Human monocytes synthesized the third component of complement (C3) up to 5 wk in vitro. Evidence for net C3 synthesis was based on (a) incorporation of 14C-labeled amino acids into C3 protein, (b) indentity of the allotype of C3 produced in vitro with that of the doner's serum C3, even in the presence of carrier C3 protein of a different allotype; (c) correspondence of electrophoretic mobility, size, and subunit structure of C3 protein produced in vitro with serum C3; (d) inhibition of C3 production with cycloheximide. Monocytes from two unrelated C3-deficient patients were studied under conditions that supported C3 synthesis by normal monocytes. Serum from each of the patients contained less than 1% of the normal C3 concentration, buth their monocytes produced C3 at approximately equal to 25% of the normal rate when studied after 2 wk in vitro. The C3 produced in vitro by monocytes from one of the patients had the molecular weight of normal serum C3 and dissociated appropriately under reducing conditions. Monocytes from C3-deficient patients could not be distinguished from normals on the basis of morphology, rosetting with C3-coated erythrocytes, or rates of C2, and total protein synthesis.
L P Einstein, P J Hansen, M Ballow, A E Davis 3rd, J S Davis 4th, C A Alper, F S Rosen, H R Colten
Bilirubin pigments were studied in the bile of 20 normal adults, 25 patients with Gilbert's syndrome, 9 children with Crigler-Najjar disease, and 6 patients with hemolysis, to determine how a deficiency of hepatic bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase would affect the end products of bilirubin biotransformation.
Johan Fevery, Norbert Blanckaert, Karel P. M. Heirwegh
The response of chick intestine to vitamin D and its metabolites was studied in an organ culture preparation of chick ileum explants. Both 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD3) at a concentration of 20 ng/ml or greater and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25-(OH)2D3] at a concentration of 50 pg/ml or greater stimulated the rate of accumulation of [32P]phosphate and 45Ca by the explants and the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA. The accumulation of [32P]phosphate by the explants was against a concentration gradient and inhibited by ouabain and dinitrophenol. Two saturable mechanisms appeared to mediate the cellular accumulation of phosphate with Ka of 0.0047 and 0.125 mM, respectively. The Vmax of the lower affinity transport mechanism was accelerated by 1,25-(OH)2D3. Actinomycin D (5.0 μg/ml) did not block the intestinal response to 1,25-(OH)2D3 stimulation of both [32p]phosphate and 45Ca accumulation. Significant stimulation of [32P]phosphate accumulation was observed 30 min after the addition of 1,25-(OH)2D3, preceding the sterol-induced increase in the rate of 45Ca uptake by 30 min and the sterol-induced increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA by 150 min. Increasing extracellular phosphate concentration to 3.0 mM increased [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA and the rate of 45Ca uptake by the explants. Reducing extracellular phosphate concentration to 0.05 mM attenuated the response of the explants to 1,25-(OH)2D3. From these observations it is postulated that the primary action of vitamin D sterols in the intestine is to enhance the ability of the mucosal cell to accumulate phosphate. The data suggest that restoration of intracellular phosphate levels may then permit expression of the cells' response to vitamin D sterols.
Stanley J. Birge, Ruth Miller
We have histocompatibility (HLA) genotyped 24 families with two or more juvenile, insulin-dependent, ketosis-prone diabetic siblings. This criterion for family selection was used to obtain a homogeneous form of diabetes within a sibship, because diabetes appears to be a genetically heterogeneous disease. 58 diabetic and 53 nondiabetic sibs and 40 parents were studied. 55% of the diabetic pairs were concordant for both HLA haplotypes (expected 25%), 40% were concordant for one haplotype (expected 50%), and 5% were discordant for both haplotypes (expected 25%). These values are significantly different from the expected values (P < 0.001). On the other hand, the inheritance of haplotypes among the nondiabetic sibs in these families was not significantly different from the expected mendelian segregation.
Jose Barbosa, Richard King, Harriet Noreen
The release of human platelet constituents by the etiologic agent of gout, the monosodium urate crystal, is described here. In suspensions of washed platelets, response to urate crystals proceeded in two phases: A secretory phase involved the rapid active release of serotonin, ATP, and ADP with little loss of lactic dehydrogenase or beta-glucuronidase. A lytic phase involved the slower loss of all platelet constituents. Both phases were inhibited by iodoacetate plus dinitrophenol, suggesting an energy requirement. In ultrastructural studies, lysis of washed platelets which appeared to contain crystals was seen. Urate crystals were also shown to induce serotonin release and platelet lysis in citrated platelet-rich plasma. Since urate crystals are deposited at a variety of sites, urate crystal-platelet interaction in vivo is a possibility. Such interactions, leading to release of platelet constituents, might contribute to gouty inflammation or to enhanced atherogenesis.
