Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-degrading activity was investigated in human cord, maternal, and euthyroid adult sera by measuring (a) the rate of disappearance of TRH and (b) the rate of formation of degradation products. The rate of TRH degradation in cord and maternal sera was 25-33% of that in euthyroid adult serum. Concomitantly, in cord and maternal sera, the rate of formation of proline, a major TRH degradation product in serum, was one-quarter to one-third that in euthyroid adult sera. The differences were highly significant (P less than 0.001). The decreased levels of TRH-degrading activity in cord and maternal sera cannot be explained by (a) the presence of a dialyzable inhibitor, (b) the absence of an activator of TRH degradation, or (c) a reversal of the degradation process. There was no difference in the types of radioactive degradation products formed by cord, maternal, and euthyroid adult sera. The low level of TRH-degrading activity and its possible relationship to high thyrotropin-stimulating hormone levels in cord serum suggest that TRH-degrading activity may be a factor to consider in investigations of the perinatal pituitary-thyroid axis, but further studies are needed to determine the role of serum degradation of TRH in regulating physiological levels of TRH.
J T Neary, C Nakamura, I J Davies, M Soodak, F Maloof
The renal handling of the biologically active glucagon component (the 3,500-mol wt fraction of immunoreactive glucagon [IRG]) and the contribution of the kidney to its overall peripheral metabolism were studied in normal and uremic rats. The metabolic clearance rate of glucagon was 31.8 ± 1.2 ml/min per kg in normal animals and was diminished by approximately one-third in each of three groups of rats with compromized renal function: 22.3±1.6 ml/min per kg in partially (70%) nephrectomized; 22.9±3.3 ml/min per kg in bilaterally ureteral ligated; and 23.2±1.2 ml/min per kg in bilaterally nephrectomized animals. In normal rats the kidney contributed 30% to the overall metabolic clearance of the hormone and the renal extraction of endogenous and exogenous glucagon was similar, averaging 22.9±1.6% and was independent of plasma IRG levels over a wide range of arterial concentrations. The remnant kidney of partially (70%) nephrectomized animals continued to extract substantial amounts (16.6±4.2%) of the hormone, but accounted for only 8% of the total peripheral catabolism of IRG. In the two groups of animals with filtering kidneys, renal glucagon uptake was linearly related to its filtered load and could be accounted for by glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption. However, the kidneys of animals with both ureters ligated (renal extraction of inulin = 3.2±1.8%) and hence virtual absence of glomerular filtration, continued to extract 11.5±1.9% of the renal arterial glucagon, contributing by 9% to its overall metabolic clearance, indicating that IRG uptake occurs also from the post glomerular capillaries.
D. S. Emmanouel, J. B. Jaspan, A. H. Rubenstein, A. H-J. Huen, E. Fink, A. I. Katz
The effect of 8 mg/kg of indomethacin on uterine blood flow, prostaglandin production, and intraamniotic fluid pressure was examined in late pregnant dogs. Uterine blood flow was measured with 15 μm radiolabeled microspheres. Because we found that a significant percentage of the microspheres shunted through the placental circulation into the lungs, we calculated placental blood flow by adding the shunted microspheres through the placenta to the nonshunted microspheres in the placenta. Total uterine blood flow significantly increased from 271±69 ml/min during control period to 371±72 ml/min (P < 0.01) 30 min after indomethacin. This increase was attributable to the change in blood flow to the placental circulation (222±58 to 325±63 ml/min; P < 0.01). Associated with these hemodynamic changes we found an almost complete suppression of uterine prostaglandin E2 production (1,654±305 to 51±25 pg/ml; P < 0.01) as measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In addition, we found that indomethacin treatment resulted in uterine relaxation as measured by intraamniotic fluid pressure changes (11.2±1.3 mm Hg to 8.5±1.2 mm Hg; P < 0.001).
