Although hypercalcemia, osteoporosis, and increased bone turnover are associated with thyrotoxicosis, no direct effects of thyroid hormones on bone metabolism have been reported previously in organ culture. We have now demonstrated that prolonged treatment with thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3) can directly increase bone resorption in cultured fetal rat long bones as measured by the release of previously incorporated 45Ca. T4 and T3 at 1 muM to 10 nM increased 45Ca release by 10-60% of total bone 45Ca during 5 days of culture. The medium contained 4 mg/ml of bovine serum albumin to which 90% of T4 and T3 were bound, so that free concentrations were less than 0.1 muM. The response to T4 and T3 was inhibited by cortisol (1 muM) and calcitonin (100 mU/ml). Indomethacin did not inhibit T4 response suggesting that T4 stimulation of bone resorption was not mediated by increased prostaglandin synthesis by the cultured bone. Matrix resorption was demonstrated by a decrease in extracted dry weight and hydroxyproline concentration of treated bones and by histologic examination which also showed increased osteoclast activity. The effects of thyroid hormones were not only slower than those of other potent stimulators of osteoclastic bone resorption (parathyroid hormone, vitamin D metabolites, osteoclast activating factor, and prostaglandins), but the maximum response was not as great. We conclude that T4 and T3 can directly stimulate bone resorption in vitro at concentrations approaching those which occur in thyrotoxicosis. This effect may explain the disturbances of calcium metabolism seen in hyperthyroidism.
G R Mundy, J L Shapiro, J G Bandelin, E M Canalis, L G Raisz
The possibility that the autonomic nervous system may influence the function of intestinal mucosa was investigated by assessing the effect of acetyl choline on ion transport in human intestine. Isolated pieces of stripped ileal mucosa were mounted in Perspex flux-chambers and bathed in isotonic glucose Ringer's solution. Acetyl choline caused a rise in mean potential difference (8.8-12.3 mV, P less than 0.002) and short circuit current (287.7-417.2 muA-cm-2, P less than 0.01) (n = 12), observable at a concentration of 0.01 mM and maximal at 0.1 mM. This effect was enhanced by neostigmine and blocked by atropine. Isotopic flux determinations revealed a change from a small mean net Cl absorption (58) to a net Cl secretion (-4.3mueq-cm-2-h-1P less than 0.001) due predominantly to an increase in the serosal to mucosal unidirectional flux of Cl (10.63-14.35 mueq-cm-2-h-1P less than 0.05) and a smaller reduction in the mucosal to serosal flux (11.22 to 10.02 mueq-cm-2-h-1P less than 0.05). Unidirectional and net Na transport was unaffected. A similar electrical and ion transport response was observed in a single study of two pieces of jejunal mucosa. In the absence of glucose net chloride secretion was produced and again an insignificant effect on net sodium transport was noted. Acetyl choline did not provoke a sustained effect on mucosal cyclic adenine nucleotide levels although a short-lived cyclic adenine nucleotide response was seen in some tissues 20-30 s after drug addition. These studies demonstrate that acetyl choline does influence human intestinal ion transport by stimulating chloride secretion and suggest a possible mechanism by which the parasympathetic nervous system could be concerned in the control of ion transport.
P E Isaacs, C L Corbett, A K Riley, P C Hawker, L A Turnberg
Sulfite oxidase has been purified to near homogeneity from human liver. Properties of the molecule have been investigated and compared to those of the rat liver enzyme which has been isolated in a pure form. Both proteins exist as dimeric molecules with one molybdenum and one cytochrome b5-type heme per sub-unit. The human enzyme has a slightly larger subunit molecular weight (61,100 vs. 57,200 daltons) and is a more negatively charged molecule. Decreased reactivity of the human enzyme with various electron acceptors suggests the presence of nonfunctional molybdenum centers in a portion of the molecules isolated. Human liver sulfite oxidase cross-reacts strongly with antibody prepared against the rat liver enzyme. Human enzyme activity is precipitated by antibody at concentrations about twofold greater than required for comparable complexation of rat sulfite oxidase.
J L Johnson, K V Rajagopalan
Frozen liver tissue from an individual identified several years ago as sulfite oxidase deficient has been reexamined in light of new knowledge which has been obtained regarding the enzyme. It has been established that hepatic molybdenum levels and xanthine oxidase activity were within normal values and comparable to those observed in control samples preserved from the original study along with the deficient tissue sample. The ability of the patient's liver to synthesize the specific molybdenum cofactor required for activation of de-molybdo sulfite oxidase also appears to have been unimpaired. Using an antibody preparation directed against rat liver sulfite oxidase which also inhibits and precipitates the human enzyme, it has been determined that cross-reacting material with determinants recognized by inhibiting antibodies is absent in the liver sample from the deficient patient. Immunodiffusion experiments gave strong precipitin bands against the control liver extracts, but showed no detectable precipitin reaction between the deficient liver extract and the antibody preparation. The relationship of these findings to a second patient recently identified as sulfite oxidase deficient and to an animal model of the disease are discussed.
