Christoph J. Auernhammer, Shlomo Melmed
To analyze the function of the Th1-promoting cytokine IL-12 in vivo, we generated transgenic (tg) mice (RIP-IL12 mice) whose pancreatic β cells constitutively express bioactive IL-12 or one of its components, p35 or p40. In contrast to non-tg littermates or single-tg RIP-p35 and RIP-p40 mice, RIP-IL12 mice developed a marked pancreatic infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages, mainly around islets. Expression of bioactive IL-12 primarily upregulated transcript levels of IFN-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), RANTES, IFN-γ, and TNF-α in the pancreas. Despite the substantial recruitment of mononuclear cells, no biochemical or clinical disease was evident in the exocrine or endocrine pancreas. Coexpression of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) proteins with IL-12 in the β cells failed to spontaneously activate or expand antigen-specific anti-self/viral T cells in uninfected tg animals. However, when RIP-IL12 × RIP-LCMV tg mice were infected with LCMV, antigen-specific anti-self/viral T cells were induced, which led to an acceleration in the kinetics and severity of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Thus, the ectopic expression of IL-12 does not spontaneously break tolerance and activate antigen-specific T cells in the periphery, but it does worsen ongoing autoimmune disease.
Andreas Holz, Kelly Brett, Michael B.A. Oldstone
Nitrotyrosine formation is a hallmark of vascular inflammation, with polymorphonuclear neutrophil–derived (PMN-derived) and monocyte-derived myeloperoxidase (MPO) being shown to catalyze this posttranslational protein modification via oxidation of nitrite (NO2–) to nitrogen dioxide (NO2•). Herein, we show that MPO concentrates in the subendothelial matrix of vascular tissues by a transcytotic mechanism and serves as a catalyst of ECM protein tyrosine nitration. Purified MPO and MPO released by intraluminal degranulation of activated human PMNs avidly bound to aortic endothelial cell glycosaminoglycans in both cell monolayer and isolated vessel models. Cell-bound MPO rapidly transcytosed intact endothelium and colocalized abluminally with the ECM protein fibronectin. In the presence of the substrates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and NO2–, cell and vessel wall–associated MPO catalyzed nitration of ECM protein tyrosine residues, with fibronectin identified as a major target protein. Both heparin and the low–molecular weight heparin enoxaparin significantly inhibited MPO binding and protein nitrotyrosine (NO2Tyr) formation in both cultured endothelial cells and rat aortic tissues. MPO–/– mice treated with intraperitoneal zymosan had lower hepatic NO2Tyr/tyrosine ratios than did zymosan-treated wild-type mice. These data indicate that MPO significantly contributes to NO2Tyr formation in vivo. Moreover, transcytosis of MPO, occurring independently of leukocyte emigration, confers specificity to nitration of vascular matrix proteins.
Stephan Baldus, Jason P. Eiserich, Alireza Mani, Laura Castro, Mario Figueroa, Phillip Chumley, Wenxin Ma, Albert Tousson, C. Roger White, Daniel C. Bullard, Marie-Luise Brennan, Aldons J. Lusis, Kevin P. Moore, Bruce A. Freeman
Costimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) play an important role in T cell activation and expansion. However, little is known about the surface molecules involved in direct T-T cell interaction required for their activation and expansion. LIGHT, a newly discovered TNF superfamily member (TNFSF14), is expressed on activated T cells and immature dendritic cells. Here we demonstrate that blockade of LIGHT activity can reduce anti-CD3–mediated proliferation of purified T cells, suggesting that T cell–T cell interaction is essential for this proliferation. To test the in vivo activity of T cell–derived LIGHT in immune homeostasis and function, transgenic (Tg) mice expressing LIGHT in the T cell lineage were generated. LIGHT Tg mice have a significantly enlarged T cell compartment and a hyperactivated peripheral T cell population. LIGHT Tg mice spontaneously develop severe autoimmune disease manifested by splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, glomerulonephritis, elevated autoantibodies, and severe infiltration of various peripheral tissues. Furthermore, the blockade of LIGHT activity ameliorates the severity of T cell–mediated diseases. Collectively, these findings establish a crucial role for this T cell–derived costimulatory ligand in T cell activation and expansion; moreover, the dysregulation of T cell–derived LIGHT leads to altered T cell homeostasis and autoimmune disease.