John G. Gerber, Robert A. Branch, Walter C. Hubbard, Alan S. Nies
To delineate the potential role of disordered glucose and glucose-precursor kinetics in the abnormal carbohydrate metabolism of chronic renal failure, alanine and glucose production and utilization and gluconeogenesis from alanine were studied in patients with chronic compensated renal insufficiency and in normal volunteers. With simultaneous primed injection-continuous infusions of radiolabeled alanine and glucose, rates of metabolite turnover and precursor-product interrelationships were calculated from the plateau portion of the appropriate specific activity curves. All subjects were studied in the postabsorption state. In 13 patients with chronic renal failure (creatinine = 10.7±1.2 mg/100 ml; mean±SEM), glucose turnover was found to be 1,035±99.3 μmol/min. This rate was increased 56% (P = 0.003) over that observed in control subjects (664±33.5 μmol/min). Alanine turnover was 474±96.0 μmol/min in azotemic patients. This rate was 191% greater (P = 0.007) than the rate determined in control subjects (163±19.4 μmol/min). Gluconeogenesis from alanine and the percent of glucose production contributed by gluconeogenesis from alanine were increased in patients with chronic renal failure (192% and 169%, respectively) as compared to controls (P < 0.05 for each). Alanine utilization for gluconeogenesis was increased from 40.2±3.86 μmol/min in control subjects to 143±39.0 μmol/min in azotemic patients (P < 0.05). The percent of alanine utilization accounted for by gluconeogenesis was not altered in chronic renal insufficiency. In nondiabetic azotemic subjects, mean fasting glucose and immunoreactive insulin levels were increased 24.3% (P = 0.005) and 130% (P = 0.046), respectively.
Sheldon Rubenfeld, Alan J. Garber
In the course of examining polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) chemotaxis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we have found a previously undescribed serum inhibitor of complement (C5)-derived chemotactic activity. Serum from a 25-yr-old Black female with untreated SLE, when activated with zymosan, failed completely to attract either her own or normal PMN. Incubation of normal PMN with the patient's serum did not affect their subsequent random motility or chemotactic response toward normal zymosan-treated serum (ZTS). The patient's serum, however, did inhibit the chemotactic activity of normal ZTS and of column-purified C5-derived peptide(s), but had no effect on the chemotactic activity of either the synthetic peptide, N-formylmethionyl leucyl-phenylalanine or a filtrate prepared from a culture of Escherichia coli (bacterial chemotactic factor). The inhibitory activity in the patient's serum resisted heating at 56°C for 30 min and could be separated from C5-derived chemotactic activity in the patient's ZTS (or normal ZTS that had been incubated with the patient's serum) by chromatography on Sephadex G-75. Despite its effect on C5-derived chemotactic activity, the patient's serum did not influence two other C5-derived biologic activities: PMN lysosomal enzyme-releasing activity and PMN-aggregating activity. Chromatography of the patient's serum (65% ammonium sulfate pellet) on Sephadex G-200 yielded three distinct peaks of inhibitory activity. Two were heat labile and exhibited other properties of the previously described chemotactic factor inactivators of normal human serum. The third and most active peak, however, resisted heating at 56°C for 30 min, eluted with an apparent mol wt of 50,000-60,000, and acted specifically on C5-derived chemotactic activity. This uniquely specific, heat-stable inhibitor of C5-derived chemotactic activity has been found thus far in serum from 4 of 11 patients with active SLE and may account, in part, for altered host defenses against infections caused by pyogenic microorganisms.
H. Daniel Perez, Mark Lipton, Ira M. Goldstein
Recent micropuncture studies have suggested that the collecting tubule may be involved in the regulation of extracellular fluid volume. The present studies were designed to evaluate chloride transport across the in vitro-perfused rabbit cortical collecting tubule inasmuch as chloride ion would ultimately affect extracellular fluid volume. The tubules were perfused and bathed with artificial solutions simulating ultrafiltrate. Four groups of studies were conducted. In groups one and two, tubules from rabbits not receiving desoxycorticosterone (DOCA) were compared to tubules from rabbits which had received DOCA (5 mg/day) for 1 wk. In groups three and four, tubules were obtained only from rabbits not receiving DOCA. In group one, sequential bidirectional chloride fluxes were measured. The ratio of chloride efflux to influx was 0.99±0.04 in tubules obtained from rabbits not receiving DOCA whereas it was 1.28±0.09 in tubules obtained from rabbits receiving DOCA, suggesting stimulation of net chloride flux under these conditions. In group 2, chemical chloride concentration and osmolality of the collected fluid were measured. Neither the chemical chloride concentration nor the osmolality of the collected fluid decreased significantly below their respective perfusion fluid values in tubules from non-DOCA-treated rabbits but there was a significant decrease in the chemical chloride concentration (10-42 meq/liter) and osmolality (10-42 mosmol/kg H2O of the collected fluid in tubules from DOCA-treated rabbits. In group three, unidirectional chloride permeabilities from lumen-to-bath were determined during the passage of current down the perfusion pipette. The alterations of the average lumen potential, −35±4 and +28±2 mV, did not influence unidirectional chloride movement suggesting that the cortical collecting tubule is quite impermeable to chloride. In group four, unidirectional chloride permeability from lumen-to-bath was measured before and after substitution of NaCH3SO4 for sodium chloride in the bath. Replacement of chloride by CH3SO4 reversibly decreased the apparent chloride permeability from 2.41±0.50 to 0.69±0.08 (×10−5 cm/s) demonstrating that 36Cl permeability is dependent on the chemical concentration of chloride.