J L Johnson, K V Rajagopalan
The purpose of this study was to clarify the mechanism (s) responsible for regulation of ammonia production and excretion in the rabbit. The normally low ammonia excretion rate during acute metabolic acidosis was stimulated acutely and increased approximately ninefold after infusion of sodium phosphate, but remained low if sodium sulphate or Tris was substituted for phosphate. Ammonia production was increased significantly by phosphate in rabbit renal cortex slices and in isolated renal cortex mitochondria. In isolated mitochondria, mersalyl, an inhibitor of both the phosphate/hydroxyl and phosphate/dicarboxylate mitochondrial carriers, inhibited the phosphate-induced stimulation, indicating that phosphate must enter the mitochondrion for stimulation. A malate/phosphate exchange seemed to be involved since N-ethylmaleimide, an inhibitor of the phosphate/hydroxyl exchange, did not inhibit phosphate-stimulated ammonia production, whereas there was inhibition by 2-n-butylmalonate, a competitive inhibitor of the dicarboxylate carrier. Phosphate itself was not essential since malonate stimulated ammoniagenesis in the absence of added phosphate. Similarly, citrate stimulated ammoniagenesis in isolated mitochondria in the absence of inorganic phosphate provided that it induced L-malate exit on the citrate transporter associated with inhibition of citrate oxidation by fluoroacetate. Similar results were also seen in mitochondria from rat renal cortex. A fall in mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate level resulted in an increase in ammonia production. This could be achieved directly with malonate or indirectly via L-malate exit. Simultaneous measurements of glutamate showed that the rate of ammonia production was reciprocally related to the glutamate content. We conclude that phosphate-induced stimulation of ammoniagenesis in the rabbit kidney is mediated by removal of glutamate, the feedback inhibitor of phosphate-dependent glutaminase. Glutamate removal is linked to phosphate-induced dicarboxylate exit across the mitochondrial membrane.
H L Yu, R Giammarco, M B Goldstein, D J Stinebaugh, M L Halperin
To determine if both phases of glucagon secretion are excessive in diabetes, arginine was admimistered intravenously as pulses and as infusions to normal subjects, insulin-dependent diabetics, and noninsulin-requiring diabetics. The acute phase of glucagon secretion, in response to arginine pulses at four different doses (submaximal to maximal alpha-cell stimulating), was indistinguishable in terms of timing, peak levels attained, and total increments comparing controls and diabetics. During the first half of the arginine infusion (500 mg/kg over 30 min) the glucagon rise in controls and diabetics was similar (P greater than 0.1), whereas during the last half of the infusion excessive glucagon levels were seen in the diabetics. No difference in the glucagon responses to arginine administered as either a pulse or an infusion was observed between the two types of diabetics. The acute phase responses of insulin to intravenous, maximal stimulating doses of glucose (20 g) and arginine (2.5 g) were measured in five insulin-independent diabetics. Although the acute insulin response to arginine was normal, there was marked attentuation of the early beta-cell response upon stimulation by glucose. From these results we conclude that although in diabetes excessive glucagon levels are observed with chronic arginine stimulation, the acute phase of glucagon secretion in response to arginine is normal. In addition, the beta-cell in noninsulin-requiring diabetics, although acutely hyporesponsive to glucose, remains normally responsive to another stimulus, arginine.
J P Palmer, J W Benson, R M Walter, J W Ensinck
The ontogenesis of the hepatic glucagon-sensitive adenylate cyclase system has been studied in the rat. With a partially purified liver membrane preparation, fetal adenylate cyclase was less responsive to glucagon than the enzyme from neonatal or adult livers. Similar results were obtained in gently prepared liver homogenates, suggesting that destruction of essential components of the fetal liver membrane did not account for the relative unresponsiveness of the adenylate cyclase enzyme to glucagon. Investigation of other factors that might account for diminished fetal hepatic responsiveness to glucagon indicate (a) minimal glucagon degradation by fetal membranes relative to 8-day or adult tissue; and (b) available adenylate cyclase enzyme, as suggested by a 13-fold increase over basal cyclic AMP formation with NaF in fetal liver membranes. These results indicate that neither enhanced glucagon degradation nor adenylate cyclase enzyme deficiency accounts for the relative insensitivity of the fetal hepatic adenylate cyclase system to glucagon. In early neonatal life, hepatic adenylate cyclase responsiveness to glucagon rapidly developed and was maximal 6 days after birth. These changes were closely paralleled by a fivefold increase in glucagon binding and the kinetically determined Vmax for cyclic AMP formation. These observations suggest that (a) fetal hepatic unresponsiveness to glucagon may be explained by a limited number of glucagon receptor sites; (b) during the neonatal period, the development of glucagon binding is expressed primarily as an increase in adenylate cyclase Vmax; (c) the ontogenesis of hepatic responsiveness to glucagon may be important in the resolution of neonatal hypoglycemia.