M H Ginsberg, F Kozin, M O'Malley, D J McCarty
Studies were performed to determine whether glycine peptides of four or more glycine residues can be transported by the peptide carrier system, previously shown to transport diglycine and triglycine. When human jejunum was perfused with tetraglycine solutions, the rate of tetraglycine disappearance increased linearly as the concentration was increased over the range of 12.5-50 mM, however, the rate was slow in comparison to diglycine and triglycine disappearance rates.
Siamak A. Adibi, Emile L. Morse
Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase induction was studied in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes and pulmonary alveolar macrophages from 15 smokers and 8 nonsmokers with a variety of pulmonary diseases. Enzyme levels in lymphocytes from cigarette smokers cultured in medium without an inducing agent were 57±6 mU/106 cells (mean±SEM), while enzyme levels in lymphocytes from nonsmokers were 20±2 mU/106 cells (P < 0.001). When lymphocytes were cultured in the presence of the inducing agent, benzo-(a)anthracene, enzyme activity was increased to 168±23 mU/106 cells in smokers' cells and 99±22 mU/106 cells in lymphocytes from nonsmokers (P < 0.04). When noninduced enzyme values in cultured macrophages were compared, smokers' cells had enzyme levels of 45±5 mU/106 cells, whereas nonsmokers had enzyme activity of 24±2 mU/106 cells (P < 0.002). However, pulmonary macrophages from smokers or nonsmokers, cultured in the presence of benzo(a)-anthracene, had similar levels of induced enzyme activity (P > 0.1). A positive correlation was observed for nonsmokers (r = 0.596, P > 0.1 <0.2) or smokers (r = 0.640, P < 0.04), when enzyme values for noninduced cultures of macrophages and lymphocytes from individual patients were simultaneously compared. Enzyme values for macrophages and lymphocytes cultured in the presence of an inducer also revealed a positive correlation for individual smokers (r = 0.801, P < 0.001) or nonsmokers (r = 0.785, P < 0.01). Inducibility (expressed as fold-induction) for macrophages and lymphocytes from individual patients was also positively correlated (r = 0.889, P < 0.001 for nonsmokers and r = 0.942, P < 0.001 for smokers). These results indicate that the capacity for aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase induction is similar whether tested in lymphocytes or pulmonary macrophages from this group of pulmonary disease patients.
Theodore L. McLemore, R. Russell Martin, Kenneth L. Toppell, David L. Busbee, Elroy T. Cantrell
In this study a large family group affectd with Tangier disease has been investigated. Besides two homozygous propositi, several heterozygous patients have been identified on the basis of quantitative measurements of high density lipoproteins and their constitutive polypeptides. By a variety of quantitative immunological methods, such as one-dimensional Laurell eletrophoresis, two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis, and double-antibody radioimmunoassay, the total amount of apoprotein A-I and apoprotein A-I contained in the serum of heterozygous patients and the distribution of these A apoproteins among serum lipoproteins have been determined. The molar ration of apoprotein A-I and apoprotein A-II contained in high density lipoproteins of heterozygous patients did not significantly differ from that of control preparations, although the total mass of high density lipoproteins was reduced by approximately 50%. The elution profile of high density lipoproteins from agarose columns and their morphological appearance, as ascertained by electron microscopy, were similar to control preparations. In addition to the quantitative alterations of serum lipoproteins, lipid storage in histiocytes of the rectal mucosa obtained from heterozygous patients has been documented. It is concluded that patients heterozygous for Tangier disease have normal high density lipoproteins in circulation, the total mass of which is reduced by approximately 50%.