Jing Wang, James C. Lo, Amy Foster, Ping Yu, Helen M. Chen, Yang Wang, Koji Tamada, Lieping Chen, Yang-Xin Fu
Immune and inflammatory systems are controlled by multiple cytokines, including ILs and INFs. These cytokines exert their biological functions through Janus tyrosine kinases and STAT transcription factors. One such cytokine, IL-6, has been proposed to contribute to the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We found that STAT3 was strongly tyrosine phosphorylated in synovial tissue of RA patients, but not those with osteoarthritis. Blockade of the IL-6-gp130-JAK-STAT3–signaling pathway might therefore be beneficial in the treatment of RA. We show here that the mRNA for the endogenous cytokine signaling repressor CIS3/SOCS3 is abundantly expressed in RA patients. To determine whether CIS3 is effective in treating experimental arthritis, a recombinant adenovirus carrying the CIS3 cDNA was injected periarticularly into the ankle joints of mice with antigen-induced arthritis or collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Periarticular injection of CIS3 adenovirus drastically reduced the severity of arthritis and joint swelling compared with control groups. CIS3 was more effective than a dominant-negative form of STAT3 in the CIA model. Thus, induction of CIS3 could represent a new approach for effective treatment of RA.
Takanori Shouda, Takafumi Yoshida, Toshikatsu Hanada, Toru Wakioka, Masanobu Oishi, Kanta Miyoshi, Setsuro Komiya, Ken-ichiro Kosai, Yasushi Hanakawa, Koji Hashimoto, Kensei Nagata, Akihiko Yoshimura
ORF74 (or KSHV-vGPCR) is a highly constitutively active G protein–coupled receptor encoded by HHV8 that is regulated both positively and negatively by endogenous chemokines. When expressed in transgenic mice, this chemokine receptor induces an angioproliferative disease closely resembling Kaposi sarcoma (KS). Here we demonstrate that several lines of mice carrying mutated receptors deficient in either constitutive activity or chemokine regulation fail to develop KS-like disease. In addition, animals expressing a receptor that preserves chemokine binding and constitutive activity but that does not respond to agonist stimulation have a much lower incidence of angiogenic lesions and tumors. These results indicate that induction of the KS-like disease in transgenic mice by ORF74 requires not only high constitutive signaling activity but also modulation of this activity by endogenous chemokines.
Peter J. Holst, Mette M. Rosenkilde, Denise Manfra, Shu-Cheng Chen, Maria T. Wiekowski, Birgitte Holst, Felix Cifire, Martin Lipp, Thue W. Schwartz, Sergio A. Lira
IL-5, IL-3, and GM-CSF are hematopoietic cytokines that are key mediators of the allergic inflammatory response. The receptors for these three cytokines consist of a cytokine-specific α (Rα) chain and a shared common β (βc) chain. Herein, we demonstrate that agonistic ligation of these receptor subunits rapidly induces proteasomal degradation of the βc, but not the Rα, cytoplasmic domain, resulting in termination of signal transduction and yielding a truncated βc isoform ligated to the Rα subunit. Proteasomal degradation of the βc cytoplasmic domain was also a prerequisite for endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of the ligated receptor subunits. Moreover, proteasome-dependent termination of signaling induced by one βc-engaging cytokine resulted in cellular desensitization to signal transduction by subsequent stimulation with another βc-engaging cytokine. These data provide the first evidence for ligand-dependent proteasomal degradation of the βc cytoplasmic domain, and they establish a novel mechanism for heterotypic desensitization of shared cytokine receptor signaling.
