Two different clinical syndromes are associated with glutathione synthetase deficiency, one presenting with hemolytic anemia and 5-oxoprolinuria, the other with isolated hemolysis. We have differentiated these disorders on an enzymatic basis. In 5-oxoprolinuria, all cell types examined have grossly deficient enzyme activity and glutathione content. In contrast, in the nonoxoprolinuric variant, erythrocytes have decreased enzyme activity and glutathione content, whereas nucleated cells maintain substantial levels of both. The enzyme in this disorder is unstable in vitro and has shortened survival in intact erythrocytes. Nucleated cells appear able to maintain sufficient enzyme activity and concentrations of glutathione to suppress overproduction of 5-oxoproline.
S P Spielberg, M D Garrick, L M Corash, J D Butler, F Tietze, L Rogers, J D Schulman
We previously reported that rabbit renal cortical collecting tubules can secrete bicarbonate in vitro (i.e., there can be net transport from bath to lumen, causing the concentration in the lumen to increase). Net bicarbonate secretion was observed most often when rabbits had been pretreated with NaHCO3 and were excreting alkaline urine before being killed for experiments. The purpose of the present studies was to elucidate the mechanism involved by testing the effects of ion substitutions and drugs on collecting tubules that were secreting bicarbonate. Acetazolamide inhibited net bicarbonate secretion, suggesting that the process is dependent upon carbonic anhydrase. Net bicarbonate secretion also decreased when sodium in the perfusate and bath was replaced by choline, but not when chloride was replaced by nitrate or methylsulfate. Ouabain had no significant effect. Amiloride caused net bicarbonate secretion to increase. The rate of net secretion did not correlate with transepithelial voltage. The results are compared to those in turtle urinary bladders that also secrete bicarbonate. There are no direct contradictions between the results in the two tissues, i.e., in turtle bladders acetazolamide also inhibited bicarbonate secretion and ouabain had no effect. Nevertheless, it seems unlikely that net secretion of bicarbonate by collecting tubules involves specific exchange for chloride, as has been proposed for turtle bladders, because replacement of chloride by other anions did not inhibit bicarbonate secretion by collecting tubules. It was previously shown that the collecting tubules in vitro also may absorb bicarbonate, especially when the rabbits have been treated with NH4Cl and are excreting acid urine before being killed. The effects of drugs on net bicarbonate secretion found in the present studies are compared to their previously reported effects on net bicarbonate absorption and the possibility is discussed that bicarbonate absorption and secretion are independent processes, as was previously proposed for turtle bladders.
Thurman D. McKinney, Maurice B. Burg
The ability of potential pathogens to acquire iron in a host is an important determinant of both their virulence and the nature of the infection produced. Virulent gram-negative bacteria are capable of acquiring sufficient iron from the host because their virulence (for chick embryos) is unaffected by exogenous iron. Avirulent mutants which are apparently limited in their ability to acquire iron could be isolated from the virulent strains. The lethality of these mutants was significantly enhanced by exogenous iron. Reduction of the relatively high serum iron saturation of chick embryos (to levels more closely approximating those in man) by pretreatment with iron-binding proteins or endotoxin inhibits the lethality of some virulent bacteria. Those bacteria whose virulence was reduced include the Shigella, Vibrio cholerae and strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, all of which are nondisseminating pathogens in the normal human host. Pathogens which produce septicemic and disseminating infections such as Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae type B, Escherichia coli possessing K-1 antigen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium and disseminating strains of N. gonorrhoeae were, in general, unaffected by reduced serum iron saturation. These disseminating bacteria appeared to produce greater quantities of compounds (siderophores) which stimulated microbial growth in low-iron media than did the nondisseminating pathogens. Thus, the gram-negative bacteria tested can be divided into four major classes according to their responses to modifications in iron levels in the chick embryo model and these results correlate with the nature of the infections which they typically produce in man.
S M Payne, R A Finkelstein
The responses of isolated guinea pig tracheal spirals and parenchymal strips to histamine and carbachol were compared. The parenchymal strip, a 1.5 x 1.5 x 20-mm strip cut from the periphery of the lung, constricted at a lower dose and had a larger maximal response to histamine than to carbachol. In contrast, the response of the tracheal spiral to equimolar doses of histamine or carbachol was the same. The responsiveness of both muscle strips to histamine was decreased by treatment with the H1 receptor antagonist mepyramine (0.1 micrometer), and the response to carbachol was blocked by treatment with atropine (0.1 micrometer). Indomethacin (3 micrometer), cimetidine (1 micrometer), propranolol (10 micrometer), and N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ) (4 micrometer) did not alter the differential response of the two strips to histamine and carbachol. The differential response of parenchymal strips with many, few, or no conducting airways and blood vessels was identical, suggesting that the contractile element is alveolar duct smooth muscle or alveolar contractile elements. This differential pharmacologic response in vitro is consistent with the in vivo observation that histamine causes more peripheral airway constriction than does acetylcholine.