G Assmann, O Simantke, H E Schaefer, E Smootz
We studied the synthesis and secretion of alpha-2-macroglobulin by cultures of human adherent cells. Much more alpha-2-macroglobulin (measured by radioimmunoassay) accumulated in media of established strains of adherent cells derived from embryonic lung than in media of established strains derived from adult skin or rheumatoid synovium. Alpha-2-macroglobulin accumulated in media of primary cultures of adherent cells from a variety of embryonic tissues. However, the amount of alpha-2-macroglobulin accumulating in media of subsequent passage of these cells declined for all strains except those derived from lung. Immunodiffusion and double-antibody immunoprecipitation studies of cell extracts and media after incubation of cells with l-[35S]methionine supported the radioimmunoassay finding that adherent cells from lung synthesized and secreted more alpha-2-macroglobulin than adherent cells from skin. Intracellular alpha-2-macroglobulin could not be detected by radio-immunoassay or visualized by immunofluorescent microscopy, suggesting that synthesized alpha-2-macroglobulin is rapidly secreted. Plasminogen-rich fibrin clots were lysed in culture media of adherent cells from embryonic lung and, to a lesser extent, heart. Adherent cells from other tissues, which produced less alpha-2-macroglobulin, did not lyse fibrin clots. However, all cultures of adherent cells contained pericellular fibronectin, a large, external, transformation-sensitive glycoprotein known to be cleaved by plasmin. We speculate that production of alpha-2-macroglobulin may be a means for protease-secreting normal cells to preserve cell surface integrity and that alpha-2-macroglobulin synthesized locally in lung may protect lung tissues from a variety of proteases.
Deane F. Mosher, Olli Saksela, Antti Vaheri
Oncogenic osteomalacia is a syndrome in which unexplained osteomalacia remits after resection of a coexisting mesenchymal tumor. We have investigated the mechanism by which a giant cell tumor of bone caused biopsy-proved osteomalacia in a 42-yr-old woman. The biochemical abnormalities were: hypophosphatemia; decreased renal tubular maximum for the reabsorption of phosphate per liter of glomerular filtrate; negative calcium and phosphorus balance; hyperaminoaciduria; and subnormal calcemic response to exogenously administered parathyroid hormone. Malabsorption, hypophosphatasia, fluorosis, and acidosis were excluded as causes of the osteomalacia. Serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol was normal (27±1 ng/ml). However, the serum concentration of 1α,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol was low (1.6±0.1 ng/100 ml). Oral administration of physiological amounts of 1α,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol resulted in resolution of the biochemical abnormalities of the syndrome and healing of the bone pathology. We suggest that tumor-induced inhibition of 1α,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol synthesis caused the osteomalacia. The causal role of the tumor was proved by demonstrating that resection was accompanied by roentgenographic evidence of bone healing and maintenance of normal serum phosphorus; renal tubular maximum for the reabsorption of phosphate; calcium and phosphorus balance; aminoaciduria; and calcemic response to exogenous parathyroid hormone.
Marc K. Drezner, Mark N. Feinglos
We have shown previously that periodate oxidation of collagen carbohydrate does not affect its ability to aggregate platelets. We now describe an additional characterization of periodate-modified collagen which demonstrates that collagen devoid of intact carbohydrate is fully capable of fibril formation, and we confirm its capacity to initiate platelet aggregation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the platelet aggregating abilities of Types I, II, and III fibrillar collagen are quite similar despite differences in carbohydrate content and amino acid sequence. We also demonstrate that monomeric, pepsin-solubilized Type I human collagen is ineffective inhibiting aggregation by performed fibrils derived from the same molecule, thus establishing that the affinity of platelets for collagen depends upon prior polymerization of collagen. We interpret these and other findings to demonstrate that the hydroxylysyl glycoside regions of collagen are not highly specific sites involved in platelet-collagen interactions leading to "physiological" aggregation, and that the possibility must be considered that multiple interactions involving collagen sites of comparatively low structural specificity may be the initiating events in release of platelet ADP and the ensuing aggregation.
S A Santoro, L W Cunningham
The serum of a 44-yr-old woman of French-Canadian descent having a B-27 positive ankylosing spondylitis was deficient in the seventh component of complement (C7) as determined by hemolytic and immunochemical methods. No inhibitor against C7 was detected, and the levels of all other complement components were normal. No deficiency in the opsonic activity of the serum was found, and the results of basic coagulation studies of the plasma were normal. On investigation of the patient's family, two sisters were found to have the same deficiency but were otherwise in good health. The seven other siblings were heterozygous for C7 deficiency, while the paternal aunt had a normal C7 level. In the third generation, six children of the three homozygous sisters and five children of heterozygotes were available for testing. Studies of the HLA antigens in all the 22 subjects and in three spouses indicated no close linkage between the CM deficienty and the HLA system. In addition, the simultaneous occurrence of two hereditary complement deficiencies (C2 and C7) was discovered in one family of this remarkable kindred.
