The mechanism(s) by which cholesterol returns to the splanchnic bed from peripheral tissues are not well understood. To study this phenomenon in fasting man, lipoproteins were isolated from plasma obtained from hepatic vein and aorta. Cholesterol content of each lipoprotein class was determined and arteriovenous (AV) differences could be calculated for each patient. The results in the first 24 patients indicated splanchnic secretion of very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (mean AV difference − 3 mg/100 ml, P < 0.01), but not significant AV difference for total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, or low density lipoprotein (LDL) B protein. In contrast, for LDL (d 1.006-1.063 g/ml), there was significant uptake of cholesterol across the AV bed +8 mg/100 ml, P < 0.0002). In a further 15 patients, similar samples were obtained and intermediate density lipoprotein isolated at d 1.006-1.019 g/ml and LDL at 1.019-1.063 g/ml. The AV difference previously noted could now be localized to the 1.019-1.063 cholesterol ester moiety (+8 mg/100 ml, P < 0.0005). In the final 14 patients, the LDL cholesterol AV difference was again confirmed and shown to be unrelated to heparin. As well, there was secretion of triglyceride in the hepatic vein LDL. These quantitative data obtained in man raise the possibility that LDL rather than high density lipoprotein transports cholesterol ester to the splanchnic bed.
A. Sniderman, D. Thomas, D. Marpole, B. Teng
The role of the renin-angiotensin system in the regulation of the systemic and coronary circulations during sodium depletion was studied in conscious normotensive dogs by i.v. administration of teprotide (0.5 mg/kg), an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and saralasin (0.05-5 μg/kg per min), an angiotensin-receptor antagonist. Sodium depletion was produced by administering a low sodium diet and furosemide for 5 days. Administration of both teprotide and saralasin lowered systemic arterial blood pressure and total peripheral vascular resistance. Simultaneously, cardiac output increased, but left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, dP/dt, and dP/dt/P did not change significantly. Furthermore, both agents reduced diastolic coronary vascular resistance and increased coronary blood flow, but did not affect myocardial oxygen consumption, left ventricular work, or myocardial efficiency. These systemic and coronary vasodilator effects of teprotide and saralasin, however, were not observed in normal dogs on a regular sodium diet; in this group, the only effect noted was a slight increase in arterial pressure during saralasin infusion. Arterial plasma concentration of norepinephrine did not differ between normal and sodiumdepleted dogs, nor did it change significantly after teprotide administration. These results suggest that, during salt depletion, angiotensin II exerts an active vasoconstrictor action on the systemic and coronary vessels, but has no significant effects on myocardial contractility or energetics. It also appears likely that the increase in cardiac output observed in sodiumdepleted dogs after angiotensin inhibition was caused, at least in part, by the decrease in systemic arterial pressure.
Chang-Seng Liang, Haralambos Gavras, William B. Hood Jr.
Micropuncture studies were carried out in rats to determine changes in tubular transport of phosphate which occur in chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Rats underwent subtotal nephrectomy (NX) and were fed a low calcium, high phosphorus diet for 3--4 wk. Other groups consisted of normal control animals, normal rats infused with sodium phosphate to raise filtered load of phosphate, subtotal NX rats parathyroidectomized (PTX) on the day of experiment, and normal PTX rats infused with sodium phosphate. It was found that filtered phosphate/nephron is markedly increased in subtotal NX rats due to high single nephron filtration rates, proximal tubular fluid plasma phosphate ratios are less than 1.0, and fractional reabsorption of phosphate is decreased in the proximal tubule. More phosphate was present in the final urine than in surface distal convoluted tubules. Acute PTX in subtotal NX rats resulted in a striking increase in proximal phosphate reabsorption, and urinary phosphate became approximately equal to that remaining in surface distal tubules. Phosphate loading in normal rats reduced fractional reabsorption in the proximal tubule, but urinary phosphate was not greater than that at the end of surface distal tubules. Acute PTX in normal phosphate-loaded animals had no significant effect on proximal tubular phosphate reabsorption. These observations suggest that phosphate homeostasis in chronic renal failure is acheived by inhibition of proximal phosphate reabsorption, counteracting a greatly enhanced intrinsic capacity for reabsorption. In addition, the large amount of urinary phosphate is consistent either with secretion by the collecting ducts or with a disproportionately high contribution by deep nephrons. The changes in phosphate transport are mediated by parathyroid hormone and are completely abolished by acute removal of the hormone.