Michael J. Hanley, Juha P. Kokko
Pityrosporum orbiculare, the presumed etiologic agent of tinea versicolor, was cultured in vitro and antigenic extracts prepared from the cultured organisms. Studies with lymphocytes from human cord blood and peripheral blood of guinea pigs demonstrated that such extracts were not mitogenic. Further studies in guinea pigs indicated that the animals could be sensitized by the injection of P. orbiculare extract in Freund's complete adjuvant and that this extract could elicit lymphocyte transformation and delayed skin test responses in sensitized animals. A group of 12 tinea versicolor patients and 15 normal subjects were studied in vitro for cell-mediated immunity to P. orbiculare extract. The majority of the subjects tested in both groups demonstrated positive lymphocyte transformation responses to this extract, as well as to standard mitogens and common microbial antigens. However, lymphocytes from tinea versicolor patients produced significantly less leukocyte migration inhibitory factor activity when stimulated by Candida albicans and P. orbiculare extracts than did lymphocytes from normal subjects. This was also true if only subjects with positive lymphocyte transformation responses to these antigens were considered. Leukocyte migration inhibitory factor responses to streptokinase/streptodornase were not significantly different between the two groups. Therefore, it appears that although both normal subjects and tinea versicolor patients demonstrate prior sensitization to antigens of P. orbiculare, the effector function of lymphocytes from most tinea versicolor patients appears to be impaired in that they produce subnormal amounts of the mediator leukocyte migration inhibitory factor when stimulated with antigenic extracts of this organism.
Peter G. Sohnle, C. Collins Lech
Activation of plasminogen through surface-mediated reactions is well recognized. In the presence of kaolin, purified Hageman factor (Factor XII) changed plasminogen to plasmin, as assayed upon a synthetic amide substrate and by fibrinolysis. Kinetic studies suggested an enzymatic action of Hageman factor upon its substrate, plasminogen. Hageman factor fragments, at a protein concentration equivalent to whole Hageman factor, activated plasminogen to a lesser extent. These protein preparations were not contaminated with other agents implicated in surface-mediated fibrinolysis. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate treatment of plasminogen did not inhibit its activation by Hageman factor. These studies indicate that Hageman factor has a hitherto unsuspected function, the direct activation of plasminogen.
G H Goldsmith Jr, H Saito, O S Ratnoff
The C1q solid phase and Raji cell radioimmune assays were used to determine the frequency of detectable circulating immune complexes in patients with glomerulonephritis. In this study, 46% of 56 patients with glomerulonephritis had evidence of circulating immune complexes. More important, circulating immune complexes were associated with some, but not other, types of glomerulonephritis. Thus, immune complexes were detected in lupus glomerulonephritis (9/9 patients), rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (5/6 patients), and acute nephritis (5/6 patients), but not in IgA-IgG glomerulonephritis (0/7 patients), or membranous glomerulonephritis (0/8 patients). The Raji cell radioimmune assay and the C1q solid phase radioimmune assay showed concordance of 79% in the detection of circulating immune complexes. Serial determinations, in general, showed either persistence of a negative or positive result of conversion of positive to negative.