J M Delâge, P Bergeron, J Simard, G Lehner-Netsch, E Prochazka
Although human antibodies to Factor VIII inactivate its procoagulant activity, they do not form immunoprecipitates when tested with this antigen. To understand this observation, we have examined the interaction of normal human Factor VIII with four high-titer human anti-Factor VIII, two from transfused hemophiliacs and two “spontaneous” antibodies from nonhemophilic individuals. An estimate of the size of complexes formed by these antibodies has been obtained by agarose gel filtration of mixtures of anti-Factor VIII with cryoprecipitate. Complexed anti-Factor VIII was detected by the method of Allain and Frommel: acid dissociation of complexes at pH 3.5.
John Lazarchick, Leon W. Hoyer
Inheritance plays an important role in the determination of human plasma dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH) enzymatic activity. It has been demonstrated that an allele (d) for very low enzymatic plasma DBH is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. A radioimmunoassay for human DBH was developed to test the hypothesis that the presence of this allele results in a decrease in plasma DBH protein levels. The mean immunoreactive DBH (IDBH) in blood from a randomly selected population of adolescents was 824±38 ng/ml (mean±SEM, n = 134). The correlation coefficient of enzymatic DBH with IDBH for this group of 134 adolescents was 0.84 (P < 0.001). Of these subjects, 3.7% had values of < 100 ng/ml and appeared to compose a separate subgroup analogous to the 3-4% of the population that is homozygous for the allele for low enzymatic activity. There was a significant sibling-sibling correlation of IDBH values in the 14 sibling pairs included among the 134 subjects studied (r = 0.60, P < 0.025). IDBH was also measured in blood from 56 subjects homozygous (dd) for the allele for low enzymatic DBH (enzymatic activity < 50 U/ml) and in blood of 80 first-degree relatives of homozygous probands. All but two dd subjects had IDBH levels of <100 ng/ml. Results of family studies were compatible with the autosomal recessive inheritance of an allele for IDBH levels of less than 100 ng/ml which segregates with the allele for very low enzymatic activity. Average IDBH in blood of 37 obligate heterozygotes as determined by family studies (Dd) was 599±53 ng/ml (mean ± SEM), significantly lower than the IDBH values found in a randomly selected population (P < 0.005). These results are compatible with the conclusion that the presence of the allele for low plasma enzymatic DBH results in a decrease in the quantity of DBH protein in human plasma.
Joel Dunnette, Richard Weinshilboum
We recently presented data showing that mannose-6-phosphate was a potent competitive inhibitor of pinocytosis of human platelet beta-glucuronidase, and that treatment of "high-uptake" forms of the enzyme with alkaline phosphatase destroyed the high-uptake property of the enzyme without diminishing its catalytic activity. These data indicate that phosphate is a necessary component of the recognition marker on the enzyme for pinocytosis by human fibroblasts, and suggest that the phosphate on high-uptake forms of the enzyme is present as a phosphohexosyl moiety. Results presented here show that mannose-6-phosphate is also a potent inhibitor of pinocytosis of the following enzyme preparations: (a) beta-glucuronidase from human spleen, liver, placenta, and urine; (b) beta-hexosaminidase and beta-galactosidase from human platelets; (c) beta-hexosaminidase from human fibroblast secretions. Alkaline phosphatase treatment of all these enzymes except beta-galactosidase, which was unstable to the incubation conditions and could not be tested, greatly diminished the uptake activity of the enzymes without diminishing their catalytic activity. These results suggest that phosphohexosyl recognition is a general characteristic of pinocytosis of lysosomal glycosidases.
A Kaplan, D Fischer, D Achord, W Sly
Autoantibodies to the insulin receptor have been detected in the sera of several patients with the Type B syndrome of insulin resistance and acanthosis nigricans. In this study we have used three of these sera (B-1, B-2, and B-3) as probes of the insulin receptor in isolated rat adipocytes. Preincubation of adipocytes with each of the three sera resulted in an inhibition of subsequent [125I]insulin binding. 50% inhibition of binding occurred with serum dilutions of 1:5 to 1:7,500. As in our previous studies with other tissues, Scatchard analysis of the insulin-binding data was curvilinear consistent with negative cooperativity. Computer analysis suggested that in each case the inhibition of binding was due to a decrease in receptor affinity rather than a change in available receptor number.