Margarita Martinez-Moczygemba, David P. Huston
Secretion of bicarbonate from epithelial cells is considered to be the primary mechanism by which the duodenal mucosa is protected from acid-related injury. Against this view is the finding that patients with cystic fibrosis, who have impaired duodenal bicarbonate secretion, are paradoxically protected from developing duodenal ulcers. Therefore, we hypothesized that epithelial cell intracellular pH regulation, rather than secreted extracellular bicarbonate, was the principal means by which duodenal epithelial cells are protected from acidification and injury. Using a novel in vivo microscopic method, we have measured bicarbonate secretion and epithelial cell intracellular pH (pHi), and we have followed cell injury in the presence of the anion transport inhibitor DIDS and the Cl– channel inhibitor, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB). DIDS and NPPB abolished the increase of duodenal bicarbonate secretion following luminal acid perfusion. DIDS decreased basal pHi, whereas NPPB increased pHi; DIDS further decreased pHi during acid challenge and abolished the pHi overshoot over baseline observed after acid challenge, whereas NPPB attenuated the fall of pHi and exaggerated the overshoot. Finally, acid-induced epithelial injury was enhanced by DIDS and decreased by NPPB. The results support the role of intracellular bicarbonate in the protection of duodenal epithelial cells from luminal gastric acid.
Yasutada Akiba, Osamu Furukawa, Paul H. Guth, Eli Engel, Igor Nastaskin, Pejvak Sassani, Ramanath Dukkipatis, Alexander Pushkin, Ira Kurtz, Jonathan D. Kaunitz
In animal models of asthma, interleukin-13 (IL-13) induces goblet cell metaplasia, eosinophil infiltration of the bronchial mucosa, and bronchial hyperreactivity, but the basis of its effects on airway epithelia remain unknown. Lesions of the epithelial barrier, frequently observed in asthma and other chronic lung inflammatory diseases, are repaired through proliferation, migration, and differentiation of epithelial cells. An inflammatory process may then, therefore, influence epithelial regeneration. We have thus investigated the effect of IL-13 on mucociliary differentiation of human nasal epithelial cells in primary culture. We show that IL-13 alters ciliated cell differentiation and increases the proportion of secretory cells. IL-13 downregulates the actin-binding protein ezrin and other cytoskeletal components. IL-13 also impairs lateral cell contacts and interferes with the apical localization of ezrin seen in differentiated ciliated cells. In addition, an IL-4 antagonistic mutant protein (Y124D), which binds to the IL-4 receptor α subunit, a common chain of IL-4 and IL-13 receptors, inhibits IL-13’s effects. IL-13 also decreases ciliary beat frequency in a time- and dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that, in human allergic asthmatic responses, IL-13 affects both ciliated and secretory cell differentiation, leading to airway damage and obstruction.