J M Drazen, M W Schneider
Neurological abnormalities are a major cause of morbidity in patients with renal failure. The pathophysiology of these neurological changes is unclear, and the effects on them of dialysis and return of renal function have not been well studied. Studies were done in 31 patients who had acute renal failure (ARF), all of whom were either treated with dialysis within 5 days or did not survive. Studies on these patients included the electroencephalogram (EEG), motor nerve conduction velocity, and plasma Ca++ and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Studies were done at the time ARF was diagnosed, after stabilization on dialysis, during the diuretic phase of ARF, and 3 mo after recovery from ARF. In 16 patients with acute or chronic renal failure who did not survive and in nine patients without renal disease who died, measurements were made in brain of content of Na+, K+, Cl−, Ca++, Mg++, and water.
Jerry D. Cooper, Virginia C. Lazarowitz, Allen I. Arieff
Studies were undertaken to determine if the dissociation of aldosterone and plasma renin activity in low-renin essential hypertension is due to altered adrenal responsiveness to angiotensin II. The responsiveness of the adrenal glands to angiotensin II was determined by infusing graded doses of angiotensin II into normal subjects and into patients with essential hypertension and measuring changes in levels of plasma aldosterone in response to the infusion. To minimize the influence of endogenous angiotensin II and ACTH, supplemental sodium and dexamethasone were given before the infusions. Levels of plasma aldosterone and plasma renin activity were determined in normal subjects and in the same patients after the combined stimuli of furosemide and upright posture, a maneuver used to increase the level of endogenous angiotensin II. To determine if the changes in levels of plasma aldosterone during infusion of angiotensin II were due to alteration of the metabolic clearance of aldosterone, the metabolic clearance of aldosterone was measured before and during the infusion of angiotensin II.
Max Wisgerhof, Ronald D. Brown
Measurements of respiratory mechanics, arterial blood gases, and pulmonary vascular resistance were made before and 15 min after inhalation challenge with Ascaris suum extract in dogs with natural sensitivity to this antigen. 25 of 47 dogs were treated before inhalation challenge with a prostaglandin inhibitor (90 mg/kg of aspirin or 2 mg/kg of indomethacin by intravenous infusion). In response to the challenge, bronchospasm developed in approximately half (responders) of each group reflected by decreases in mean specific respiratory system conductance and arterial oxygen tension. While the dogs were breathing room air, pulmonary vascular resistance remained unchanged after antigen challenge in the responders not given aspirin or indomethacin, but increased significantly and was associated with a lesser degree of arterial hypoxemia in the responders pretreated with either of the prostaglandin inhibitors. Prevention of arterial hypoxemia by oxygen breathing blocked an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance in four pretreated responders. No changes in respiratory mechanics, pulmonary hemodynamics, or arterial blood gases were noted in the 21 dogs who did not develop bronchospasm regardless of whether or not they were pretreated. 12 additional dogs in whom arterial hypoxemia was produced by 10% oxygen breathing, showed an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance that was not potentiated by pretreatment with aspirin in 6. We conclude that in acute experimental canine asthma, vasodilator prostaglandins appear to blunt the hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstrictor response, thereby further compromising gas exchange but preventing the development of pulmonary hypertension.
Martin A. Cohn, Horst Baier, Adam Wanner
l-Leucine was administered as a primed continuous 3-4-h infusion in nonobese and obese subjects in the postabsorptive state and for 12 h in obese subjects after a 3-day and 4-wk fast. In nonobese and obese subjects studied in the post-absorptive state, the leucine infusion resulted in a 150-200% rise in plasma leucine above preinfusion levels, a small decrease in plasma glucose, and unchanged levels of plasma insulin and glucagon and blood ketones. Plasma isoleucine (60-70%) and valine (35-40%) declined to a greater extent than other amino acids (P < 0.001).
Robert S. Sherwin
Values for total 3-hydroxyproline and 4-hydroxyproline were obtained from 24-h urine specimens of 18 healthy human subjects of both sexes, whose ages ranged from the first to the sixth decade in age. Urinary 3-hydroxyproline levels, not earlier described to our knowledge, were determined by an isotope-dilution method requiring considerable purification and utilizing the amino acid analyzer for final measurement. 3-Hydroxyproline averaged 3% of the corresponding 4-hydroxyproline in individual urine samples. Like 4-hydroxyproline, 3-hydroxyproline excretion is increased in the second decade, and there is generally good correlation between the two values in individual urines. A hydroxyprolinemic subject excreting greatly elevated 4-hydroxyproline levels did not excrete excessive 3-hydroxyproline, consistent with independent catabolic pathways for the two compounds. 3-Hydroxyproline appears to be selectively excreted relative to 4-hydroxyproline when compared with the probable total body content of each amino acid. Possible explanations are: a more rapid turnover of basement membrane collagen than interstitial collagen or, alternatively, relatively greater resistance to the proteolytic cleavage of peptides containing 3-hydroxyproline.