C. Ronald Kahn, Kathleen Baird, Jeffrey S. Flier, David B. Jarrett
We measured steady-state lung lymph flow, lymph protein flow, and simultaneous pulmonary vascular pressures in 12 1-wk-old unanesthetized lambs and compared these measurements to those of previous studies, performed under similar conditions, on nine awake adult sheep. The purpose of these experiments was to compare newborn and adult sheep with respect to transvascular filtration of fluid and microvascular permeability to plasma proteins. We prepared the lambs surgically to isolate and collect lung lymph and measure average pulmonary arterial and left atrial pressures, allowing at least 2 days for the lambs to recover from surgery before studies began. Lambs had higher pulmonary arterial and left atrial pressures, lower lymph and plasma protein concentrations, and 57% more lymph flow per gram of dry bloodless lung than sheep; the difference in protein flow between lambs and sheep was not significant. Protein concentration in lymph relative to that in plasma was significantly lower in lambs than in sheep; but the ratio of albumin concentration to globulin concentration in both lymph and plasma was almost identical in the two groups of animals. Extravascular lung water per gram of dry bloodless lung was greater in lambs (4.82±0.11 g) than in sheep (4.45±0.08 g), but there was no histologic evidence of pulmonary edema in either group of animals. These findings suggest that lambs have more transvascular filtration of fluid per unit lung mass than sheep, but that microvascular sites for protein exchange do not differ appreciably in lambs and sheep. To test this conclusion, we measured steady-state lymph flow in three lambs before and after raising pulmonary microvascular pressure by rapid intravenous infusion of saline. Lymph flow increased as a function of the net transvascular driving pressure (hydraulic pressure gradient—protein osmotic pressure gradient). This response was almost identical to that of four sheep with pulmonary microvascular pressure augmented by inflation of a balloon in the left atrium. In eight lambs we measured the time for intravenously injected 125I-albumin to equilibrate in lymph at half the specific activity of plasma: the protein tag equilibrated faster than in sheep. This difference could be explained partly by the higher pulmonary arterial and left atrial pressures of lambs than sheep, and possibly by the presence of more microvascular sites for protein exchange relative to the volume of distribution of protein in the lung of the younger animals.
Richard D. Bland, Douglas D. McMillan
The in vitro cytotoxic function and target cell specificity of peripheral blood lymphocytes from selected patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and hepatitis B surface antigen-negative chronic hepatitis were investigated using 51Cr-labeled human Chang and EL-4 mouse sarcoma cell targets in assays of spontaneous cell-mediated cytotoxicity (SCMC) and mitogen-induced cellular cytotoxicity (MICC). In addition, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against Chang cells was assessed. At an effector-to-target cell ration of 100:1, the mean SCMC against Chang cells was much less in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis than that in either the controls (P less than 0.001) or the patients with chronic hepatitis (P less than 0.005) whereas the value for patients with chronic hepatitis did not differ significantly from that of the controls. The mean SCMC against EL-4 mouse sarcoma cells was also less in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis than in controls (P less than 0.005) whereas the value for chronic hepatitis was not significantly different from that of the controls or patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. In contrast, MICC against both targets and ADCC against Chang cells were similar for each group. Comparison of SCMC and MICC against both target cells, measured simultaneously, showed similar cytotoxic potenital against both target cells for each group. Effector cells capable of mediating cytotoxicity in each assay were defined by testing the cytotoxic function of lymphocyte subpopulations isolated from two representative patients with each disease using techniques of immunoabsorbent affinity chromatography and Fc receptor binding to antigen-antibody complexes. In both primary biliary cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis SCMC and ADCC were mediated by a subpopulation of lymphocytes which lack surface immunoglobulin (sIg-) and bear Fc receptors (Fc+). In contrast, MICC was mediated by sIg- cells which lack Fc receptors. Lymphocytes bearing sIg- were not cytotoxic in any assay. These results establish a difference in cytotoxic function in primary biliary cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis by defining the presence of a defect in spontaneous cytotoxic function of sIg-, Fc+ lymphocytes against Chang cells in primary biliary cirrhosis.