Jamila Laoukili, Eric Perret, Tom Willems, Adrian Minty, Eef Parthoens, Odile Houcine, Andre Coste, Mark Jorissen, Francelyne Marano, Daniel Caput, Frédéric Tournier
Two distinct IL-18 neutralizing strategies, i.e. a rabbit polyclonal anti-mouse IL-18 IgG and a recombinant human IL-18 binding protein (rhIL-18BP), were used to treat collagen-induced–arthritic DBA/1 mice after clinical onset of disease. The therapeutic efficacy of neutralizing endogenous IL-18 was assessed using different pathological parameters of disease progression. The clinical severity in mice undergoing collagen-induced arthritis was significantly reduced after treatment with both IL-18 neutralizing agents compared to placebo treated mice. Attenuation of the disease was associated with reduced cartilage erosion evident on histology. The decreased cartilage degradation was further documented by a significant reduction in the levels of circulating cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (an indicator of cartilage turnover). Both strategies efficiently slowed disease progression, but only anti–IL-18 IgG treatment significantly decreased an established synovitis. Serum levels of IL-6 were significantly reduced with both neutralizing strategies. In vitro, neutralizing IL-18 resulted in a significant inhibition of TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ secretion by macrophages. These results demonstrate that neutralizing endogenous IL-18 is therapeutically efficacious in the murine model of collagen-induced arthritis. IL-18 neutralizing antibody or rhIL-18BP could therefore represent new disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs that warrant testing in clinical trials in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Christine Plater-Zyberk, Leo A.B. Joosten, Monique M.A. Helsen, Pascale Sattonnet-Roche, Christiane Siegfried, Sami Alouani, Fons A.J. van de Loo, Pierre Graber, Shuki Aloni, Rocco Cirillo, Erik Lubberts, Charles A. Dinarello, Wim B. van den Berg, Yolande Chvatchko
We recently identified macrophage inflammatory protein 1-α (MIP-1α) as a factor produced by multiple myeloma (MM) cells that may be responsible for the bone destruction in MM (1). To investigate the role of MIP-1α in MM bone disease in vivo, the human MM–derived cell line ARH was stably transfected with an antisense construct to MIP-1α (AS-ARH) and tested for its capacity to induce MM bone disease in SCID mice. Human MIP-1α levels in marrow plasma from AS-ARH mice were markedly decreased compared with controls treated with ARH cells transfected with empty vector (EV-ARH). Mice treated with AS-ARH cells lived longer than controls and, unlike the controls, they showed no radiologically identifiable lytic lesions. Histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that osteoclasts (OCLs) per square millimeter of bone and OCLs per millimeter of bone surface of AS-ARH mice were significantly less than in EV-ARH mice, and the percentage of tumors per total bone area was also significantly decreased. AS-ARH cells demonstrated decreased adherence to marrow stromal cells, due to reduced expression of the α5β1 integrin and diminished homing capacity and survival. These data support an important role for MIP-1α in cell homing, survival, and bone destruction in MM.
Sun Jin Choi, Yasuo Oba, Yair Gazitt, Melissa Alsina, Jose Cruz, Judith Anderson, G. David Roodman
FGF-2 has been implicated in the cardiac response to hypertrophic stimuli. Angiotensin II (Ang II) contributes to maintain elevated blood pressure in hypertensive individuals and exerts direct trophic effects on cardiac cells. However, the role of FGF-2 in Ang II–induced cardiac hypertrophy has not been established. Therefore, mice deficient in FGF-2 expression were studied using a model of Ang II–dependent hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. Echocardiographic measurements show the presence of dilated cardiomyopathy in normotensive mice lacking FGF-2. Moreover, hypertensive mice without FGF-2 developed no compensatory cardiac hypertrophy. In wild-type mice, hypertrophy was associated with a stimulation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase, the extracellular signal regulated kinase, and the p38 kinase pathways. In contrast, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation was markedly attenuated in FGF-2–deficient mice. In vitro, FGF-2 of fibroblast origin was demonstrated to be essential in the paracrine stimulation of MAPK activation in cardiomyocytes. Indeed, fibroblasts lacking FGF-2 expression have a defective capacity for releasing growth factors to induce hypertrophic responses in cardiomyocytes. Therefore, these results identify the cardiac fibroblast population as a primary integrator of hypertrophic stimuli in the heart, and suggest that FGF-2 is a crucial mediator of cardiac hypertrophy via autocrine/paracrine actions on cardiac cells.