K S Tung, A J Woodroffe, T D Ahlin, R C Williams Jr, C B Wilson
We have tested the idea that the circulating plasma insulin level plays an important role in the long-term regulation, or maintenance, of the cellular glucose transport system, distinct from insulin's ability to acutely accelerate glucose transport. To study this hypothesis, groups of rats were made either hyperinsulinemic or hypoinsulinemic by daily insulin injections, or streptozotocin treatment, respectively. Different levels of hypoinsulinemia were produced by using different doses of streptozotocin (40 and 55 mg/kg). The mean (±SE) 9 a.m. plasma insulin level for each experimental group was: hyperinsulinemic animals, 65±5 μU/ml; controls, 32±3 μU/ml; low dose streptozotocin group, 18±3 μU/ml; and high dose streptozotocin group 5±2 μU/ml. Isolated adipocytes were prepared from each animal and glucose transport was assessed by measuring the initial rates of uptake of the nonmetabolyzable hexose 2-deoxy glucose. The Vmax and Km values for adipocyte glucose transport were calculated from the 2-deoxy glucose uptake data. The results demonstrated that in cells from control animals the Vmax of in vitro adipocyte glucose transport was 7.1±0.7 nmol/min per 106 cells in the basal state and 22.9±0.9 nmol/min per 106 cells in the presence of a maximally effective insulin concentration (25 ng/ml) in the buffer. In cells from the experimentally hyperinsulinemic animals these Vmax values were increased to 11.7±0.8 and 44.2±1.1 nmol/min per 106 cells. Using adipocytes from both groups of streptozotocin-treated (high dose, 55 mg/kg; low dose, 40 mg/kg) insulin-deficient diabetic animals, Vmax values were found to be progressively decreased. Thus, in the low dose group, basal-and insulin-stimulated Vmax values were 1.6±0.5 and 5.7±0.7 nmol/min per 106 cells, as compared to values of 0.9±0.2 and 1.7±0.6 in the high dose group. Thus, when considered as group data a positive relationship was found between circulating plasma insulin levels and adipocyte glucose transport Vmax, with increased Vmax values in hyperinsulinemic rats and decreased Vmax values in hypoinsulinemic rats. Furthermore, when the individual data were analyzed, highly significant correlation coefficients were found between the height of the plasma insulin level and both the basal (r = 0.82, P < 0.001) and insulin-stimulated (r = 0.93, P < 0.001) Vmax values. The apparent Km for 2-deoxy glucose uptake was the same under all conditions.
Masashi Kobayashi, Jerrold M. Olefsky
Viscoelastic properties of the rectal wall were compared with Hirschsprung's disease. The elasticity of the rectal wall after accomodation to distension was found to be significantly greater (P less than 0.001) in patients, and the time taken by the rectum to accomodate was also found to be longer (P less than 0.001). The increased elasticity correlated well with severity of the illness, but none of the parameters correlated with length of aganglionic segment. Measuring elastic properties of the rectal wall may help to assess the severity of illness in patients with Hirschsprung's disease.
P Arhan, G Devroede, K Danis, C Dornic, C Faverdin, B Persoz, D Pellerin
Peripheral neuropathy is not an uncommon complication of chronic uremia. Because parathyroid hormone, by raising brain calcium, is partly responsible for central nervous system aberrations in uremia, we studied the relative role of uremia, per se, and(or) parathyroid hormone on peripheral nerve calcium and motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV). Studies were made in six groups of six dogs each, as follows: (a) normal dogs, (b) thyroparathyroidectomized (T-PTX) animals, (c) dogs with 3 days of uremia produced by bilateral nephrectomy, (d) T-PTX before the induction of acute renal failure, (e) normal dogs receiving 100 U/day of parathyroid extract (PTE) for 3 days, and (f) normal animals receiving 3 days of PTE followed by 5 days without PTE. Calcium content in peripheral nerve (expressed as milligram per kilogram of dry weight) was 252±5 (SE) in normal animals and 262±4 in T-PTX dogs. It was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in dogs with acute renal failure and intact parathyroid glands (410±12) and in normal animals receiving PTE (362±7). T-PTX, before acute renal failure, prevented the rise in peripheral nerve calcium (262±4) and PTE withdrawal was followed by the return of peripheral nerve calcium to normal (261±3). The increments in peripheral nerve calcium were associated with slowing of MNCV. It decreased significantly from 70±4 to 43±1 m/s after 3 days of acute uremia in dogs with intact parathyroid glands and T-PTX before acute renal failure prevented the fall in MNCV. Administration of PTE to normal animals reduced MNCV from 63±3 to 35±3 m/s and the withdrawal of PTE restored MNCV to normal (73±2 m/s). The results show that (a) excess parathyroid hormone increases peripheral nerve calcium and slows MNCV, (b) T-PTX, previously performed, prevents these changes in acute uremia, and (c) the withdrawal of PTE administration is followed by a reversal of the abnormalities.