N Bank, W S Su, H S Aynedjian
Hepatic cholesterol synthesis is controlled by both the size of the bile acid pool in the enterohepatic circulation and by the amount of cholesterol reaching the liver carried in chylomicron remnants. These studies were undertaken to examine how these two control mechanisms are interrelated. When the size of the pool was systematically varied, the logarithm of the rate of hepatic cholesterol synthesis varied in an inverse linear fashion with the size of the taurocholate pool between the limits of 0 and 60 mg of bile acid per 100 g of body weight. The slope of this relationship gave the fractional inhibition of cholesterol synthesis associated with expansion of the taurocholate pool and was critically dependent upon the amount of cholesterol available for absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, the degree of inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in the liver seen with taurocholate feeding was reduced by partially blocking cholesterol absorption with beta-sitosterol even though the bile acid pool was still markedly expanded. In rats with diversion of the intestinal lymph from the blood, a five-fold expansion of the taurocholate pool resulted in only slight suppression of the rate of hepatic cholesterol synthesis, and even this inhibition was shown to be attributable to small amounts of cholesterol absorbed through collateral lymphatic vessels and (or) to a fasting effect. Similarly, the infusion of either taurocholate or a combination of taurocholate and taurochenate into rats with no biliary or dietary cholesterol available for absorption caused no suppression of hepatic cholesterol synthesis. Finally, the effect of changes in the rate of bile acid snythesis on hepatic cholesterol synthesis was examined. The fractional inhibition of cholesterol synthesis found after administration of an amount of cholesterol sufficient to raise the hepatic cholesterol ester content by 1 mg/g equalled only --0.36 when bile acid snythesis was increased by biliary diversion but was --0.92 when bile acid synthesis was suppressed by bile acid feeding. It is concluded that (a) bile acids are not direct effectors of the rate of hepatic cholesterol synthesis, (b) most of the inhibitory activity seen with bile acid feeding is mediated through increased cholesterol absorption, and (c) bile acids do have an intrahepatic effect in that they regulate hepatic cholesterol synthesis indirectly by altering the flow of cellular cholesterol to bile acids.
F O Nervi, J M Dietschy
Recent studies from this laboratory have revealed that single nephron filtration rate (sngfr) decreases significantly within 1 h of the administration of large doses of complement-fixing antiglomerular basement membrane antibody (AGBM Ab) in plasma-expanded Munich-Wistar rats. This reduction in sngfr was due to decreases in nephron plasma flow (rf) and the glomerular permeability coefficient (LpA) utilizing direct evaluation of all pertinent pressures, flows, and permeabilities. With identical micropuncture techniques, we have determined (a) the respective influences of rpf and LpA upon sngfr by examining the effects of differing doses of AGBM Ab, and (b) the specific effect of complement fixation upon the reduction in sngfr. In normal rats, low dose (1.4 microgram/g body wt) AGBM Ab decreased sngfr from 57.9 +/- 3.4 to 50.8+/- 3.9 nl/min per g kidney wt (kw) (P less than 0.001), and this was due to a 10% reduction in rpf and a decrease in LpA FROM 0.069 +/- 0.014 in control to 0.041 +/- 0.007 nl/s per g kw per mm Hg (P less than 0.02). At the high dose (2.3 microgram/g body wt), sngfr fell dramatically from 58.4 +/- 4.0 to 7.6 +/- 3.8 nl/min per g kw (P less than 0.001), and this effect upon filtration was the result of an 86% reduction in rpf and a decrease in LpA from 0.092 +/- 0.020 to 0.007 +/- 0.004 nl/s per g kw mm Hg (P less than 0.001). Therefore, at lower doses sngfr fell primarily as a result of a 40% reduction in LpA and a 10% decrease in rpf; however, at the high dose massive reductions in both rps and LpA led to the large decrease in sngfr. In complement-depleted rats, receiving identical doses, low-dose AGBM Ab no longer reduced the sngfr, but a reduction in LpA persisted (other factors compensating to maintain sngfr). At the high dose, complement depletion ameliorated the reduction in sngfr (55.1 +/- 2.4 to 37.2 +/- 3.4 nl/min per g kw mm Hg) by nearly eliminating the vasoconstriction but only partially diminished the reduction in LpA (0.097 +/- 0.020 to 0.032 +/- 0.004 nl/s per g kw mm Hg, P less than 0.05). Complement depletion prevented the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (present in larger numbers after the high dose of AGBM Ab) into the capillary and eliminated vasoconstriction. Complement depletion resulted in a lesser effect of high-dose AGBM Ab upon LpA than in normal rats, and this is likely due to lesser polymorphonuclear leukocyte effects upon capillary surface area. The persistent reduction in LpA observed in complement-depleted rats correlated with separation of the endothelial cell from the glomerular basement membrane after AGBM Ab, AGBM Ab diminished glomerular ultrafiltration by decreasing LpA and altering the endothelial surface of the glomerular membrane, and this effect is not totally dependent upon the fixation of complement.