J M Vierling, D L Nelson, W Strober, D M Bundy, E A Jones
Experimental thrombocytopenia results in endothelial alterations associated with bleeding. In this study prednisone was shown to prevent or reverse these changes, which supports the clinical inference that adrenocorticosteroids decrease capillary fragility in thrombocytopenia. Rabbits (3-4 kg), intraperitoneally injected with busulfan, developed 98-99% reductions in platelet count and hemorrhaged profusely. Orally administered prednisone (0.2 mg/kg or 1.0 mg/kg daily) reduced bleeding despite persistent thrombocytopenia. Tongue biopsies obtained after 3 days of prednisone treatment were examined by electron microscopy. Normal rabbits served as controls. 25 consecutive capillaries or venules from each of four animals in the control group and each of five experimental groups were examined for fenestrations, “thin spots” (<800 A thick), and mean wall thickness as determined by planimetry. Vessels from control animals had no thin spots or fenestrations, and the mean vessel wall thickness was 4,254±105 A SEM. The 100 vessels from the thrombocytopenic animals had a mean vessel wall thickness of 2,081±218 A (P < 0.001), and 42 had thin spots of fenestrations. After administration of the smaller dosage of prednisone, the mean vessel wall thickness increased to 3,556±40 A (P < 0.001), and only nine vessels had thin spots or fenestrations. With the larger dosage, only six vessels had thin spots or fenestrations and the mean vessel wall thickness of this group increased to 3,704±206 A (P < 0.005). All preparations demonstrated normal endothelial junctions. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that the bleeding of thrombocytopenia is caused by altered capillary and venule endothelium and that diminished bleeding observed with prednisone administration results from amelioration of these endothelial changes.
Craig S. Kitchens
We measured plasma calcitonin concentrations in healthy volunteers (20 men, ages 23-45 yr, mean, 30 yr; 25 women, ages 21-46 yr, mean, 30 yr) with a radioimmunoassay capable of detecting 5 pg of calcitonin/500 μl incubation volume, or 25 pg/ml of unextracted plasma. All subjects had 4-h calcium infusion (15 mg Ca/kg), and 24 subjects had intravenous pentagastrin injection (0.5 μg/kg) on separate days. Men had higher basal plasma immunoreactive calcitonin concentrations than women (P < 0.001): mean, 49 pg/ml (range, <25-73) and 31 pg/ml (range, <25-51), respectively. 18 of the 20 men (90%) responded to induced hypercalcemia with increases in plasma immunoreactive calcitonin; only 14 of the 25 women (56%) responded. In men, the mean increase of plasma immunoreactive calcitonin±SE was 58±9 pg/ml, but for women was only 25±6 pg/ml. 8 of 10 men (80%) responded to pentagastrin with an increase of plasma immunoreactive calcitonin >30 pg/ml, compared with such a response in only 1 of 14 women (7%). These differences of plasma immunoreactive calcitonin responses between the sexes were statistically significant (calcium infusion, P < 0.02; pentagastrin, P < 0.001). The physiologic importance of these observations is unknown, but we speculate that a lifelong, relative deficiency of calcitonin in some women could play a role in age- and sex-related bone loss, particularly during the estrogen-deficient postmenopausal years.
Hunter Heath III, Glen W. Sizemore
Hypertension and tachycardia are well known features of acute porphyria and have been shown to be related to increased circulating catecholamines. The mechanism by which circulating catecholamines are increased was studied using the isolated perfused rat heart and human platelets as a model of adrenergic neuronal function. It was found that neither δ-aminolevulinate (ALA) nor porphobilinogen (PBG) blocked uptake or caused release in the isolated perfused rat heart. Platelets from six patients with acute prophyria, three in remission and three latent, with matching normal controls were studied with regard to their uptake of [3H]norepinephrine in the presence of ALA or PBG. It was found that ALA and PBG significantly reduced uptake and accumulation of [3H]-norepinephrine in patients with acute porphyria; however, no similar reduction in uptake and accumulation was observed in the platelets of normal controls. Therefore, it appears that there is a latent defect in the catecholamine uptake and (or) accumulation of platelets of patients with acute prophyria which only manifests itself in the presence of ALA or PBG. If platelet uptake serves as a model of adrenergic neuron uptake, this suggests that elevated circulating catecholamine levels during acute attacks of acute porphyria are caused at least partially by blockade of re-uptake into the sympathetic neurons.
M. Flint Beal, Nuzhet O. Atuk, Thomas C. Westfall, Suzanne M. Turner
The role of gonococcal antigens in serum bactericidal activity was determined for an isolate of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from a patient with disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI). Gonococcal outer membranes were purified by differential ultracentrifugation of sheared organisms treated with EDTA. The membranes were solubilized in an endotoxin-disaggregating buffer, and the proteins were separated from the endotoxin by molecular sieve chromatography. Chemical characterization of the endotoxin from the DGI strain revealed the presence of heptose (7.8% of carbohydrate composition) and 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate (6.1%, wt/wt) in concentrations similar to rough endotoxins of gram-negative enteric bacteria. Dermal Schwartzman reactions were positive for this endotoxin (4 μg) and the corresponding outer membrane (139 μg), but negative for the protein fraction (>500 μg). The patient's whole serum or the IgG fraction, each with complement, reduced the number of the infecting organisms by greater than 1 log10 in a bactericidal assay. Outer membrane and its protein and endotoxin fractions (0.8-500 μg) from the DGI strain were separately preincubated with the patient's convalescent serum and specific inhibition of bactericidal activity occurred with the endotoxin fraction (25 μg) and the outer membrane (100 μg); the protein (500 μg) exhibited no inhibition. Similar results were obtained by inhibiting the bactericidal activity of rabbit antiserum, prepared by intravenous inoculation of an isolate from a patient with pelvic inflammatory disease, with antigen purified from that strain. That this was specific immune inhibition and not anticomplementary activity was shown by the failure of these antigens to inhibit other complement-dependent bactericidal systems.