David A. Goldstein, Luis A. Chui, Shaul G. Massry
This study was designed to establish definitively the nature of immunoreactive lipotropin (IR-LPH) in human plasma and tissue extracts. Using gel filtration, gel filtration under denaturing conditions, cationic exchange chromatography, immunoprecipitation, and radioimmunoassay, we have studied normal and tumorous human pituitaries, ectopic ACTH- and LPH-secreting tumors, plasma from normal subjects before and after dexamethasone administration, and plasma from patients with primary adrenal insufficiency and pituitary and nonpituitary ACTH- and LPH-secreting tumors. Except in the plasma and tumors of occasional patients with ectopic ACTH syndrome, the smallest IR-LPH appears to be λ-lipotropin (λLPH), which is often the predominant and occasionally the only IR-LPH present. The other major peptide appears to be βLPH, a 91-amino acid molecule that contains λLPH as its 1-58 sequence. Larger immunoreactive materials were observed in some specimens, but the “big” LPH in one plasma was shown to be λLPH bound to IgG.
Koshi Tanaka, Wendell E. Nicholson, David N. Orth
Decreased ventilatory responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia have been demonstrated in a variety of disorders; however, the etiology of these decreased drives remains virtually unknown. Recent observations have suggested a familial influence on hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory response, but it is unclear whether this influence is the result of hereditary or environmental influences. Therefore we measured the ventilatory response to isocapnic hypoxia (HVR) and hyperoxic hypercapnia in 12 pairs of identical and 12 pairs of nonidentical twins. Significant correlation (P less than 0.01) was found for HVR within identical twin pairs but not within nonidentical twin pairs. Identical twins resembled each other more closely with respect to HVR than was the case for nonidentical twins (P less than 0.0125). This was independent of body size, blood PCO2, or pH. No such correlation could be found for ventilatory response to hyperoxic hypercapnia. It is concluded that hereditary influences affect HVR and it is speculated that such influences may play a role in clinical conditions characterized by decreased hypoxic ventilatory responses.
D D Collins, C H Scoggin, C W Zwillich, J V Weil
Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated from 9 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and 12 normal control donors. The cells were assayed for synthesis of DNA and poly-(adenosine diphosphate ribose) (poly[ADPR]) immediately after isolation and on successive days following their treatment with phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Two different techniques were used to measure DNA synthesis. In the standard technique, DNA synthesis was measured by incubating intact cells with [3H]deoxythymidine. In the new technique, the lymphocytes were first rendered permeable to nucleotides, then DNA synthesis was measured by incubating them with [3H]deoxythymidine triphosphate in the presence of deoxyATP, deoxyGTP, deoxyCTP, ATP, and Mg++. Both assays showed the anticipated rise in DNA synthesis after PHA stimulation of normal cells. PHA-stimulated lymphocytes from patients with CLL demonstrated low levels of DNA synthesis in both assay systems.
Nathan A. Berger, Jessie W. Adams, Georgina W. Sikorski, Shirley J. Petzold
The urine of patients with proteinuria of various etiologies was examined to determine if proteinuria alone was associated with significant glycosphingolipiduria. In all cases of proteinuria examined, the level of glycosphingolipids in the urine was found to be markedly elevated. There was no evidence of a glycosphingolipid storage disorder in any case. It was concluded that significant glycosphingolipiduria may occur in proteinuria as well as in the glycosphingolipid storage disorders.
R R Townsend, R M Orth, C M Clawson, S C Li, Y T Li
The anatomical sites and the rates of extrapancreatic secretion of glucagon and of glucagon-like immunoreactivity (GLI) were assessed in dogs 2 h after pancreatectomy by catheterization of the gastrosplenic and mesenteric veins.