R C Blantz, B J Tucker, C B Wilson
The effects of corticosteroid given in vivo on human lymphocyte subpopulation function were investigated using an in vitro system of pokeweek mitogen-stimulated immunoglobulin production. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were obtained from normal volunteers before and 4 h after the intravenous administration of methylprednisolone. Unfractioned peripheral blood lymphocytes showed a consistent decrease (mean ≅ 50%) in immunoglobulin and total protein synthesis after steroid administration. Utilizing separated thymus-derived (T) and bone marrow-derived (B) lymphocyte fractions, the pathophysiology of this alteration in immunoglobulin production was elucidated. B lymphocytes obtained after steroid treatment showed a markedly diminished immunoglobulin response (20% of normal) to normal T lymphocytes and to normal T cells that had been irradiated to remove suppressor T lymphocyte function. All major classes of immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM, and IgA) were affected. T lymphocytes procured after steroid administration were capable of providing normal amounts of T cell help for B cells in immunoglobulin production. However, suppressor T lymphocyte activity, observed with normal T lymphocytes at high T to B cell ratios, was absent from the post-steroid T lymphocytes. This loss of suppressor T lymphocyte function was not due to the presence of excess help as irradiated pre- and poststeroid T cells provided equal amounts of helper activity. On recombining the poststeroid treatment B cells, which are hyporesponsive in immunoglobulin synthesis, with the posttreatment T lymphocytes, which lack suppressor activity, diminished amounts of immunoglobulin were produced which correlate well with the effects observed with unseparated cells. Thus, corticosteroids have differential effects on the lymphocyte populations involved in immunoglobulin biosynthesis. B cell responsiveness is diminished, suppressor T lymphocyte activity is removed, and helper T lymphocyte function is unaffected.
Andrew Saxon, Ronald H. Stevens, Sandra J. Ramer, Philip J. Clements, David T. Y. Yu
Gonoccocal pili facilitate attachment of virulent Neisseria gonorrhoeae to human cells. To characterize this attachment function, purified gonococcal pili isolated from four strains possessing antigenically distinct pili were radiolabeled with 125I and used to measure the attachment of pili to various human cells in vitro. Human buccal and cervical-vaginal mucosal epithealial cells, fallopian tube mucosa, and sperm bound pili in greater numbers per micrometer2 of surface area (1--10) than fetal tonsil fibroblasts, HeLa M cells, erythrocytes, or polymorphonuclear leukocytes. This cell specificity of attachment suggests a greater density of membrane pili binding sites on cells similar or identical to cells from natural sites of infection. The pili binding sites were quantitated as 1 X 10(4) per cervical-vaginal squamous cell. Pili of all antigenic types attached equally to a given cell type, implying that the attachment moiety of each pilus was similar. Attachement of gonoccocal pili to human cells occurred quickly with saturation of presumed receptor sites within 20--60 min. Attachment was temperature dependent (37 degrees greater than 20 degrees greater than 4 degrees C), and pH dependent (3.5 less than 4.5 less than 5.5 less than 7.5). Attachment was inhibited by antibody to pili (homologous pili Ab greater than heterologous Ab). The extent of possible protection against gonococcal infection due to inhibition of pili-mediated attachment might prove limited as a result of the considerable antigenic heterogeneity among pili and the observation that blockage of pili attachment is maximal only with antibody to pili of the infecting strain.
W A Pearce, T M Buchanan
Cardiac taurine levels are elevated in hypertension and congestive heart failure. A possible mechanism for this increase in taurine is an alteration of its uptake. We sought to identify and characterize a carrier-mediated transport system for taurine in the mammalian myocardium utilizing the fetal mouse heart in organ culture. Hearts from fetuses of 16-19 days gestational age used in these studies had an endogenous taurine content of 14.1±0.5 nmol/mg tissue.