F Vinicor, G Higdon, J F Clark, C M Clark Jr
Aldosterone receptors from rat kidney slices were utilized in a competitive binding technique to analyze the contribution of various steroids to plasma "mineralocorticoid" activity and to assess their possible role in hypertension. To consider simultaneously the plasma binding, steroids were incubated with slices in undiluted plasma; competitor activities for [3H]aldosterone binding were aldosterone, 100%; deoxycorticosterone, 16.2%; cortisol, 0.4%; and 18-hydroxy-deoxy-corticosterone and d18-hydroxy-corticosterone, 0.1%. These steroids were more active in buffer than plasma, suggesting that they bind to plasma and that this reduces their receptor binding. Analysis of the competition data suggests that at normal plasma concentrations, aldosterone occupies the receptors to a major extent, cortisol occupies some of the receptors, and deoxycorticosterone and 8-hydroxydeoxycorticosterone contribute little to receptor occupancy. Two steroids implicated in low-renin essential hypertension, 16beta-hydroxy-dehydro-epiandrosterone and 16-oxoandrostenediol, did not have significant competitor activity. Competitor activity in plasmas from normal subjects taken at 12 noon (upright) was greater than that in those taken at 8 a.m. (supine). Since the 12 noon samples had higher aldosterone and lower cortisol levels than the 8 a.m. samples, the competitor activity under these physiological circumstances reflects aldosterone more than cortisol. The competitor activities of plasmas from patients relative to normal subjects (100+/-12.1%; mean+/-SEM) were: normal renin "essential" hypertension, 117+/-14%; low-renin essential hypertension, 101+/-6.6%; and primary aldosteronism, 176+/-14.3%. Thus a significant increase in activity of steroids that interact with mineralocorticoid receptors was detected in primary aldosteronism (P LESS THAN 0.01) BUT WAS NOT DETECTED IN LOW-RENIN OR NORMAL-RENIN ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION.
J D Baxter, M Schambelan, D T Matulich, B J Spindler, A A Taylor, F C Bartter
A gel filtration fraction of urine from patients with chronic renal disease (natriuretic factor) has been shown previously to cause natriuresis in rats and to inhibit sodium transport in the isolated toad bladder. The effect of this fraction on transtubular potential difference and sodium transport was examined on the isolated perfused cortical collecting tubule of the rabbit. A rapid inhibition of potential difference from -22.5 mV to -12 mV (P less than 0.001) was observed when the fraction was applied to the peritubular surface. This effect was accompanied by a decrease in net sodium flux from 6.29 to 3.21 pmol/cm per s (P less than 0.001). Unidirectional fluxes using isotopic sodium revealed that the inhibition of net sodium transport was due to a decrease in flux from the lumen to the peritubular surface, i.e., an inhibition of active sodium transport. There was no change in sodium flux in the reverse direction. These changes were all rapidly reversed by removal of the fraction from the peritubular surface. The addition of the fraction to the lumen had no effect on potential difference or net sodium flux. Control studies using the same fraction from the urine of normal subjects had no effect on any of the parameters studies. Where both a uremic and a normal fraction were sequentially applied to the peritubular surface of the same tubule, inhibition of potential difference was obtained only with the former. In the light of evidence implicating the collecting duct fraction from normal animals, the data are consistent with the view that the natriuretic factor may be biologically important in the regulation of sodium balance via it's regulatory role in active sodium transport in the collecting tubule.
L G Fine, J J Bourgoignie, K H Hwang, N S Bricker
Type II hyperprolinemia is an inherited abnormality in amino acid metabolism characterized by elevated plasma proline concentrations, iminoglycinuria, and the urinary excretion of delta1-pyrroline compounds. To define the enzymologic defect of this biochemical disorder, we developed a specific, sensitive radioisotopic assay for the proline degradative enzyme delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase. Using this assay, we have shown an absence of delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase activity in the cultured fibroblasts from three patients with type II hyperprolinemia. We confirmed this result on cultured cells by demonstrating a similar absence of delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase activity in extracts prepared from the peripheral leukocytes of these patients. Additionally, we found significantly decreased levels of delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase activity in the leukocyte extracts from five obligate heterozygotes for type II hyperprolinemia. We also demonstrated a reduction in leukocyte delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase activity in three successive generations of a family. These results prove that an absence of delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase is the enzymologic defect in type II hyperprolinemia and that this defect is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion.
D Valle, S I Goodman, D A Applegarth, V E Shih, J M Phang
Studies utilizing in vitro microperfusion were designed to examine whether urea is actively or passively transported across superficial and juxtamedullary straight segments of rabbit proximal tubules. With perfusate and bath solutions containing 1 mM urea and electrolytes similar to normal plasma, the efflux (lumen-to-bath) isotopic permeability (X 10(-5) cm s-1) of superficial segments was 1.37 +/- 0.16 and of juxtamedullary segments was 2.14 +/- 0.20. In the same tubules, the influx (bath-to-lumen) isotopic permeability was 3.70 +/- 0.35 in superficial segments and 4.75 +/- 0.37 in juxtamedullary segments. Despite net water movement in the opposite direction (0.5 nl mm-1 min-1), the influx rate was significantly higher than the efflux rate of urea in both groups. With a low perfusion rate (2 nl/min) and equivalent specific activities of [14C]urea in bath and perfusate, the collected-to-perfused ratio of [14C]urea, corrected for volume marker change, was 1.07 +/- 0.01 in superficial and 1.09 +/- 0.01 in juxtamedullary nephrons, thus indicating net secretion in both segments. In separate studies urea influx was inhibited by hypothermia (decrease from 37 degrees to 28 degrees C), by phloretin (0.1 mM in bath), by cyanide (1 mM), but not by probenecid (0.2 mM). In each case the inhibition was highly significant and reversible. These data suggest that urea is actively secreted by the straight segments of both the superficial and juxtamedullary proximal tubules. These segments may, therefore, contribute significantly to the high urea concentration found at the bend of Henle's loop by micropuncture.