Walter A. Muller, Lucien Girardier, Josianne Seydoux, Michael Berger, Albert E. Renold, Mladen Vranic
Morphologic observations suggest that the inner layers of the thoracic aorta in man and dog are avascular and the outer layers have vasa vasorum. It appears that vasa vasorum are essential in the thoracic aorta because their interruption produces medial necrosis. These experiments provide the first measurements of blood flow through aortic vasa vasorum and examine physiologic regulation of that flow.
Donald D. Heistad, Melvin L. Marcus, Edward G. Law, Mark L. Armstrong, James C. Ehrhardt, Francois M. Abboud
The rate of uptake of cholesteryl ester from chylomicrons has been determined with the isolated perfused rat heart and both intact and functionally hepatectomized rats. Uptake was found to be proportional to the cholesteryl ester content of the particles. Transfer of cholesteryl ester to other lipoprotein classes of the plasma was negligible under these conditions, and loss of cholesteryl ester from the medium was associated with quantitative recovery in the vascular bed. The uptake mechanism was nonsaturable and independent of the lipoprotein lipase binding site. Compared with receptor-dependent uptake of low density lipoprotein cholesteryl ester by heart endothelium, the chylomicron pathway appears to provide a major proportion of cholesteryl ester cleared from the plasma. Uptake was initially heparin dependent, and cleared lipid was released by 10 microgram/ml of heparin; however, lipid taken up rapidly became heparin resistant and was then hydrolyzed slowly with production of unesterified fatty acid. These results are discussed in the context of the possible role of cholesterol-rich chylomicron remnant lipoproteins in atherogenesis.
C J Fielding
Gastric inhibitory polypeptide, or GIP, has been postulated as the major enteric hormonal mediator of insulin release. The release of immuno-reactive GIP (IR-GIP) after oral glucose and its role in insulin release was studied in normal men by the glucose clamp technique. In 24 subjects studied with the hyperglycemic clamp, blood glucose was maintained at 125 mg/dl above basal for 2 h via a primed-continuous IV glucose infusion coupled to a servo-controlled negative feedback system. 40 g glucose per m2 surface area was ingested at 60 min, and the blood glucose was maintained at the steady-state hyperglycemic level. Plasma IR-GIP and insulin (IRI) levels were measured throughout the 2-h period. IR-GIP levels changed little when IV glucose alone was given; the mean basal value was 305±34 (SEM) pg/ml. After oral glucose, IR-GIP levels began to rise within 10 min and reached a peak within 40 min of 752±105 pg/ml. Plasma IRI responded initially to the square wave of hyperglycemia in the typical biphasic pattern. After oral glucose, plasma IRI levels rose strikingly above the elevated levels produced by hyperglycemia alone, reaching a peak of 170±15 μU/ml within 45 min. The time course of the rise in IR-GIP and IRI was nearly identical.
Dana K. Andersen, Dariush Elahi, John C. Brown, Jordan D. Tobin, Reubin Andres
An inhibitor of adrenal steroid biosynthesis, aminoglutethimide, was administered to seven patients with low renin essential hypertension, and the antihypertensive action of the drug was compared with its effects on adrenal steroid production. In all patients aldosterone concentrations in plasma and urine were within normal limits before the study. Mean arterial pressure was reduced from a pretreatment value of 117±2 (mean±SE) mm Hg to 108±3 mm Hg after 4 days of aminoglutethimide therapy and further to 99±3 mm Hg when drug administration was stopped (usually 21 days). Body weight was also reduced from 81.6±7.2 kg in the control period to 80.6±7.0 kg after 4 days of drug treatment and to 80.1±6.7 kg at the termination of therapy. Plasma renin activity was not significantly increased after 4 days of treatment but had risen to the normal range by the termination of aminoglutethimide therapy. Mean plasma concentrations of deoxycorticosterone and cortisol were unchanged during aminoglutethimide treatment whereas those of 18-hydroxydeoxycorticosterone, progesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, and 11-deoxycortisol were increased as compared to pretreatment values. In contrast, aminoglutethimide treatment reduced mean plasma aldosterone concentrations to about 30% of control values. Excretion rates of 16β-hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone, 16-oxo-androstenediol, 17-hydroxycorticosteroids and 17-ketosteroids, and the secretion rate of 16β-hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone were not significantly altered by aminoglutethimide treatment whereas the excretion rate of aldosterone was reduced from 3.62±0.5 (mean±SE) in the control period to 0.9±0.2 μg/24 h after 4 days and to 1.1±0.3 μg/24 h at the termination of aminoglutethimide treatment.