Peter A. Rice, Dennis L. Kasper
Erythrocytes coated with varying amounts of human complement were used to detect lymphocytes with complement receptors from normal subjects and patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The relationship between the percentage of lymphocytes rosetting and the quantity of C3 present on complement-coated erythrocytes were studied. Small quantities of C3 (less than 5 fg/erythrocyte) caused maximal rosetting of normal lymphocytes. Maximal rosetting with chronic lymphocytic leukemia lymphocytes was not reached until much greater amounts of C3 were used to coat the erythrocytes. This difference in sensitivity to erythrocyte-bound complement was not due to an increased fraction of complement receptor-bearing cells in the leukemic patients. This loss of sensitivity of the chronic lymphocytic leukemia lymphocyte for complement may play a role in the immune deficiency present in this disease.
G L Logue, H J Cohen
The effects of somatostatin and epinephrine have been studied with regard to glucose-induced insulin release and 45Ca++ uptake by rat pancreatic islets after 2 days in tissue culture and with regard to 45Ca++ efflux from islets loaded with the radio-isotope during the 2 days of culture. 45Ca++ uptake, measured simultaneously with insulin release, was linear with time for 5 min. 45Ca++ efflux and insulin release were also measured simultaneously from perifused islets.
Claes B. Wollheim, Masatoshi Kikuchi, Albert E. Renold, Geoffrey W. G. Sharp
The release of glucagon induced in isolated rat islets by arginine or by calcium deprivation has been subjected to combined functional and morphological quantifications. Arginine-stimulated glucagon release was associated with a significant increase of morphological events linked to exocytosis. By contrast, the paradoxical events linked to exocytosis. By contrast, the paradoxical release of glucagon provoked by calcium deprivation, although accompanied by a significant loss of granule stores, was not associated with an increase of morphologically detectable exocytosis.
J L Carpentier, F Malaisse-Lagae, W A Müller
Granulocytes collected by reversible adhesion to nylon wool fiber (NWF) function relatively well in standard in vitro tests; however, they have an abnormally shortened survival time in the circulation. Assuming that this rapid disappearance represents clearance and that recognition by phagocytes is important for such clearance, we used an autologous in vitro cell:cell recognition assay to determine whether phagocytes can detect cellular changes induced by exposure of normal granulocytes to NWF. Human granulocytes incubated with NWF 1 h at 37°C, eluted with 20% acid citrate dextrose plasma, and washed stimulated the hexose monophosphate shunt activity of normal granulocytes an average of twofold (193±40% of controls), indicating a recognition response. NWF-induced granulocyte recognition was not dependent on plasma factors or activated complement components but was dependent on the time that the granulocyte was on the NWF and was maximal by 60 min of exposure. After elution from NWF, granulocytes demonstrated resting glucose oxidation rates only slightly higher than normal; however, during the first 20 min of exposure to NWF, granulocytes increased their rate of 14CO2 production from [1-14C]glucose three- to five-fold. Therefore, experiments were performed to determine whether toxic oxygen metabolites produced by NWF-adherent cells might contribute to recognition. The results showed that (a) normal granulocytes exposed to NWF in the presence of scavengers of superoxide anion (superoxide dismutase) or free radicals (ascorbate, mannitol, or benzoate) and washed before assay did not stimulate glucose oxidation of indicator granulocytes; and (b) NWF granulocytes prepared from cells unable to generate high levels of toxic oxygen metabolites, i.e. cells prepared anaerobically or from a patient with chronic granulomatous disease, also failed to stimulate indicator granulocytes. Human granulocytes placed in contact with NWF show an oxidative burst and become recognizable to other phagocytes. Free radical scavengers are effective in minimizing this recognition conferred on NWF-procured granulocytes.