S Kawamura, J P Kokko
The possibility that lymphocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) might be sensitized to RA synovial cell antigens was investigated with a 51Cr release cytotoxicity assay. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from rheumatoid and normal donors were tested for cytotoxic activity against their own synovial cells and against allogeneic rheumatoid and nonrhemuatoid synovial cells. In the allogeneic studies, the degree of cytotoxicity was significantly influenced by the age in culture (passage number) of the synovial target cells (P less than 0.001). When the passage number of the target cells was considered in the analysis, rheumatoid lymphocytes were found to have greater cytotoxic activity than normal lymphocytes against young cultures (low passage number) of both RA and non-RA synovial cells (P = 0.0042). Differences in susceptibility to lysis between RA and non-RA synovial cells were more susceptible to both RA and normal lymphocyte-induced lysis than were non-RA synovial cells (P = 0.0048). No evidence of cytotoxicity was detected when lymphocytes from nine RA patients and two osteoarthritis patients were reacted against their own synovial cells. Although the data demonstrated an increased cytotoxic activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes from some RA patients against allogeneic synovial cells, the fact that this reactivity was seen against both non-RA and RA synovial cells and was not demonstrated against autologous synovial cells argues against the presence of an immunospecific response of RA lymphocytes to RA synovial cell antigens.
M M Griffiths, C B Smith, J R Ward, M R Klauber
Liquid test meals were infused into the stomach and acid secretion was measured by intragastric titration at pH 5.0 Acid secretion after 500 or 750-ml sodium chloride meals was two to three times higher than basal secretion rates and was equivalent to 25-30% of the peak acid output in response to histamine. Since these meals did not cause a rise in serum gastrin concentration, it is assumed that they stimulate acid secretion by causing distention of the body and fundus of the stomach. Compared with this distention stimulus, glucose meals had no effect on acid secretion and fat-inhibited acid secretion; however, both glucose and fat caused an increase in serum gastrin concentration. Amino acids caused a much greater increase in serum gastrin concentration and enhanced acid secretion above that noted with distention alone. In contrast, albumin did not enhance the serum gastrin concentration or stimulate acid secretion to a statistically significant extent. There was a close correlation between the rise in serum gastrin concentration and rate of acid secretion after different test meals when average results for each test meal were plotted. However, there was a poor correlation between acid secretion and serum gastrin concentration when the responses of the individual subjects with a given test meal were compared. Our interpretations are: (a) Distention is an important stimulant of the acid-secretory response to a meal, and this is not mediated by gastrin release. (b) Gastrin is one but probably not the only mediator of the chemical phase of acid secretion, i.e., acid secretion noted with amino acids that cannot be explained by distention. (c) Glucose and fat also release gastrin; however, with glucose the rise in serum gastrin is too small and too transient to enhance acid secretion, and fat probably releases unmeasured inhibitors that overwhelm the effect of gastrin on acid secretion. (d) Albumin is not a stimulant of acid secretion.
C T Richardson, J H Walsh, M I Hicks, J S Fordtran
Fatty acid binding protein (FABP) is a protein of 12,000 mol wt found in cytosol of intestinal mucosa and other tissues, which exhibits high affinity for long chain fatty acids. It has been suggested that FABP (which may comprise a group of closely related proteins of 12,000 mol wt) participates in cellular fatty acid transport and metabolism. Although earlier findings were consistent with this concept, the present studies were designed to examine its physiological function more directly. Everted jejunal sacs were incubated in mixed fatty acid-monoglyceride-bile acid micelles, in the presence or absence of equimolar concentrations of either of two compounds which inhibit oleate binding to FABP:flavaspidic acid-N-methyl-glucaminate and alpha-bromopalmitate. Oleate uptake, mucosal morphology, and oxidation of [14C]acetate remained unaffected by these agents, but oleate incorporation into triglyceride was inhibited by 62-64% after 4 min. The inhibition by flavaspidic acid was reversible with higher oleate concentrations. The effect of these compounds on enzymes of triglyceride biosynthesis was examined in intestinal microsomes. Neither flavaspidic acid nor alpha-bromopalmitate inhibited acyl CoA:monoglyceride acyl-transferase. Fatty acid:coenzyme A ligase activity was significantly enhanced in the presence of partially purified FABP, probably reflecting a physical effect on the fatty acid substrate or on the formation of the enzyme-substrate complex. Activity of the enzyme in the presence of 0.1 mM oleate was only modestly inhibited by equimolar flavaspidic acid and alpha-bromopalmitate, and this effect was blunted or prevented by FABP. We conclude that in everted gut sacs, inhibition of triglyceride synthesis by flavaspidic acid and alpha-bromopalmitate could not be explained as an effect on fatty acid uptake or on esterifying enzymes in the endoplasmic reticulum but rather can be interpreted as reflecting inhibition of fatty acid binding to FABP. These findings lend further support to the concept that FABP participates in cellular fatty acid transport and metabolism. It is also possible that FABP, by effecting an intracellular compartmentalization of fatty acids and acyl CoA, may play a broader role in cellular lipid metabolism.