Corinne Pellieux, Alessandro Foletti, Giovanni Peduto, Jean-François Aubert, Jürg Nussberger, Friedrich Beermann, Hans-R. Brunner, Thierry Pedrazzini
Tubulointerstitial disease, a prominent phenomenon in diabetic nephropathy, correlates with decline in renal function. The underlying pathogenic link between chronic hyperglycemia and the development of tubulointerstitial injury has not been fully elucidated, but myofibroblast formation represents a key step in the development of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. RAGE, the receptor for advanced glycation end products (AGEs), induces the expression of TGF-β and other cytokines that are proposed to mediate the transdifferentiation of epithelial cells to form myofibroblasts. Here we report specific binding of 125I-AGE-BSA to cell membranes prepared from a rat proximal tubule cell line and show that the binding site was RAGE. AGE exposure induced dose-dependent epithelial-myofibroblast transdifferentiation determined by morphological changes, de novo alpha smooth-muscle actin expression, and loss of epithelial E-cadherin staining. These effects could be blocked with neutralizing Ab’s to RAGE or to TGF-β. Transdifferentiation was also apparent in the proximal tubules of diabetic rats and in a renal biopsy from a patient with type 1 diabetes. The AGE cross-link breaker, phenyl-4,5-dimethylthiazolium bromide (ALT 711) reduced transdifferentiation in diabetic rats in association with reduced tubular AGE and TGF-β expression. This study provides a novel mechanism to explain the development of tubulointerstitial disease in diabetic nephropathy and provides a new treatment target.
Matthew D. Oldfield, Leon A. Bach, Josephine M. Forbes, David Nikolic-Paterson, Anne McRobert, Vicki Thallas, Robert C. Atkins, Tanya Osicka, George Jerums, Mark E. Cooper
Atopic diseases such as allergy and asthma are characterized by increases in Th2 cells and serum IgE antibodies. The binding of allergens to IgE on mast cells triggers the release of several mediators, of which histamine is the most prevalent. Here we show that histamine, together with a maturation signal, acts directly upon immature dendritic cells (iDCs), profoundly altering their T cell polarizing capacity. We demonstrate that iDCs express two active histamine receptors, H1 and H2. Histamine did not significantly affect the LPS-driven maturation of iDCs with regard to phenotypic changes or capacity to prime naive T cells, but it dramatically altered the repertoire of cytokines and chemokines secreted by mature DCs. In particular, histamine, acting upon the H2 receptor for a short period of time, increased IL-10 production and reduced IL-12 secretion. As a result, histamine-matured DCs polarized naive CD4+ T cells toward a Th2 phenotype, as compared with DCs that had matured in the absence of histamine. We propose that the Th2 cells favor IgE production, leading to increased histamine secretion by mast cells, thus creating a positive feedback loop that could contribute to the severity of atopic diseases.
Alessandra Mazzoni, Howard A. Young, Jessica H. Spitzer, Alberto Visintin, David M. Segal
Intraperitoneal injection of purified recombinant Acrp30 lowers glucose levels in mice. To gain insight into the mechanism(s) of this hypoglycemic effect, purified recombinant Acrp30 was infused in conscious mice during a pancreatic euglycemic clamp. In the presence of physiological hyperinsulinemia, this treatment increased circulating Acrp30 levels by approximately twofold and stimulated glucose metabolism. The effect of Acrp30 on in vivo insulin action was completely accounted for by a 65% reduction in the rate of glucose production. Similarly, glucose flux through glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) decreased with Acrp30, whereas the activity of the direct pathway of glucose-6-phosphate biosynthesis, an index of hepatic glucose phosphorylation, increased significantly. Acrp30 did not affect the rates of glucose uptake, glycolysis, or glycogen synthesis. These results indicate that an acute increase in circulating Acrp30 levels lowers hepatic glucose production without affecting peripheral glucose uptake. Hepatic expression of the gluconeogenic enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and G6Pase mRNAs was reduced by more than 50% following Acrp30 infusion compared with vehicle infusion. Thus, a moderate rise in circulating levels of the adipose-derived protein Acrp30 inhibits both the expression of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes and the rate of endogenous glucose production.
Terry P. Combs, Anders H. Berg, Silvana Obici, Philipp E. Scherer, Luciano Rossetti
Zuoning Han, David L. Boyle, Lufen Chang, Brydon Bennett, Michael Karin, Li Yang, Anthony M. Manning, Gary S. Firestein