E Adams, S Ramaswamy, M Lamon
The effects of endogenous and exogenous hyperglucagonemia on the specific binding of glucagon to hepatocyte receptors was studied, as was the response of cAMP to glucagon. In streptozotocin diabetic rats, blood glucose and plasma glucagon increased and plasma insulin decreased as compared with controls. Insulin treatment in diabetic rats restored blood glucose and plasma glucagon toward normal and elevated plasma insulin. Specific binding of 125I-glucagon to isolated hepatocytes (106 cells) decreased in diabetic rats (8.17±0.38%) compared to controls (14.05±0.87%) and was restored by insulin treatment (12.25±0.93%). Specific binding of 125I-insulin in controls was 7.30±10.16%; it increased in diabetic rats to 12.50±0.86%, and decreased in diabetic rats after insulin treatment (9.08±0.87%). Scatchard analysis and the competition plots of the data indicate that decreased glucagon binding and increased insulin binding in diabetes were due to change in the number of receptors rather than a change in their affinity. Hepatocyte cAMP response to glucagon (0.25-5.0 ng/ml) was almost abolished in diabetic rats and was restored with insulin treatment.
Sam J. Bhathena, Nancy R. Voyles, Stewart Smith, Lillian Recant
Factor VIII-related antigen (VIIIag) is deficient in plasma and platelets of patients with severe von Willebrand's disease. This study reports a second von Willebrand's disease antigen (vWagII), distinct from VIIIag, that is also deficient in the platelets and plasma of patients with severe von Willebrand's disease. VIIIag and vWagII are separable by molecular exclusion chromatography, sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation, and crossed immunoelectrophoresis. They show reactions of immunologic nonidentity with each other, and thus, do not share a precursor-product relationship. vWagII is released from normal platelets during blood clotting, accounting for a fourfold higher concentration of vWagII in serum over plasma.
R R Montgomery, T S Zimmerman
An in vitro approach to the study of single nephron function in uremia has been employed in evaluating the control of fluid reabsorption by the renal superficial proximal straight tubule (PST). Isolated segments of PSTs from the remnant kidneys of uremic rabbits (stage III) were perfused in vitro and their rate of fluid reabsorption compared with normal PSTs and with PSTs derived from the remnant kidneys of nonuremic rabbits (stage II). All segments were exposed to a peritubular bathing medium of both normal and uremic rabbit serum thereby permitting a differentiation to be made between adaptations in function which are intrinsic to the tubular epithelium and those which are dependent upon a uremic milieu.
Leon G. Fine, Walter Trizna, Jacques J. Bourgoignie, Neal S. Bricker
Resistance of the chronically diseased kidney to vasopressin has been proposed as a possible explanation for the urinary concentrating defect of uremia. The present studies examined the water permeability and adenylate cyclase responsiveness of isolated cortical collecting tubules (CCT) from remnant kidneys of uremic rabbits to vasopressin. In the absence of vasopressin the CCTs of both normal and uremic rabbits were impermeable to water. At the same osmotic gradient, addition of a supramaximal concentration of vasopressin to the peritubular bathing medium led to a significantly lower net water flux per unit length (and per unit luminal surface area) in uremic CCTs than in normal CCTs. Transepithelial osmotic water permeability coefficient, Pf, was 0.0232 ±0.0043 cm/s in normal CCTs and 0.0059±0.001 cm/s in uremic CCTs (P < 0.001). The impaired vasopressin responsiveness of the uremic CCTs was observed whether normal or uremic serum was present in the bath.