R K Ockner, J A Manning
In eight patients with sickle cell anemia, weekly extracorporeal carbamylation of about 20% of the circulating red cell mass was carried out for 2 yr or longer. At each visit, a mean of 1.3+/-0.2 mol of cyanate were incorporated per mole of hemoglobin in the carbamylated erythrocytes. Within 3 mo, a stable level of about 35-50% of the circulating erythrocytes was carbamylated. This quantity and degree of hemoglobin carbamylation produced a decrease in mean whole blood P50 from 33 to 26 mm Hg. During the first 3 mo of carbamylation, the mean hemoglobin increased from 6.4 to 9.1 g/100 ml, while mean absolute reticulocytes decreased by 58% and circulating irreversibly sickled erythrocytes decreased by 65%. The mean red cell life span increased from 13 days before treatment to 21.6 days after 3 mo of carbamylation. Beyond the 3rd mo of carbamylation, blood P50, hemoglobin, and reticulocytes remained quite stable. No toxic effects of extracorporeal carbamylation of erythrocytes were noted. The capacity of blood to release oxygen at 30 mm Hg PO2 increased from 4.3 to 5.0 cm3/100 ml blood during carbamylation. The overall frequency of severe painful crises decreased by about 80% during carbamylation. Before carbamylation, 34% of the crises were induced by a concomitant illness, usually an infection. During carbamylation, the incidence of induced crises decreased 50% while spontaneous crises virtually disappeared. The marked improvements in hematologic parameters and the decreased frequency of severe painful crises observed during this study offer sufficient promise to warrant further exploration, hopefully using more efficient techniques, of the clinical efficacy of extracorporeal erythrocyte carbamylation in sickle cell anemia.
D A Deiderich, R C Trueworthy, P Gill, A M Cader, W E Larsen
The association of a human genetic deficiency of adenosine deaminase activity with combined immunodeficiency prompted a study of the effects of adenosine and of inhibition of adenosine deaminase activity on human lymphocyte transformation and a detailed study of adenosine metabolism throughout phytohemagglutinin-induced blastogenesis. The adenosine deaminase inhibitor, coformycin, at a concentration that inhibited adenosine deaminase activity more than 95%, or 50 muM adenosine, did not prevent blastogenesis by criteria of morphology or thymidine incorporation into acid-precipitable material. The combination of coformycin and adenosine, however, substantially reduced both the viable cell count and the incorporation of thymidine into DNA in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes. Incubation of lymphocytes with phytohemagglutinin for 72 h produced a 12-fold increase in the rate of deamination and a 6-fold increase in phosphorylation of adenosine by intact lymphocytes. There was no change in the apparent affinity for adenosine with either deamination or phosphorylation. The increased rates of metabolism, apparent as early as 3 h after addition of mitogen, may be due to increased entry of the nucleoside into stimulated lymphocytes. Increased adenosine metabolism was not due to changes in total enzyme activity; after 72 h in culture, the ratios of specific activities in extracts of stimulated to unstimulated lymphocytes were essentially unchanged for adenosine kinase, 0.92, and decreased for adenosine deaminase, 0.44. As much as 38% of the initial lymphocyte adenosine deaminase activity accumulated extracellularly after a 72-h culture with phytohemagglutinin. In phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes, the principal route of adenosine metabolism was phosphorylation at less than 5 muM adenosine, and deamination at concentrations greater than 5 muM. In unstimulated lymphocytes, deamination was the principal route of adenosine metabolism over the range of adenosine concentrations studied (0.5-250 muM). These studies demonstrate the dependence of both the unstimulated and stimulated lymphocyte on adenosine and may account for the observed sensitivity of mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes to the toxic effects of exogenously supplied adenosine in the presence of the adenosine deaminase inhibitor coformycin. A single case of immunodeficiency disease has been reported in association with purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. The catabolism of guanosine was also found to be enhanced in stimulated normal lymphocytes; phosphorolysis of guanosine to guanine by intact lymphocytes increased six fold after 72-h culture with phytohemagglutinin. The specific activity of purine nucleoside phosphorylase in extracts, with guanosine as substrate, was essentially the same in stimulated and unstimulated lymphocytes after 72 h of culture.
F F Snyder, J Mendelsohn, J E Seegmiller
Rat livers were perfused for 6 h without added plasma proteins using washed erythrocytes and buffer in a recirculating system. An inhibitor to the enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (5,5'-dithionitrobenzoic acid) was added in some experiments to prevent modification of substrate-lipids contained in secreted lipoproteins. The inhibitor did not detectably alter hepatic ultrastructure or gas exchange, but it inhibited the secreted lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase by more than 85%. Very low density lipoproteins in perfusate were unaltered but the high density lipoproteins obtained from livers perfused with the inhibitor appeared disk-shaped in negative stain by electron microscopy with a mean edge thickness of 46 +/- 5 A and a mean diameter of 190 +/- 25 A. The high density lipoproteins were composed predominantly of polar lipids and protein with only small amounts of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. The major apoprotein of these discoidal fractions had the same electrophoretic mobility as the arginine-rich apoprotein, whereas plasma high density lipoproteins contained mainly the A-I approtein. In all these respects the discoidal perfusate high density lipoproteins closely resemble those found in human plasma which is deficient in lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase. Perfusate high density lipoproteins obtained in the absence of the enzyme inhibitor more closely resembled plasma high density lipoproteins in chemical composition (content of cholesteryl esters and apoproteins) and in electron microscopic appearance. Purified lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase synthesized cholesteryl esters at a substantially faster rate from substrate lipids of perfusate high density lipoproteins than those from plasma. The discoidal high density lipoproteins were the best substrate for this reaction. Thin sections of plasma high density lipoproteins indicated a spherical particle whereas discoidal high density lipoproteins stained with the characteristic trilaminar image of membranes. These observations suggest that the liver secretes disk-shaped lipid bilayer particles which represent both the nascent form of high density lipoproteins and preferred substrate for lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase.