Addison A. Taylor, Jerry R. Mitchell, Frederic C. Bartter, Wayne R. Snodgrass, Randolph J. McMurtry, John R. Gill Jr., Ronald B. Franklin
The renal handling of immunoreactive insulin was studied in the isolated perfused normothermic rat kidney to determine (a) the relative contributions of glomerular clearance and peritubular clearance to the renal clearance of insulin under different conditions, (b) what metabolic factors influence the ability of tubular cells to remove insulin from the glomerular filtrate and the peritubular circulation, and (c) whether the same factors influence the luminal and contraluminal uptake of insulin.
Ralph Rabkin, Abbas E. Kitabchi
As reported previously, and confirmed here in 26 donors, the serum IgE level (2.6-5,500 ng/ml) correlates well (rs = 0.95, P less than 0.001) with the in vivo number of IgE molecules/basophil (6,000-600,000). The total number of IgE receptors/basophil was monitored by incubating them with an IgE-rich serum (15 microgram/ml), quantitatively stripping IgE from the cells at pH 3.7, and measuring eluted IgE by a direct radioimmunosorbent test. Saturation of receptors for each donor was achieved with 15 nM IgE (3 microgram/ml). The proportion of receptors occupied in vivo correlated with the serum IgE (rs = 0.84, P less than 0.001) whereas the average association constant of the receptors was independent of serum IgE and ranged from 7.1 X 10(8)/M to 2.8 X 10(10)/M, averaging 7.7 X 10(9)/M. Unexpectedly, the total number of IgE receptors/basophil was closely related to the serum IgE level. (rs = 0.92, P less than 0.001). Thus, either there is genetic association between serum IgE and the number of basophil IgE receptors, or, more likely, the receptor number is modulated by the serum IgE concentration.
F J Malveaux, M C Conroy, N F Adkinson Jr, L M Lichtenstein
The method of producing experimental glucagon deficiency by administration of glucagon antiserum was evaluated in rats. A pool of antisera was prepared, the affinity of which exceeded that of the glucagon receptors of liver cell membranes, whereas the binding capacity of the volume used amounted to more than one-third of the total glucagon content in the rat pancreas. That rapid, extensive, and lasting neutralization of glucagon had taken place after antiserum treatment was indicated by the following findings: When examined more than 1 h after the injection and after 60 min of exercise-stimulated glucagon production, all rats had excess free antibodies in plasma. The concentration of free glucagon was lowered to one-third of the concentration in control rats; at 37°C plasma samples could bind 25% of additional 300 pmol/liter of glucagon in 10 s, and 69% in 120 s; the glycemic response to exogenous glucagon was abolished. Antiserum treatment, however, had no effect on blood glucose in rats fasted for 3 and 10 h, in chemically sympathectomized and adrenomedullectomized rats, and in 48-h-fasted, acutely adrenalectomized rats. The antiserum was found to contain 460 nmol/liter of antibody-bound glucagon, originating in the rabbit in which the antiserum was raised. However, antibody preparations from which the bound glucagon had been effectively removed were equally ineffective in lowering the basal blood glucose in rats, although in three-fourths of the rats the concentration of free glucagon was lowered beyond detection limit.
J. J. Holst, H. Galbo, E. A. Richter
The microsomal enzyme uridine diphosphate (UDP) glucuronate glucuronyltransferase (E.C. 184.108.40.206) catalyzes formation of bilirubin mono-glucuronide from bilirubin and UDPglucuronic acid. Bilirubin glucuronoside glucuronosyltransferase (E.C. 220.127.116.11), an enzyme concentrated in plasma membrane-enriched fractions of rat liver, converts bilirubin monoglucuronide to bilirubin diglucuronide. Bilirubin glucuronoside glucuronosyltransferase activity was studied in homogenates of liver biopsy specimens obtained from patients with the Crigler-Najjar syndrome (Type I) and in subcellular liver fractions of rats homozygous for UDP glucuronate glucuronyltransferase deficiency (Gunn strain). In patients with the Crigler-Najjar syndrome (Type I) and in Gunn rats, hepatic UDPglucuronate glucuronyltransferase activity was not measurable; however, bilirubin glucuronoside glucuronosyltransferase activity was similar to that in normal controls. The subcellular distribution of bilirubin glucuronoside glucuronosyltransferase activity in Gunn rat liver was similar to the distribution observed in normal Wistar rat liver.