Leon G. Fine, Detlef Schlondorff, Walter Trizna, Richard M. Gilbert, Neal S. Bricker
Human Factor IX (Christmas factor) is a single-chain plasma glycoprotein (mol wt 57,000) that participates in the middle phase of the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It is present in plasma as a zymogen and is converted to a serine protease, Factor IXabeta, by Factor XIa (activated plasma thromboplastin antecedent) in the presence of calcium ions. In the activation reaction, two internal peptide bonds are hydrolyzed in Factor IX. These cleavages occur at a specific arginyl-alanine peptide bond and a specific arginyl-valine peptide bond. This results in the release of an activation peptide (mol wt approximately equal to 11,000) from the internal region of the precursor molecule and the generation of Factor IXabeta (mol wt approximately equal to 46,000). Factor IXabeta is composed of a light chain (mol wt approximately equal to 18,000) and a heavy chain (mol wt approximately equal to 28,000), and these chains are held together by a disulfide bond(s). The light chain originates from the amino terminal portion of the precursor molecule and has an amino terminal sequence of Tyr-Asn-Ser-Gly-Lys. The heavy chain originates from the carboxyl terminal region of the precursor molecule and contains an amino terminal sequence of Val-Val-Gly-Gly-Glu. The heavy chain of Factor IXabeta also contains the active site sequence of Phe-Cys-Ala-Gly-Phe-His-Glu-Gly-Arg-Asp-Ser-Cys-Gln-Gly-Asp-SER-Gly-Gly-Pro. The active site serine residue is shown in capital letters. Factor IX is also converted to Factor IXaalpha by a protease from Russell's viper venom. This activation reaction, however, occurs in a single step and involves only the cleavage of the internal arginyl-valine peptide bond. Human Factor IXabeta was inhibited by human antithrombin III by the formation of a one-to-one complex of enzyme and inhibitor. In this reaction, the inhibitor was tightly bound to the heavy chain of the enzyme. These data indicate that the mechanism of activation of human Factor IX and its inhibition by antithrombin III is essentially identical to that previously shown for bovine Factor IX.
R G Di Scipio, K Kurachi, E W Davie
To compare the roles of apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I, B, and E (or arginine-rich apoprotein, ARP) in the intracellular production of intestinal chylomicrons (and/or VLDL), these apoproteins were localized in rat intestinal mucosa by the light microscope method of indirect immunofluorescence. In addition, tissue levels of ApoA-I and ApoB were measured during fat absorption by radioimmunoassay. Antisera were produced using ApoA-I isolated from rat plasma high density lipoprotein, and ApoB and ARP from plasma VLDL by column chromatography. The apoproteins yielded single bands on polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis in urea and in sodium dodecyl sulfate. Anti-apoprotein antisera were produced in rabbits. These antisera appeared to be monospecific on double-antibody immunoprecipitation of 125I-labeled apoproteins. In fasted animals granular staining of ApoA-I was noted in the supranuclear (Golgi) regions of epithelial cells in the top third of the villus. At 30 min, when fat droplets were seen in the supranuclear cytoplasm of the cells along the top two-thirds of the villus, intense ApoA-I staining surrounded droplets in the cytoplasm. At later times when epithelial cells and lamina propria both contained fat droplets, bright ApoA-I stain surrounded many droplets in the supranuclear cytoplasm of cells and in the lamina propria. Over the same period of time, tissue levels of ApoA-I rose 10-fold. The distribution and time-course of ApoB staining was nearly identical with that of ApoA-I. Concomitantly, tissue ApoB levels doubled. By contrast, in fasting rat intestine, staining of ARP was sparse, punctate, and confined to the lower quarter of the villus. After fat feeding, stained droplets were seen only in the lamina propria near the base of the villus even though abundant ARP was found in cells along most of this length of the villus. Stain was never seen to surround any droplets inside cells. Thus, ApoA-I and ApoB appeared to participate in the intracellular assemply of lipoproteins in gut, whereas ARP did not, although ARP was found within mucosal cells. Liver and intestine differed in their stainable contents of ApoA-I and ARP. Whereas intestine stained heavily for ApoA-I and lightly for ARP, liver stained heavily for ARP and lightly for ApoA-I. Both organs stained for ApoB. These findings suggest that there may be some quantitative "specialization" of the two organs which secrete lipoproteins.
G Schonfeld, E Bell, D H Alpers
Cellular membrane synthesis occurs during normal and stimulated renal growth. Choline in the kidney is utilized as a precursor for membrane synthesis via the choline kinase reaction. We investigated choline phosphorylation during normal and stimulated renal growth. Rapidly growing neonatal rat kidneys contained relatively high levels of choline kinase activity (61 pmol phosphorylcholine/min per mg protein). Choline kinase activity and phosphorylcholine production then fell gradually over the 1st mo of life; by 1 mo phosphorylcholine production was 34 pmol phosphorylcholine/min per mg protein. Choline kinase activity increased by 27% (P less than 0.001) in 28-day-old rats when renal growth was stimulated by contralateral nephrectomy; the increase occurred within 2 h after surgery. Thus, changes in the activity of this important enzyme in the initiation of membrane synthesis is associated both with normal renal development and with adaptation to nephron loss. The findings further suggest that the cell membrane may be involved in the initiation of compensatory renal growth.