R L Hamilton, M C Williams, C J Fielding, R J Havel
The early pathophysiological changes in acute urate nephropathy were investigated in a rat model using micropuncture, clearance, and morphologic methods. Plasma urate was increased from 1.2 +/- 0.6 to 20.1 +/- 3.1 mg/100 ml (P less than 0.001). Urinary urate rose from 24.3 +/- 5.1 to 142.2 +/- 21.0 mg/100 ml (P less than 0.001). Renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate fell to 17 and 14% of control values, respectively, and urine flow rate decreased from 11.3 +/- 4.8 to 4.2 +/- 2.2 mul/min (all P less than 0.005) Superficial nephron filtration rate fell less than that of the whole kidney (70 vs. 86%). Both proximal and distal tubular pressures were increased from 10.6 to 26.1 mm Hg and from 7.2 to 24.7 mm Hg, respectively (P less than 0.005). Efferent arteriolar and peritubular capillary pressures were increased twofold. Vascular resistance beyond the peritubular capillaries increased from 4.8 X 10(9) to 21.6 X 10(9) dynes s/cm5. Extensive deposits of uric acid and urate were found in the tubular system and vasa recti from the corticomedullary junction to the tip of the papilla. It is concluded from these experiments that not only tubular obstruction in the collecting ducts, but also obstruction of the distal renal vasculature, are the primary early pathogenetic events in acute urate nephropathy.
J D Conger, S A Falk, S J Guggenheim, T J Burke
Unseparated peripheral blood leukocytes obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were cytotoxic for synovial cells. The cytotoxic reactions produced by RA leukocytes were more frequent and of greater magnitude than cytotoxicity induced by leukocytes from normal persons and patients with other diseases, primarily connective tissue diseases. Furthermore, the cytotoxic activity of RA leukocytes was greater for RA synovial cells than for nonrheumatoid synovial cells, in contrast to the cytotoxicity of other leukocytes, which did not discriminate between synovial cells according to their origin. Tests with purified lymphocytes showed that the cytotoxicity of unseparated leukocytes directed against RA synovial cells was due to lymphocyte cytotoxicity. These data are consistent with the possibility that sensitized lymphocytes from patients with RA recognize a distinctive antigen present on rheumatoid synovial cells.
D A Person, J T Sharp, M D Lidsky
Cell strains were derived from the stromal-vascular fraction of human omental adipose tissue and grown in culture. Since the purpose of this study was to isolate adipocyte precursors from adults, the cells were obtained from nonobese patients 40-60 yr of age. After treatment of adipose tissue with collagenase, mature adipocytes were separated from stromal-vascular fraction cells, and cell strains of the latter replicated in culture with a doubling time of 40-60 h. They were initially fusiform; upon reaching monolayer confluency, they accumulated lipid and became rounder. Skin fibroblasts from the same patients and grown under the same culture conditions remained fusiform and did not accumulate lipid. The stromal-vascular fraction cells of adipose tissue may be fibroblasts with the potential to become adipocyte precursors. Subcellular preparations of the cells grown from the stromal-vascular fraction revealed lipoprotein lipase activity (characterized by such properties as inhibition by 1 M NaCl) that was not detectable in skin fibroblasts. The overall specific activity of the enzymes that catalyze triglyceride synthesis was 15 times higher and that of fatty acid synthetase was 2 times higher in the cells cultured from the stromal-vascular fraction. The difference was significant in each case. Conversely, when isolated mature adipocytes were cultured, they lost considerable lipid and acquired morphological characteristics similar to those of stromal-vascular fraction cells. Thus, adipose tissue stromal-vascular fraction cells acquire in culture many of the morphological and enzymological characteristics of mature fat cells.
R L Van, C E Bayliss, D A Roncari
A method has been developed for measuring neutrophil cellularity in normal human bone marrow, in which the neutrophil-erythroid ratio was determined from marrow sections and marrow normoblasts were estimated by the erythron iron turnover. Neutrophil maturational categories, defined by morphologic criteria, were supported by autoradiographs of marrow flashed-labeled with 3H-thymidine. Correction for multiple counting error was empirically derived by counting serial sections through cells of each maturational category. The normal neutrophil-erythroid ratio in 13 normal human subjects was 1.5 +/- 0.07. The mean number of normoblasts in the same subjects was estimated to be 5.07 +/- 0.84 X 10(9) cells/kg. Total marrow neutrophils (X 10(9) cells/kg) were 7.70 +/- 1.20, the postmitotic pool (metamyelocytes, bands, and segmented forms) was 5.59 +/- 0.90 and the mitotic pool (promyelocytes + myelocytes) was 2.11 +/- 0.36. Marrow neutrophil ("total") production has been determined from the number of neutrophils comprising the postmitotic marrow pool divided by their transit time Transit time was derived from the appearance in circulating neutrophils of injected 3H-thymidine. The postmitotic pool comprised 5.59 +/- 0.90 X 10(9) neutrophils/kg, and the transit time was 6.60 +/- 0.03 days. From these data marrow neutrophil production was calculated to be 0.85 X 10(9) cells/kg per day. Effective production, measured as the turnover of circulating neutrophils labeled with 3H-thymidine, was 0.87 +/- 0.13 X 10(9) cells/kg per day. This value correlated well with the calculation of marrow neutrophil production. A larger turnover of 1.62 +/- 0.46 X 10(9) cells/kg per day was obtained when diisopropylfluorophosphate-32P was used to label circulating neutrophils. Studies using isologous cells doubly labeled with 3H-thymidine and diisopropylfluorophosphate-32P demonstrated a lower recovery and shorter t1/2 of the 32P label.