David S. Grosso, William R. Roeske, Rubin Bressler
Epidemiological observations and animal experiments suggest that large bowel cancer is related to serveral factors. Among them, high dietary intakes of animal fat, the presence in the colon of relatively high levels of bile acids, specific patterns of intestinal microflora, slow transit through the gut, and low stool weights. Under metabolic conditions we have observed the effect on these variables of dietes containing 62 or 152 g/day of fat mainly of animal origin in six healthy young men over 4-wk periods. No change attributable to the diet was observed in the subjects' bowel habit, fecal weight, mean transit time through the gut, or in the excretion of dry matter. Total fecal bile acid excretion was significantly higher on the high fat diet (320 +/- 120 mg/day) than on the low fat diet (139.7) +/- 63 mg/day) t test = 7.78 P less than 0.001 as also was the total fecal fatty acid excretion, 3.1+/-0.71 and 1.14+/-0.35 g/day, respectively t test = 11.4 P less than 0.001). The fecal microflora including the nuclear dehydrogenating clostridia were unaltered by the dietary changes as was fecal beta-glucuronidase activity. Dietary changes which increase animal fat intake clearly influence fecal bile acid excretion in a way that would favor the development of large bowel cancer if current theories prove to be true. Dietary fat however has no effect on overall colonic function so other components of the diet must be responsible for the observed associations of bowel cancer with slow transit and reduced fecal bulk.
J H Cummings, H S Wiggins, D J Jenkins, H Houston, T Jivraj, B S Drasar, M J Hill
A marked suppression of the thymusderived (T)-lymphocyte response to concanavalin A has been demonstrated in vitro during renal infection. Suppression of the T-lymphocyte response in vitro was seen as early as 2 h after the induction of renal infection, but maximum suppression was found 24-72 h later. A population of suppressor cells in the splenic lymphocyte population, generated during the host's response to infection, contributed to the depressed lymphocyte response. Removal of suppressor cells restored the mitogenic responsiveness of the remaining splenic lymphocytes. Conversely, in co-culture experiments, a suppressor cell present in the splenic lymphocyte population of pyelonephritic animals was shown to be capable of suppressing the mitogenic responsiveness of normal splenic lymphocytes. Significantly reduced host vs. graft responses by the pyelonephritic animals confirmed, in vivo, the depression of cell-mediated immune mechanisms.
Thomas Miller, Lesley Scott, Elaine Stewart, Derek North
The administration of l-dopa suppresses prolactin (PRL) secretion in normal subjects and in patients with hyperprolactinemia, although it is not known whether this effect, which requires the conversion of dopa to dopamine, is mediated peripherally or through the central nervous system. To distinguish between these effects, 10 normal subjects (6 male, 4 female) and 8 patients with hyperprolactinemia associated with pituitary tumors were given l-dopa, 0.5 g alone, or 0.1 g after a 24-h pretreatment with carbidopa, 50 mg every 6 h, which produces peripheral dopa decarboxylase inhibition. Similar degrees of PRL suppression were observed in normal subjects (basal plasma PRL 13±2 ng/ml) after l-dopa alone (48±4%) and after l-dopa plus carbidopa (58±6%). In patients with pituitary tumors and elevated plasma PRL (73±14 ng/ml), l-dopa alone led to PRL suppression comparable with that in normal subjects (47±6%). However, l-dopa plus carbidopa resulted in only minimal suppression of plasma PRL (19±4%) which was significantly less than after l-dopa alone (P < 0.001). Urinary homovanillic acid excretion, which reflected peripheral dopa decarboxylation was similar in controls and tumor patients after l-dopa both alone and after carbidopa pretreatment. Comparable suppression of PRL levels in response to a dopamine infusion (4 μg/kg per min for 3 h) was observed in controls and tumor patients. The results indicate that although peripheral conversion of exogenous dopa to dopamine can suppress PRL secretion, in normals, the central nervous system conversion of dopa to dopamine in the presence of peripheral dopa decarboxylase inhibition is sufficient to account for its PRL-suppressive effects. In contrast, patients with tumors, while retaining peripheral dopaminergic inhibitory effects on PRL secretion, exhibit a marked reduction of central dopaminergic inhibition of PRL secretion.