G H Bean, L M Lowenstein
To study the various stages of human mononuclear phagocyte maturation, we cultivated bone marrow in an in vitro diffusion chamber with the cells growing in suspension and upon a dialysis membrane. At 2, 7, and 14 days, the cultured cells were examined by electron microscopy and cytochemical techniques for peroxidase and for more limited analysis of acid phosphatase and arylsulfatase. Peroxidase was being synthesized in promonocytes of 2- and 7-day cultures, as evidenced by reaction product in the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, and storage granules. Peroxidase synthesis had ceased in monocytes and the enzyme appeared only in some granules. By 7 days, large macrophages predominated, containing numerous peroxidase-positive storage granules, and heterophagy of dying cells was evident. By 14 days, the most prevalent cell type was the large peroxidase-negative macrophage. Thus, peroxidase is present in high concentrations in immature cells but absent at later stages, presumably a result of degranulation of peroxidase-positive storage granules. Clusters of peroxidase-negative macrophages with indistinct borders (epithelioid cells), as well as obvious multinucleated giant cells, were noted. Frequently, the interdigitating plasma membranes of neighboring macrophages showed a modification resembling a septate junction--to our knowledge, representing the first documentation of this specialized cell contact between normal macrophages. We suggest that such junctions may serve as zones of adhesion between epithelioid cells.
D R Bainton, D W Golde
Raji cells were used for the isolation of complement-fixing antigen-antibody complexes from serum. Immune complexes bound to these cells were radiolabeled at the cell surface with lactoperoxidase. The complexes were then eluted from the cells with isotonic citrate buffer pH 3.2 or recovered by immunoprecipitation of cell lysates. The antigen and antibody moieties of the complexes were isolated by dissociating sucrose density gradient centrifugation or by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A variety of preformed immune complexes were successfully isolated from serum with this approach. In addition, these techniques were used to isolate and identify the antigens in immune complexes in the serum of rabbits with chronic serum sickness and rats with Moloney virus-induced sarcomas. Methods were also developed for the production of antisera against the antigenic moiety of immune complexes isolated from serum. Repeated challenge of rabbits with whole Raji cells with bound complexes or eluates from such cells resulted in antibody production against the antigens of the immune complexes, although reactivity against cellular and serum components was also elicited. Monospecific antisera against the antigens in immune complexes were produced by immunizing rabbits with the alum-precipitated antigen isolated on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These techniques may be useful in isolating antigens in immune complex-associated diseases of unknown etiology.
A N Theofilopoulos, R A Eisenberg, F J Dixon
In this study we have investigated, in four normal males the effects of dietary saturated and polyunsaturated fat on the chemical composition and thermotropic properties of human high density lipoproteins (HDL) and have measured the influence of the diets on the metabolism of that fraction of HDL apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) that undergoes exchange in vitro and accounts for approximately two-thirds of the lipoprotein's apoA-I complement. When compared with the saturated fat diet, the polyunsaturated diet reduced plasma cholesterol (24%, P < 0.01) by affecting the cholesterol content in the very low density lipoprotein (↓25%, P < 0.02), low density lipoprotein (↓20%, P < 0.01), and high density lipoprotein fractions (↓33%, P < 0.01). Plasma triglyceride was also lowered (by 13%, P < 0.01). Furthermore, polyunsaturated fat ingestion caused a significant fall in the palmitate and stearate content of HDL triglyceride (41 and 37%, respectively), cholesteryl esters (29 and 35%), and phospholipids (17 and 9%) with a concomitant increase in the linoleate content of these moieties (157, 28, and 29%, respectively). The polyunsaturated diet also produced reciprocal changes in the percentage protein (↓9%, P < 0.02) and phospholipid (↓11.5%, P < 0.01) in HDl. These compositional changes were associated with an increase in the microscopic fluidity of the polyunsaturated HDL, although both diets had little effect on the fluidity parameters of HDL at body temperature. Rate zonal ultracentrifugation indicated that the HDL2/HDL3 ratio fell by 28% (P < 0.05) on the polyunsaturated fat diet. In addition to the above, this diet reduced plasma apoA-I by 21% (P < 0.01). No change was seen in the fractional catabolic rate or the distribution of the apoprotein between intravascular and extravascular compartments on the two diets. However, when compared with the saturated diet, the synthetic rate of apoA-I was reduced by 26% during polyunsaturated fat feeding. The results show that polyunsaturated fat alters the chemical composition, thermotropic properties, and subfraction distribution of HDL without changing the fractional rate of catabolism of their major protein, apoA-I.