J T Dancey, K A Deubelbeiss, L A Harker, C A Finch
It has been postulated that the rate of mineral loss in postmenopausal women remains constant with aging and that the decreased activities of daily living associated with aging contribute to mineral loss. These hypothese were examined by measuring the bone mineral content at the midshaft of the radius with the photon absorption technique. The estimated rate of loss was calculated in a cross-sectional study as the regression coefficient of bone mineral content vs. age and in a longitudinal study as the regression coefficient of bone mineral content vs. time. In the cross-sectional study, Group A, which consisted of 264 women aged 50-72 yr, had an estimated rate of loss of -0.0114 +/- 0.0014 (SE) g/cm per yr. Group B, which consisted of 266 women aged 73-96 yr, had an estimated rate of loss of -0.0055 +/- 0.0017 g/cm per yr. In the longitudinal study, Group C consisted of 33 women aged 51-65 yr who were followed for an average of 4.5 yr with a mean number of 16 visits per subject; they were found to have a mean rate of loss of -0.00990 +/- 0.00107 g/cm per yr. Group D consisted of 38 women aged 70-91 yr who were followed for an average of 3.8 yr with a mean number of 31 visits per subjects; they were found to have a mean rate of loss of -0.00020 +/- 0.00236 g/cm per yr. The estimated and directly measured rates of loss were more rapid in the younger groups than in the older groups (A vs. B, P less than 0.001; C vs. D, P less than 0.001). These data demonstrate that the mean rate of mineral loss is not constant with aging and that in elderly subjects it is significantly slower than that of the earlier postmenopausal years. Since the elderly women were the less active, these findings suggest that factors other than decreased physical activity are more important in determining the rates of mineral loss.
D M Smith, M R Khairi, J Norton, C C Johnston Jr
The effects of starvation, an 800-kcal mixed diet and an 800-kcal ketogenic (low carbohydrate-high fat) diet on the composition of weight lost were determined in each of six obese subjects during three 10-day periods.The energy-nitrogen balance method was used to quantify the three measurable components of weight loss; protein, fat, and water. On the 800-kcal ketogenic diet, subjects lost (mean +/- SE) 466.6 +/-51.3 g/day; on the isocaloric mixed diet, which provided carbohydrate and fat in conventional proportions, they lost 277.9+/- 32.1 g/day. Composition of weight lost (percentage) during the ketogenic diet was water 61.2, fat 35.0, protein 3.8. During the mixed diet, composition of loss was water 37.1, fat 59.5, protein 3.4...
M U Yang, T B Van Itallie
The atherogenic mechanism of homocystinemia has been defined by measuring endothelial cell loss and regeneration, platelet consumption, and intimal lesion formation in a primate model. Three groups of baboons were studied: (a) 8 control animals; (b) 15 animals after 3 mo of continuous homocystinemia; and (c) 11 animals after 3 mo of combined homocystinemia and oral treatment with dipyridamole. Experimental homocystinemia caused patchy endothelial desquamation comprising about 10% of the aortic surface despite a 25-fold increase in endothelial cell regeneration. Neither endothelial cell loss nor regeneration was changed significantly by dipyridamole. Homocystine-induced vascular deendothelialization produced a threefold increase in platelet consumption that was interrupted by dipyridamole inhibition of platelet function. All homocystinemic animals developed typical arteriosclerotic or preatherosclerotic intimal lesions composed of proliferating smooth muscle cells averaging 10-15 cell layers surrounded by large amounts of collagen, elastic fibers, glycosaminoglycans, and sometimes lipid. Intimal lesion formation was prevented by dipyridamole therapy. We conclude that homocystine-induced endothelial cell injury resulted in arteriosclerosis through platelet-mediated intimal proliferation of smooth muscle cells that can be prevented by drug-induced platelet dysfunction.