J. Roy Chowdhury, P. L. M. Jansen, E. B. Fischberg, A. Daniller, I. M. Arias
The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of synthetic human connecting peptide (C-peptide) was measured with a single-dose injection technique in six normal and seven diabetic subjects and with a constant infusion technique in one normal subject. The MCR of C-peptide did not differ in normal subjects (4.4 ml/min per kg; range, 3.7-4.9) and in diabetic subjects (4.7 ml/min per kg; range, 3.7-5.8). Employment of both techniques in one subject gave similar MCR. The average half-life of C-peptide in plasma calculated from the last 1-h period of the single-dose injection studies was longer in the insulin-dependent diabetics (42.5 min; range, 39.4-48.5) than in the normal subjects (33.5 min; range, 24.9-45.3). These results indicate that the beta-cell secretory capacity of normal and insulin-dependent diabetic subjects can be compared by measuring the C-peptide concentration in peripheral venous plasma. The difference in the half-life of C-peptide in plasma between diabetics and normals suggests an altered kinetics of the disappearance of the peptide, while the overall metabolism, as expressed by the MCR, is similar.
O K Faber, C Hagen, C Binder, J Markussen, V K Naithani, P M Blix, H Kuzuya, D L Horwitz, A H Rubenstein, N Rossing
Insulin binding to monocytes and insulin action in vivo was examined in 14 obese subjects during the postabsorptive state and after starvation and refeeding. Tissue sensitivity to insulin was evaluated with the euglycemic insulin clamp technique. The plasma insulin concentration is acutely raised and maintained 100 μU/ml above the fasting level, and plasma glucose is held constant by a variable glucose infusion. The amount of glucose infused is a measure of tissue sensitivity to insulin and averaged 285±15 mg/m2 per min in controls compared to 136±13 mg/m2 per min in obese subjects (P <0.001). 125I-Insulin binding to monocytes averaged 8.3±0.4% in controls vs. 4.6±0.5% in obese subjects (P < 0.001). Insulin binding and insulin action were highly correlated in both control (r = 0.86, P < 0.001) and obese (r = 0.94, P < 0.001) groups. Studies employing tritiated glucose to measure glucose production indicated hepatic as well as extrahepatic resistance to insulin in obesity.
Ralph A. Defronzo, Vijay Soman, Robert S. Sherwin, Rosa Hendler, Philip Felig
The effect of the sulfone compound 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (dapsone) on normal human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) has been investigated in vitro. The drug has a dramatically beneficial effect in dermatitis herpetiformis in which the PMNL and immune complexes has been stressed to be of importance for the development of the skin lesions. Pruritus disappears and the inflammatory eruptions clear within a few days of starting therapy. The effect of dapsone has been evaluated on the different stages of phagocytosis. Using dapsone concentrations (1-30 μg/ml) comparable with those found after therapeutic doses, we have found that the drug interferes primarily with the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2O2-halide-mediated cytotoxic system in the PMNL. No effect was observed on random locomotion, chemotaxis, phagocytic ingestion, oxidative metabolism, or the release of lysosomal enzymes. Kinetic studies in a cell-free system with purified MPO revealed a competitive type of inhibition using varying concentrations of NaI. Furthermore, the inhibition resulted in reduced candidicidal activity during phagocytosis of Candida albicans, and reduced cytotoxicity to adjacent mammalian cells measured as the 51Cr release from virus-induced lymphoma cells. Because the MPO-H2O2-halide system not only fulfills the antimicrobial activity but is suggested to be a modulator of the inflammatory reaction as well, the action of dapsone in dermatitis herpetiformis may in part be explained by its effect on this system.
O. Stendahl, L. Molin, C. Dahlgren