James Shepherd, Christopher J. Packard, Josef R. Patsch, Antonio M. Gotto Jr., O. David Taunton
The effects of carotid chemoreceptor stimulation with intracarotid injections of either nicotine, 0.2 μg/kg, or cyanide, 2 μg/kg, were compared with the effects of bilateral carotid occlusion on left ventricular (LV) pressure, dP/dt, and diameter in conscious dogs instrumented with ultrasonic diameter gauges and miniature pressure gauges. With heart rate maintained constant, carotid chemoreceptor stimulation increased mean arterial pressure by 27±3%, LV and diastolic diameter by 4±0.9% and LV dP/dt by 21±2%. With ventilation controlled during succinylcholine infusion, carotid chemoreceptor stimulation increased mean arterial pressure by 43±2% and dP/dt by 37±5%, values significantly greater, P < 0.01, than were observed in dogs with spontaneous ventilation. Similarly, in dogs with spontaneous ventilation after vagotomy, carotid chemoreceptor stimulation also increased dP/dt by a greater amount, i.e., by 48±9%. The increases in LV end diastolic diameter were not affected significantly by either cholinergic blockade with atropine or beta adrenergic blockade with propranolol. Although cholinergic blockade did not affect the inotropic or pressor responses significantly, beta adrenergic blockade attenuated the pressor response and essentially abolished the inotropic response. Bilateral carotid occlusion increased mean arterial pressure and LV end diastolic diameter by similar amounts to those observed with chemoreceptor stimulation, but increased dP/dt significantly less, P < 0.02, i.e., by 13±2%. As was observed with chemoreceptor stimulation, inotropic responses were not affected significantly by cholinergic blockade, but were essentially abolished by beta adrenergic blockade. Thus, in the conscious dog with heart rate constant, carotid chemoreceptor stimulation induces a clear positive inotropic effect, which is greater in the absence of the attenuating influences of pulmonary inflation reflexes, and for an equal elevation in arterial pressure appears to exert a greater increase in myocardial contractility than does carotid baro-receptor unloading.
Stephen F. Vatner, John D. Rutherford
A 46-yr-old female with chronic pyelonephritis was found to lack complement (C) activity by the use of hemolytic screen assays in agarose gels. These assays also revealed a propensity of patient serum to form an activated complex of the fifth and sixth components of C, C5̄6̄. Each of the C component hemolytic activities was present in normal or elevated amounts with the exception of C7, which was undetectable; addition of purified C7 led to the restoration of hemolytic activity. C-dependent phagocytosis, immune adherence, and neutrophil chemotaxis were normal. Family studies demonstrated that the defect was transmitted as an autosomal codominant apparently not linked with alleles at the HLA-A or HLA-B loci. Persisting C5̄6̄ was readily formed in this as compared to normal serum upon incubation with multiple C activators including zymosan, inulin, immune complexes, heat-aggregated human gamma globulin, endotoxin, and agarose. A heat-stable (56°C, 30 min) activity which consumed C7 with time-and temperature-dependent kinetics was detected in plasma and serum, and seemed to be similar to a “C7 inactivator” previously described in another C7-deficient individual. However, this activity was found to have properties identical to those of C5̄6̄ during low ionic strength precipitation and chromatography on Sephadex G-200, to be specifically removed upon passage through an anti-C5 immunoadsorbent column, and to be associated with a small amount of C5̄6̄, suggesting that it represents an expression of small amounts of C5̄6̄ rather than a new C-inhibitory activity. Thus, an individual with chronic nephritis lacking C7 is reported; the utility of a hemolytic screen assay in agarose plates for the detection of such patients is emphasized; persisting C5̄6̄ is shown readily to be formed in this serum; and the presence of C7-consuming activity which is associated with and in all likelihood attributable to C5̄6̄ is shown.
G. R. Nemerow, H. Gewurz, S. G. Osofsky, T. F. Lint
After removal of plasma contamination, an androgen binding protein (hABP) was detected in a 105,000-g supernate of human testicular homogenate. The physicochemical properties of hABP have been compared with a similar androgen binding protein in human plasma, testosterone-estrogen binding globulin (TeBG). hABP had high affinity (Kd = 7.8 nM) and low capacity (0.27 pmol/mg protein) for 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Binding affinity of human TeBG for DHT was greater (Kd = 0.66 nM, binding capacity 0.68 pmol/mg protein). On the basis of sedimentation rates and Einstein Stokes radii of hABP and TeBG, the mol wt of the two proteins were similar in the range of 87,000-92,000. The ligand specificities of hABP and TeBG were the same. The binding of [3H]DHT to hABP and TeBG were reversible processes at 0°C. The half-lives for the dissociation of [3H]DHT from hABP and TeBG were 100-120 min and 67-70 min, respectively. Heat sensitivity of hABP and TeBG were similar. hABP had a sharp pH binding curve with an optimum at 8, whereas TeBG had a stable pH optimum between 6.5 and 9. hABP and TeBG were eluted from an ion exchange column at 100 mM and 80 mM sodium chloride concentrations, respectively. Concanavalin A and ricin Sepharose affinity chromatography showed that TeBG is bound to the columns nearly quantitatively, whereas hABP is bound to the columns only partially.
