similar in all groups, and there was no evidence of essential fatty acid deficiency in any group. These results demonstrate that a diet high in EPA protects NZB x NZW F1 mice from the development of glomerulonephritis.
J D Prickett, D R Robinson, A D Steinberg
The site of crossover between the delta- and beta-globin gene sequences resulting in Lepore Boston globin gene formation has been localized at the DNA Level. Probes specific for detecting the intervening sequences (IVS) of the delta- and beta-globin genes were used to map the origin of cellular DNA fragments of a patient homozygous for hemoglobin Lepore Boston. Restriction endonuclease analysis and hybridization of this DNA to IVS specific probes show that most, if not all, of the large intervening sequences (IVS 2) in Lepore DNA are derived from the beta-globin gene IVS 2. In addition, the crossover occurs in a region of DNA in which the delta- and beta-genes have almost complete nucleotide homology, and might be expected to pair most tightly during meiosis.
M Baird, H Schreiner, C Driscoll, A Bank