Stuart A. Fine, Lawrence A. Frohman
Acidification of the luminal solution by the isolated turtle bladder involves H+ secretion by a pump at the luminal membrane. The OH− dissociated in this process reacts with CO2 and forms HCO3− which moves passively out of the cell across the serosal cell membrane. In the present study, this exit step for HCO3− was inhibited by serosal addition of the disulfonic stilbene, SITS, an agent which is thought to bind to a transport protein at the serosal cell membrane. 90 min after serosal addition of 0.5 mM SITS, H+ secretion decreased by > 80%. In contrast, luminal addition of SITS had no effect. During inhibition of H+ secretion by serosal SITS, overall cell pH, measured by the 5, 5-dimethyl-2, 3-oxazolidinedione method, increased from 7.48±0.03 to 7.61±0.02. This increase of 0.13±0.02 pH U was associated with a much larger regional pH increase as judged from the decrement in the attainable pH gradient across the epithelium. After serosal SITS, this gradient was reduced from 2.88±0.06 to 2.09±0.11 pH U. In the absence of evidence for increased H+ permeability or a change in the force of the H+ pump, the gradient decrement of 0.79±0.08 U reflects a similar pH increment on the cytoplasmic side of the pump.
Loren H. Cohen, Allan Mueller, Philip R. Steinmetz
Three separate approaches were applied to examine the general relationship between R, the rate of induction of specific enzymes (mitochondrial alpha-glycero-phosphate dehydrogenase and cytosolic malic enzyme) and q, the fractional nuclear occupancy by triiodothyronine in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Daily 200-microgram injections of triiodothyronine per 10u g body wt for 7 days resulted in saturation of the hepatic nuclear sites and the achievement of an apparent new steady state of enzyme levels. The increase achieved over base-line hypothyroid levels was then compared with the increment over hypothyroid base line characteristic of intact euthyroid animals with 47% of nuclear sites occupied. The maximal theoretical reate of steady-state enzyme induction could be protected on the basis of the observed maximal increase in enzyme activity observed 1 day after the injection of graded doses of hormone and lambda, the known fractional rate of enzyme dissipation. The 24-h dose-response studies were used to generate R as a continuous function of q, both in hypothyroid as well as in euthyroid animals. This approach involved the numerical solution of an ordinary differential equation describing the rate of change of enzyme as a function of R, which was assumed to be uniquely related to q. Results of these analyses indicated that the ratio of the maximal rate of induction of enzyme at full occupancy to the rate of induction under euthyroid conditions assumes a value between 9.0 and 19.5, depending on the precise analytic and experimental approach applied. This value is far in excess of the theoretical ratio 2.13 which on would anticipate if R were linearly related to q and 47% of the nuclear sites occupied under physiological conditions. Thus, the signal for enzyme induction appears to undergo progressjive amplification with increasing nuclear occupancy. Moreover, the curve describing the relationship between R and q appears highly nonlinear throughout (concave upwards). Although the molecular mechanism responsible for amplification is unknown, recognition of this phenomenon may be helpful in understanding tissue effects of thyroid hormone excess. Moreover, the analytic technique for determining R as a function of q may be of general applicability in studying hormonal response systems under nonsteady-state conditions.
J H Oppenheimer, P Coulombe, H L Schwartz, N W Gutfeld
We determined the maximum solubilities of cholesterol in aqueous conjugated bile salt-egg lecithin-cholesterol systems as a function of several physical-chemical variables including those of physiological importance employing phase equilibria techniques. Equilibration rates are influenced by time and the method of sample preparation in that metastable supersaturation is readily induced at high bile salt: lecithin ratios, and equilibrium saturation by dissolution is achieved sluggisly at low bile salt:lecithin ratios. Equilibrium values for cholesterol saturation vary with the bile salt species, bile salt: lecithin ratio, temperature, ionic strength, and, in particular, with the total concentration of biliary lipids. Within physiological bile salt:lecithin ratios at 37 degreesC the influence of bile salt type and ionic strength is small, whereas the effects of bile salt:lecithin ratio and the total lipid concentration are major factors. We plotted on triangular coordinates a family of cholesterol solubility curves for each total lipid concentration (0.30--30 g/dl) and computed fifth-degree polynomial equations for each curve. With both the curves and the polynomial equations the "per cent cholesterol saturation" of fasting gallbladder and hepatic biles from patients with and without gallstones was calculated and both methods gave similar values. These results deomonstrate that by employing cholesterol saturation values appropriate to the total lipid concentration (range 0.2--24.9 g/dl) of individual biles, all cholesterol stone patients have supersaturated gallbladder biles, (mean, 132% [normal weight individuals], and 199% [morbidly obese individuals]). With controls and pigment stone patients the mean values were 95 and 98%, respectively, and in both approximately 50% of biles were supersaturated. Fasting hepatic biles were significantly more supersaturated than gallbladder biles (means 228--273%). Cholesterol monohydrate crystals were found in the majority of gallbladder (83%) and hepatic (58%) biles of cholesterol gallstone patients but were not observed in pigment stone patients or controls. We conclude that of the several factors in addition to the bile salt:lecithin ratios which can influence the cholesterol saturation of bile the total lipid concentration is the predominant determinant physiologically. Our results demonstrate that (a) metastable supersaturation is frequent in both normal and abnormal biles, (b) cholesterol gallstone patients have supersaturated gallbladder and hepatic biles without exception, and (c) the predominant driving force for cholesterol precipitation appears to be the absolute degree of cholesterol supersaturation.