An-Fei Hsu, Philip Troen
In Hodgkin's disease a possible mechanism for impaired cellular immunity is cell-mediated suppression, defined as the inhibitory interaction between suppressor cells and effector lymphocytes. To test for the presence of suppressor cells in peripheral blood, we have modified the standard, one-way mixed lymphocyte culture by adding mitomycin C-treated mononuclear cells from the responder. Suppression, expressed as a percent of the base-line mixed lymphocyte culture in which these extra cells are not present, results in a reduction of thymidine incorporated in the modified culture (i.e., 100% suppression = no net thymidine incorporation; 0% suppression = identical thymidine incorporation in both the modified and baseline culture).
Stephen M. Hillinger, Geoffrey P. Herzig
In vitro studies indicate that [57Co]cobalamin (Cbl) is preferentially bound to salivary R protein as opposed to intrinsic factor (IF) and that [57Co]Cbl bound to R protein is not transferred to IF at either pH 2 or pH 8. Incubation of R protein-[57Co]Cbl with pancreatic proteases causes a partial degradation of the R protein moiety and a rapid transfer of [57Co]Cbl to IF. We have postulated that the etiology of Cbl malabsorption in pancreatic insufficiency is an inability to partially degrade R protein because of a lack of pancreatic proteases. We have tested this hypothesis by determining the ability of a nonradioactive Cbl analogue, bound with high affinity by R protein but not by IF, to correct the malabsorption of [57Co]Cbl in patients with pancreatic insufficiency.
Robert H. Allen, Bellur Seetharam, Nancy C. Allen, Elaine R. Podell, David H. Alpers
Pretreatment (12-48 h) of human fibroblasts with crude, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) was found to suppress cytomegalovirus infection and enhance productive herpes simplex type 1 (HSV) infection in vitro. Maximal effect on virus replication occurred at the time of maximal infectivity of control cultures (48 h and 6 days after viral innoculation for HSV and cytomegalovirus, respectively). The alteration in viral growth was not due to the HCG itself, but rather to epidermal growth factor, a contaminant of crude HCG. The effect of epidermal growth factor on viral infectivity was shown to be a cell-mediated event requiring protein synthesis.
G E Knox, D W Reynolds, S Cohen, C A Alford
Mating experiments have shown that high-level resistance (minimal inhibitory concentration greater than 2,000 microgram/ml) to streptomycin and kanamycin, and resistance to penicillin-streptomycin and penicillin-kanamycin synergism are transferable by conjugation from resistant clinical isolates of enterococci to a sensitive recipient strain. Cesium chloride-ethidium bromide ultracentrifugation revealed a satellite (plasmid) band in resistant clinical isolates and the transconjugant strains but not in the sensitive recipient. Examination of these satellite bands by agarose gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy demonstrated a common plasmid with a weight of 45 megadaltons. Novobiocin treatment of a resistant clinical isolate produced simultaneous loss of high-level resistance to streptomycin and kanamycin, and of resistance to penicillin-aminoglycoside synergism. These results suggest that (a) high-level resistance to streptomycin and kanamycin among some clinical isolates of enterococci is associated with a 45 megadalton plasmid, and (b) the same plasmid is also responsible for the resistance to penicillin-aminoglycoside synergism observed in these strains.
D J Krogstad, T R Korfhagen, R C Moellering Jr, C Wennersten, M N Swartz
The fate of rat plasma very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) constituents was determined in the isolated perfused rat heart. VLDL was labeled with [14C]palmitate, 32P-phospholipids, [3H] cholesterol, and 125I-apolipoprotein C (apoC). Perfusions were performed with an albumin-containing buffer and without plasma. Radioactivity was followed in fractions of d < 1.019, d 1.019-1.04, d 1.04-1.21, and d > 1.21 g/ml, prepared by ultracentrifugation.
Tova Chajek, Shlomo Eisenberg
In the isolated turtle bladder, spironolactone inhibits sodium transport in the presence of aldosterone or endogenous mineralocorticoid hormone. In contrast to this antagonism for the stimulation of sodium transport by aldosterone, the stimulation of hydrogen ion secretion by aldosterone is not inhibited by spironolactone. In hormone-depleted bladders, spironolactone stimulates hydrogen ion secretion. The extent of stimulation is similar to that of aldosterone. Spironolactone functions as an agonist for aldosterone for the stimulation of urinary acidification.