L A Harker, R Ross, S J Slichter, C R Scott
Plasma immunoreactive glucagon (IRG) concentrations were measured in 36 patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) and 32 normal subjects. In addition, the components of circulating IRG were analyzed by gel filtration in the fasting state and after physiological stimuli. Fasting IRG was elevated (P less than 0.001) in CRF patients (534 +/- 32 pg/ml) compared with the levels found in healthy subjects (113 +/- 9 pg/ml). Oral glucose suppressed plasma IRG in CRF patients from a basal level of 568 +/- 52 to a nadir of 354 +/- 57 pg/ml (120 min). This degree of suppression (38%) was comparable to that found in normal subjects (basal = 154 +/- 20 to 100 +/- 23 pg/ml) at 120 min (35%). Intravenous infusion of arginine (250 mg/kg) resulted in a 71% rise in IRG in CRF patients and a 166% increase in normal subjects. Gel filtration of fasting plasma from CRF patients showed three major peaks. The earliest (A) was found in the void volume (mol wt greater than 40,000) and constituted 16.5 +/- 4.7% of the elution profile. The middle peak (B) eluted just beyond the proinsulin marker (approximately 9,000 mol wt) and constituted the largest proportion of the elution profile (56.5 +/- 3.4%). The third peak (C) coincided with the standard glucagon and [125I]glucagon markers (3,485 mol wt) and comprised 27.0 +/- 4% of the IRG profile. In contrast, only peaks A and C were found in fasting plasma of normal subjects (53.6 +/- 10.4% in A and 46.4 +/- 10.4 in C). After oral glucose, glucagon immunoreactivity in the 3,500 mol wt peak (C) was markedly suppressed, while the B peak in patients with CRF declined to a lesser extent. The A peak in both groups was unchanged. After an arginine infusion only the C peak increased in both groups of subjects. Gel filtration of plasma in 3 M acetic acid gave similar profiles to those obtained in glycine albumin buffer. Exposure of serum to trypsin indicated that the B and C peaks were digestible, while the A peak was resistant to the action of the enzyme. In one sample, peak C increased after a 2-h exposure of serum to trypsin. We conclude that circulating IRG in normal subjects and patients with CRF is heterogenous. The hyperglucagonemia of renal failure is largely due to an increase in IRG material of approximately 9,000 mol wt, consistent with proglucagon, although the 3,500 mol wt component is also considerably elevated (threefold). The significance of circulating IRG levels should be interpreted with caution until the relative biological activity of the three components is established.
S F Kuku, J B Jaspan, D S Emmanouel, A Zeidler, A I Katz, A H Rubenstein
The hemodynamic determinants of the time-course of fall in isovolumic left ventricular pressure were assessed in isolated canine left ventricular preparations. Pressure fall was studied in isovolumic beats or during prolonged isovolumic diastole after ejection. Pressure fall was studied in isovolumic relaxation for isovolumic and ejecting beats (r less than or equal to 0.98) and was therefore characterized by a time constant, T. Higher heart rates shortened T slightly from 52.6 +/- 4.5 ms at 110/min to 48.2 +/- 6.0 ms at 160/min (P less than 0.01, n = 8). Higher ventricular volumes under isovolumic conditions resulted in higher peak left ventricular pressure but no significant change in T. T did shorten from 67.1 +/- 5.0 ms in isovolumic beats to 45.8 +/- 2.9 ms in the ejecting beats (P less than 0.001, n = 14). In the ejecting beats, peak systolic pressure was lower, and end-systolic volume smaller. To differentiate the effects of systolic shortening during ejection from those of lower systolic pressure and smaller end-systolic volume, beats with large end-diastolic volumes were compared to beats with smaller end-diastolic volumes. The beats with smaller end-diastolic volumes exhibited less shortening but similar end-systolic volumes and peak systolic pressure. T again shortened to a greater extent in the beats with greater systolic shortening. Calcium chloride and acetylstrophanthidin resulted in no significant change in T, but norepinephrine, which accelerates active relaxation, resulted in a significant shortening of T (65.6 +/- 13.4 vs. 46.3 +/- 7.0 ms, P less than 0.02). During recovery from ischemia, T increased significantly from 59.3 +/- 9.6 to 76.8 +/- 13.1 ms when compared with the preischemic control beat (P less than 0.05). Thus, the present studies show that the time-course of isovolumic pressure fall subsequent to maximum negative dP/dt is exponential, independent of systolic stress and end-systolic fiber length, and minimally dependent on heart rate. T may be an index of the activity of the active cardiac relaxing system and appears dependent on systolic fiber shortening.
J L Weiss, J W Frederiksen, M L Weisfeldt
To evaluate the effects of physiologic hyperglucagonemia on splanchnic glucose output, glucagon was infused in a dose of 3 ng/kg per min to healthy subjects in the basal state and after splanchnic glucose output had been inhibited by an infusion of glucose (2 mg/kg per min). In the basal state, infusion of glucagon causing a 309 +/- 25 pg/ml rise in plasma concentration was accompanied by a rapid increase in splanchnic glucose output to values two to three times basal by 7-15 min. The rise in arterial blood glucose (0.5-1.5 mM) correlated directly with the increment in splanchnic glucose output. Despite continued glucagon infusion, and in the face of stable insulin levels, splanchnic glucose output declined after 22 min, returning to basal levels by 30-45 min. In the subjects initially receiving the glucose infusion, arterial insulin concentration rose by 5-12 muU/ml, while splanchnic glucose output fell by 85-100%. Infusion of glucagon causing an increment in plasma glucagon concentration of 272 +/- 30 pg/ml reversed the inhibition in splanchnic glucose production within 5 min. Splanchnic glucose output reached a peak increment 60% above basal levels at 10 min, and subsequently declined to levels 20-25% below basal at 30-45 min. These findings provide direct evidence that physiologic increments in plasma glucagon stimulate splanchnic glucose output in the basal state and reverse insulin-mediated inhibition of splanchnic glucose production in normal man. The transient nature of the stimulatory effect of glucagon on splanchnic glucose output suggests the rapid development of inhibition or reversal of glucagon action. This inhibition does not appear to depend on increased insulin secretio.
P Felig, J Wahren, R Hendler