M C Carey, D M Small
We investigated the effect of elastase-like neutral protease isolated from human granolocytes on human fibrinogen. Dependent on enzyme concentration and time of incubation, the elastase-like protease induced a progressive degradation of fibrinogen. Analysis of the remaining polypeptide chains showed a high susceptibility of the Aalpha- and low susceptibility of the gamma-chain of fibrinogen towards the proteolytic action of the enzyme. The split products were characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis. They showed antigenic determinants of fibrinogen and of plasmin-induced proteolysis products D and E. The cleavage fragments isolated by gel chromatography had distinct molecular weights. Coagulability of fibrinogen by thrombin was inhibited according to the concentration of the protease and the time of incubation. Split products of fibrinogen with higher molecular weight prolonged the coagulation time of native fibrinogen, whereas low molecular weight fragments were ineffective.
M Gramse, C Bingenheimer, W Schmidt, R Egbring, K Havemann
Glucose-induced insulin secretion is enhanced by a preceeding glucose stimulus. The characteristics of this action of glucose were investigated in perfused pancreas and collagenase-isolated islets of Langerhans. A 20- to 30-min pulse of 27.7 mM glucose enhanced both the first and second phase of insulin release in response to a second glucose stimulus by 76-201%. This enhancement was apparent as an augmented maximal insulin release response to glucose. The effect of priming with glucose was seen irrespective of whether the pancreatic tissue was obtained from fed or fasted rats. Separating the two pulses of hexose by a 60-min time interval of exposure to 3.3 mM glucose did not abolish the potentiation of the second pulse. Omission of Ca++ as well as the inclusion of somatostatin or mannoheptulose during the first pulse abolished insulin secretion during this time period; however, only the inclusion of mannoheptulose deleted the potentiation of the second pulse. d-Glyceraldehyde, but not pyruvate, d-galactose, or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, could substitute for glucose in inducing potentiation.
Valdemar Grill, Ulf Adamson, Erol Cerasi
Bone marrow cells from two glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) heterozygotes with polycythemia vera were cultured to determine whether progenitors which wre not of the polycythemia vera clone were present, and, if present, which cell lines contributed to the increase in erythroid colonies observed in response to added erythropoietin (ESF). To accomplish this, the G-6-PD isoenzyme activity of individual erythroid colonies was determined. All of the erythroid colonies analyzed in cultures without added ESF, contained the G-6-PD isoenzyme type characteristic of the abnormal clone. With higher ESF concentrations in the culture, however, there was an increase in the colonies that were not of the polycythemia vera clone. Analysis of the ratio of the various types of colonies indicated that normal and polycythemia vera cells are capable of responding to ESF in vitro. In selected patients, this technique permits analysis of the ratios of normal to abnormal cells during the course of the disease, in response to therapy and during late complications, such as myelofibrosis or leukemic transformation.