A Mueller, P R Steinmetz
The kallikrein-kinin system was characterized in seven patients with Bartter's syndrome on constant metabolic regimens before, during, and after treatment with prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors. Patients with Bartter's syndrome had high values for plasma bradykinin, plasma renin activity (PRA), urinary kallikrein, urinary immunoreactive prostaglandin E excretion, and urinary aldosterone; urinary kinins were subnormal and plasma prekallikrein was normal. Treatment with indomethacin or ibuprofen which decreased urinary immunoreactive prostaglandin E excretion by 67%, decreased mean PRA (patients recumbent) from 17.3±5.3 (S.E.M.) ng/ml per h to 3.3±1.1 ng/ml per h, mean plasma bradykinin (patients recumbent) from 15.4±4.4 ng/ml to 3.9±0.9 ng/ml, mean urinary kallikrein excretion from 24.8±3.2 tosyl-arginine-methyl ester units (TU)/day to 12.4±2.0 TU/day, but increased mean urinary kinin excretion from 3.8±1.3 μg/day to 8.5±2.5 μg/day. Plasma prekallikrein remained unchanged at 1.4 TU/ml. Thus, with prostaglandin synthetase inhibition, values for urinary kallikrein and kinin and plasma bradykinin returned to normal pari passu with changes in PRA, in aldosterone, and in prostaglandin E. The results suggest that, in Bartter's syndrome, prostaglandins mediate the low urinary kinins and the high plasma bradykinin, and that urinary kallikrein, which is aldosterone dependent, does not control kinin excretion. The high plasma bradykinin may be a cause of the pressor hyporesponsiveness to angiotensin II which characterizes the syndrome.
Joseph M. Vinci, John R. Gill Jr., Robert E. Bowden, John J. Pisano, Joseph L. Izzo Jr., Nazam Radfar, Addison A. Taylor, Randall M. Zusman, Frederic C. Bartter, Harry R. Keiser
We have examined the effects of cholinergic blockade with 0.5 mg methscopolamine bromide, intramuscularly, on sleep-related and insulin-induced growth hormone (GH) secretion. 17 normal young men were studied; 8 had sleep studies, and 12 (including 3 who also had sleep studies) had insulin tolerance tests (ITT) with 0.1 U/kg of regular insulin. After an adjustment night in the sleep laboratory, saline control night and methscopolamine night studies were done in random sequence; study procedures included electroencephalographic, electromyographic, and electrooculographic recordings, and blood sampling every 20 min for hormone radioimmunoassays. Prolactin levels were also measured during sleep. For methscopolamine night studies, the mean overall control GH level of 2.89±0.44 ng/ml and the mean peak control GH level of 11.09±3.11 ng/ml were dramatically reduced to 0.75±0.01 and 1.04±0.25 ng/ml, respectively (P<0.0001 and <0.001). Despite virtual absence of GH secretion during the night in every study subject, no measured sleep characteristic was affected by methscopolamine, including total slow-wave sleep (12.1±2.6% control vs. 10.3±2.5% drug, P>0.2). Sleep prolactin levels were not changed by methscopolamine. In contrast to the abolition of sleep-related GH secretion, administration of methscopolamine had only a marginal effect on the GH response to insulin hypoglycemia. None of nine time points differed significantly, as was also the case with peak levels, mean increments, and areas under the curves (P>0.2). Analysis of variance did, however, indicate that the lower GH concentrations achieved during ITT after methscopolamine (average 31.7% below control) were significantly different than control concentrations. We conclude that the burst of GH secretion which normally occurs after sleep onset is primed by a cholinergic mechanism which does not influence slow-wave sleep. Cholinergic mechanisms do not appear to play an important role in sleep-related prolactin secretion. The contrast between the complete suppression of sleep-related GH release and the relatively small inhibitory effect on ITT-induced GH secretion suggests that the neurotransmitter mechanisms, and presumably the pathways, which subserve sleep-related GH secretion in man may be different from those which mediate the GH response to pharmacologic stimuli such as insulin.
Wallace B. Mendelson, Natarajan Sitaram, Richard Jed Wyatt, J. Christian Gillin
Lithium chloride administration to growing rats, which resulted in circulating lithium levels of 1.4 meq/liter, was attended by significant suppression of bone mineralization and organic matrix synthesis as assessed by tetracycline labeling and histological quantitation of osteoid, respectively. These effects of lithium were not associated with changes in animal behavior, nor were there any significant differences in blood levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, pH, or parathyroid hormone. The data suggest that lithium inhibition of bone mineralization is secondary to suppression of osteoid formation.
D T Baran, M P Schwartz, M A Bergfeld, S L Teitelbaum, E Slatopolsky, L V Avioli