John C. Klock, Thomas P. Stossel
This study was designed to investigate the mechanisms involved in fibromusculoelastic lesion formation produced by selective de-endothelialization by the intra-arterial balloon catheter technique in thrombocytopenic rabbits. Thrombocytopenia was induced and maintained for up to 30 days by daily injections fo highly specific sheep anti-rabbit platelet sera (APS). Evidence for re-endothelialization was obtained by i.v. Evans blue dye 30 min before sacrifice. Rabbits received daily injections of APS, which reduced the mean platelet count to 5,600/cm3; control animals received identically treated normal sheep sera on the same schedule, and had mean daily platelet counts of 363,000/cm3. Evaluation of intimal thickness was assessed by counting cell layers in semithin sections. Intimal thickening in aortae from rabbits treated with APS was strikingly suppressed, in contrast to those from normal sheep sera-treated animals which showed a mean intimal thickness of 18 cell layers within 28 days often after de-endothelialization. Re-endothelialization was not affected by APS treatment. These results indicate that the proliferation of smooth muscle cells is dramatically inhibited by reduction of platelets.
R J Friedman, M B Stemerman, B Wenz, S Moore, J Gauldie, M Gent, M L Tiell, H Spaet
Kinetic data analysis was used to derive a six-compartment computer model which describes the in vivo [3H]25-hydroxyvitamin D3 ([3H]25-OHD3) metabolism in control and strontium rachitic chicks. Plasma concentrations of 25-OHD3 (13 pmol/ml) and 25, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (0.9 pmol/ml) were 18 and 125% greater than controls, respectively, whereas the corresponding level for 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (0.3 pmol/ml) was only 30% of control. Plasma disappearance of 25-HOD3 was fitted using a two-compartment model in which the metabolite extrapolated half-life was nearly twice as large for strontium rachitic chicks (71 compared to 41 h). Intestinal sequestration of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 was assumed to be irreversible and was fitted by a single exponential term in which metabolite uptake rate and tissue concentration in strontium rickets was suppressed to 20 and 10% of control, respectively. In contrast, uptake of 25-OHD3 by the intestine was observed to occur by a reversible process in which metabolite concentration was 45% greater in the strontium rachitic compared to control group. The developed compartment model accepts time-dependent control or perturbed metabolite data for the plasma and (or) intestinal pools and provides quantitative values for metabolite pool size, flux rate, and turnover time.
J L Omdahl, G Jelinek, R P Eaton
It has still not been shown unequivocally whether a decrement of arterial oxygen content or tension governs the ventilatory response to hypoxia. In an attempt to discriminate between the two possibilities, we have measured the ventilatory response to isocapnic progressive hypoxia in two healthy children with a high oxygen affinity hemoglobin (Hb Andrew-Minneapolis) and in their age- and sex-matched normal siblings. Hypoxic ventilatory response was identical in all subjects, there being no difference in minute ventilation at PAo2 = 40 mm Hg or in k (decrement of PO2 required to increase ventilation by a factor of 2.718). In contrast, at PAo2 = 40 mm Hg, hemoglobin oxygen saturation decreased markedly in controls but only slightly in high affinity subjects. Furthermore the increase in heart rate at PAo2 = 40 mm Hg was significantly less in high affinity subjects, suggesting a concomitant difference in oxygen delivery. Thus, with identical decrements in PAo2 but widely divergent changes in arterial oxygen content and oxygen delivery, controls and high affinity subjects showed virtually identical ventilatory response to hypoxia. We conclude that decrements of oxygen tension are the major stimulus for hypoxic ventilatory response.
R P Hebbel, R S Kronenberg, J W Eaton
The effects of gastrin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, secretin, and the octapeptide of pancreozymin-cholecystokinin on immunoreactive somatostatin release were studied in the isolated perfused dog pancreas. Gastrin at a concentration of 65 ng/ml and the octapeptide of pancreozymin-cholecystokinin at a concentration of 25 ng/ml produced a prompt, but transient statistically significant, twofold rise in mean somatostatin concentration. Secretion at a concentration of 0.3 U/ml and gastric inhibitory polypeptide concentration of 58 ng/ml produced a prompt two- to threefold rise in mean somatostatin release, which persisted throughout the perfusion period. With all four polypeptides the pattern of the somatostatin response resembled that of insulin. It appears that pancreatic somatostatin release is stimulated by gastrointestinal hormones that influence the secretion of insulin and glucagon.
E Ipp, R E Dobbs, V Harris, A Arimura, W Vale, R H Unger