J F Prchal, J W Adamson, S Murphy, L Steinmann, P J Fialkow
The effects of coronary artery reperfusion at 1 and 3 h after occlusion on infarct size (IS) in the conscious dog were compared with a second group of dogs that were not reperfused (24 h occlusion). Infarct size was calculated from creatine kinase (CK) appearing in blood samples (ISs) and myocardial CK depletion (ISm), and determined from gross and histological inspection of the pathological tissue (ISp). Under both conditions, ISm correlated well with ISp. In dogs with 24-h coronary occlusions, ISs correlated well with ISm (ISs = 14.26 + 1.18 × ISm, r = 0.92). In reperfused dogs, the relationship remained linear but was altered (ISs = 15.33 + 2.07 × ISm, r = 0.89). The slope was significantly greater, P <0.05, than that observed for dogs that were not reperfused, suggesting that more CK appeared in serum per gram of infarct. Similarly, significantly different relationships were observed in the reperfused and nonreperfused dogs, when ISs was compared with ISp. Moreover, the configuration of the serial blood CK curve was changed significantly by reperfusion. In dogs with a 24-h occlusion, CK rose gradually to a peak at 11.4±0.5 h. In dogs reperfused at 3 h, CK rose sharply at 3 h and reached a peak at 6.8±0.5 h, significantly earlier (P <0.01) than occurred in dogs reperfused at 1 h, i.e., when the peak occurred at 4.2±0.4 h. The rapid appearance of CK in blood after reperfusion at 1 and 3 h suggested a washout phenomena. Thus, reperfusion alters the shape of the serial blood CK curve and results in a different linear relationship between calculated and measured infarct size, resulting in greater recovery of CK in blood per unit of infarcted myocardium.
Stephen F. Vatner, Hank Baig, W. Thomas Manders, Peter R. Maroko
Morphologic and biochemical studies indicate that the initial action of insulin is binding to a cell surface receptor. Whether further translocation of the hormone, or a product of the hormone, occurs is unclear and has not been investigated by direct means. To determine the fate of 125I-insulin bound to its receptor, we have examined the distribution of radioactivity by quantitative electron microscopic autoradiography. Cultured lymphocytes of the IM-9 cell line were incubated with 0.1 nM 125I-insulin at 15 degrees and 37 degreesC for incubation periods extending from 2 to 90 min. At 15 degreesC, grains localize to the plasma membane and there is no translocation as a function of time. At 37 degreesC, grains predominantly localize to the plasma membrane but there is a small shift in distribution to a distance of 300-700 nm from the plasma membrane. This small additional band component of irradiation extends to approximately to10--15% of the cell radius. When a morphometric analysis is applied to grains extending 300 nm and beyond from the plasma membrane, we find no preferential localization to any intracellular organelle. We interpret these data to indicate that in the cultured lymphocyte, labeled insulin initially localizes to the plasma membrane but as fuanction of time and increasing temperature there is a small but definite translocation of the hormone or a product of the hormone to a hihgly limited aea of the cell periphery.
J L Carpentier, P Gorden, M Amherdt, E Van Obberghen, C R Kahn, L Orci
Immune function in two brothers with a deficiency of purine nucleoside phosphorylase was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Both patients had a history of recurrent infections and profound lymphopenia. Studies of cell-mediated immunity revealed an absence of delayed cutaneous reactivity to a number of antigens, including dinitrochlorobenzene, and significantly reduced lymphocyte proliferative responses to nonspecific mitogens, specific antigen, and allogeneic cells. E-rosetting cells were present but reduced in number (20.0% and 31.5%). Serum immunoglobulin levels, percentages of circulating immunoglobulin-and C3-receptor-bearing B cells, as well as the ability to produce antibody in response to specific antigen in vivo were normal. Moreover, studies of the in vitro induction of specific IgM antibody delineated the presence of T-helper and T-regulator cells. The normal induction of bone marrow precursor T-cell maturation by human thymic epithelium-conditioned medium or thymosin suggested that the initial stages of T-cell generation were intact in these patients. Attempts to reconstitute the in vitro proliferative response with a variety of reagents, including purine nucleoside phosphorylase itself, were unsuccessful. Selective impairment of certain aspects of T-cell function in these patients and a less severe clinical picture than previously described may be explained by the presence of a partial deficiency of nucleoside phosphorylase activity and incomplete block of purine catabolism.
Erwin W. Gelfand, Hans-Michael Dosch, W. Douglas Biggar, Irving H. Fox
Stimulation of guinea pig granolocytes by digitonin results in superoxide (O-2) generation. A continuous assay shows that there is a lag between the addition of digitonin and the onset of O-2 production. The rate of activation of the O-2 generating system is dependent upon the concentration of digitonin and the temperature. The final linear rate of O-2 production is affected by the concentration of digitonin, temperature, pH, and the presence of exogenous reduced pyridine nucleotides. Thus, factors which alter either the activation process or the activity of the O-2 generating system can affect O-2 production by stimulated granolocytes.
H J Cohen, M E Chovaniec
N-ethylmaleimide, divalent cations, ethylene glycol bis (β aminoethyl ether) N,N,N′,N′,-tetraacetate, 2-deoxyglucose, cyanide, and dinitrophenol were examined for their effect on the ability of guinea pig granulocytes to generate superoxide (O2−) when stimulated by digitonin. N-ethylmaleimide (1 mM) inhibits only when added before complete activation of the O2− generating system, and at lower concentrations (0.05-0.2 mM) slows the activation process. Ca++ is required for maximum O2− generation, and Mg++ decreases the amount of Ca++ required. Ethylene glycol bis (β aminoethyl ether) N,N,N′,N′,-tetraacetate (10 mM) inhibits only if added before complete activation. Incubation of cells in 2-DOG causes a time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of O2− generation. It also increases the time required for activation of this system. Cyanide and dinitrophenol increase the rate of O2− production. However, when these compounds are added to cells whose O2− production is partially inhibited by incubation in 2-deoxyglucose, complete inhibition results. If cyanide or dinitrophenol is added after activation of 2-deoxyglucose-treated cells, no further inhibition occurs. On the basis of the above results, we conclude that the activation of the O2− generating system is N-ethylmaleimide sensitive, Ca++ dependent, and energy requiring, but that the activity of the enzyme system in the cell is not.
Harvey J. Cohen, Margaret E. Chovaniec
The erythrocyte membrane protein pattern of patients with megaloblastic anemia was determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate. In severe megaloblastic anemia, secondary either to folic acid or vitamin B12 deficiency, the erythrocyte membrane protein pattern was grossly abnormal, lacking bands 1, 2 (spectrin), and 3 and having several diffuse, faster migrating bands. After adequate vitamin replacement therapy, the erythrocyte membrane protein pattern returned to normal. In mild megaloblastic anemia, secondary either to folic acid of vitamin B12 deficiency, and in severe iron deficiency anemia, the erythrocyte membrane protein pattern was normal. Erythrocyte membrane protein pattern of normal membranes did not change after mixing with abnormal membranes before polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate. Protease activity extracted from membranes of megalocytes was not different from normal. These findings indicate that the erythrocyte membrane protein pattern is abnormal in severe megaloblastic anemia and that this abnormality is not secondary to increased activity of the endogenous erythrocyte membrane proteinase.
S K Ballas
We have studied the platelet release reaction and thrombin generation during the spontaneous clotting of whole blood in vitro. Both thrombin formation and secretion of platelet Factor 4 were detected at least 12 min before clotting (clotting time, 22--26 min). Initially, at low thrombin concentrations (2--5 ng/ml), there is a small increase in plasma platelet Factor 4 (less than 1% of the amount present in serum). This is followed by a gradual increase in both platelet Factor 4 and thrombin concentrations over a 12 to 20-min interval. Finally, 5 min 5 before clotting, there is a rapid increase in both thrombin generation and platelet secretion. Thus, we have shown that the release of platelet Factor 4 is a prolonged reactoin and the extent to which it occurs parallel thrombin generation. It is only when thrombin concentrations are high (45--90) ng/ml)--during the period of clot formation--that the major part of platelet Factor 4 secretion occurs. Release of platelet Factor 4, like fibrin formation, occurs in the last step of in vitro coagulation.
M A Shuman, S P Levine
The immunogenicity and safety of two polysaccharides isolated from type III, group B Streptococcus, were tested in adults selected for existing low concentrations of natural antibody to the capsular polysaccharide of this organism. Both vaccine preparations (trichloroacetic acid and EDTA) were found to lack pyrogenicity and toxicity for experimental animals. A single 50-microgram subcutaneous injection of either polysaccharide in human subjects elicited significant increase in antibody concentration in immunized compared with control individuals receiving phosphate-buffered saline. Antibody responses were maximal by 2 wk and remained at 21 wk after immunization. Vaccine-induced antibody was primarily of the IgG class. Of the two vaccines, the larger molecular size polysaccharide was significantly more immunogenic. Although no systemic reactions were recorded, mild transient local reactions occurred in 45% of vaccinees.
C J Baker, M S Edwards, D L Kasper