Herniated disc (HD) is a common health problem that is resolved by surgery unless spontaneous resorption occurs. HD tissue contains abundant macrophage infiltration and high levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP-3 and MMP-7. We developed a model system in which disc tissue or isolated chondrocytes from wild-type or MMP-null mice were cocultured with peritoneal macrophages and used this system to investigate the role of MMPs and chondrocyte/macrophage interactions in disc resorption. We observed a marked enhancement of MMP-3 protein and mRNA in chondrocytes after exposure to macrophages. Chondrocytic MMP-3, but not MMP-7, was required for disc resorption, as determined by assaying for a reduction in wet weight and proteoglycan content after 3 days of coculture. Surprisingly, chondrocyte MMP-3 was required for the generation of a macrophage chemoattractant and the subsequent infiltration of the disc tissue by proteolytically active macrophages. We conclude that macrophage induction of chondrocyte MMP-3 plays a major role in disc resorption by mechanisms that include the generation of a bioactive macrophage chemoattractant.
Hirotaka Haro, Howard C. Crawford, Barbara Fingleton, John R. MacDougall, Kenichi Shinomiya, Dan M. Spengler, Lynn M. Matrisian
Herniated disc (HD), one of the major causes of low back pain, is often resolved spontaneously without surgical intervention. Resorption is associated with a marked increase in infiltrating macrophages, and the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) MMP-3 and MMP-7 have been implicated in this phenomenon. We developed a murine organ culture model in which intact intervertebral discs were cocultured with peritoneal macrophages to investigate the role of MMPs in HD resorption. Using macrophages isolated from MMP-null mice, we report that macrophage-produced MMP-7 was required for proteoglycan degradation, loss of wet weight, and macrophage infiltration of cocultured discs. The inability of MMP-7–deficient macrophages to infiltrate discs could not be attributed to a defect in macrophage migration. MMP-7 was required for the release of the cytokine TNF-α from peritoneal macrophages. The generation of soluble TNF-α was essential for the induction of MMP-3 in disc cocultures, which in turn is required for the generation of a macrophage chemoattractant and subsequent macrophage infiltration. TNF-α release from macrophages was necessary but insufficient for disc resorption, which required macrophage infiltration. We conclude that there is extensive communication between macrophages and chondrocytes in HD resorption and that an essential component of this communication is the requirement for MMPs to release soluble bioactive factors.
Hirotaka Haro, Howard C. Crawford, Barbara Fingleton, Kenichi Shinomiya, Dan M. Spengler, Lynn M. Matrisian
Levels of plasma HDL are determined in part by catabolism in the liver. However, it is unclear how the hepatic catabolism of holo-HDL is regulated or mediated. Recently, we found that ob/ob mice have defective liver catabolism of HDL apoproteins in vivo that can be reversed by low-dose leptin treatment. Here we examined HDL catabolism and trafficking at the cellular level using isolated hepatocytes. We demonstrate that ob/ob hepatocytes have reduced binding, association, degradation, and resecretion of HDL apoproteins and 50% less selective lipid uptake relative to wild-type hepatocytes. In addition, HDL apoproteins were found to colocalize with transferrin in the general endosomal recycling compartment (ERC) in wild-type hepatocytes. However, the localization to the ERC was markedly reduced in ob/ob hepatocytes. Filipin staining of cellular cholesterol revealed decreased cholesterol in the ERC in ob/ob hepatocytes. Defects in HDL cell association and cholesterol distribution were reversed by leptin administration. The findings show a major defect in HDL uptake and recycling in ob/ob hepatocytes and suggest that HDL recycling through the ERC plays a role in the determination of plasma HDL protein and cholesterol levels.
David L. Silver, Nan Wang, Alan R. Tall
Gap junction channels composed of connexin43 (Cx43) are essential for normal heart formation and function. We studied the potential role of the Wnt family of secreted polypeptides as regulators of Cx43 expression and gap junction channel function in dissociated myocytes and intact hearts. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes responded to Li+, which mimics Wnt signaling, by accumulating the effector protein β-catenin and by inducing Cx43 mRNA and protein markedly. Induction of Cx43 expression was also observed in cardiomyocytes cocultured with Rat-2 fibroblasts or N2A neuroblastoma cells programmed to secrete bioactive Wnt-1. By transfecting a Cx43 promoter-reporter gene construct into cardiomyocytes, we demonstrated that the inductive effect of Wnt signaling was transcriptionally mediated. Enhanced expression of Cx43 increased cardiomyocyte cell coupling, as determined by Lucifer Yellow dye transfer and by calcium wave propagation. Conversely, in a transgenic cardiomyopathic mouse model that exhibits ventricular arrhythmias and gap junctional remodeling, β-catenin and Cx43 expression were downregulated concordantly. In response to Wnt signaling, the accumulating Cx43 colocalized with β-catenin in the junctional membrane; moreover, forced expression of Cx43 in cardiomyocytes reduced the transactivation potential of β-catenin. These findings demonstrate that Wnt signaling is an important modulator of Cx43-dependent intercellular coupling in the heart, and they support the hypothesis that dysregulated signaling contributes to altered impulse propagation and arrhythmia in the myopathic heart.
Zhaowei Ai, Avi Fischer, David C. Spray, Anthony M.C. Brown, Glenn I. Fishman
Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has considerable potential for the treatment of malignancies, hemoglobinopathies, and autoimmune diseases, as well as the induction of transplantation allograft tolerance. Toxicities associated with standard preparative regimens for bone marrow transplantation, however, make this approach unacceptable for all but the most severe of these clinical situations. Here, we demonstrate that stable mixed hematopoietic cell chimerism and donor-specific tolerance can be established in miniature swine, using a relatively mild, non-myeloablative preparative regimen. We conditioned recipient swine with whole-body and thymic irradiation, and we depleted their T-cells by CD3 immunotoxin-treatment. Infusion of either bone marrow cells or cytokine-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells from leukocyte antigen-matched animals resulted in stable mixed chimerism, as detected by flow cytometry in the peripheral blood, thymus, and bone marrow, without any clinical evidence of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Long-term acceptance of donor skin and consistent rejection of third-party skin indicated that the recipients had developed donor-specific tolerance.
Christene A. Huang, Yasushi Fuchimoto, Rachel Scheier-Dolberg, Michael C. Murphy, David M. Neville Jr., David H. Sachs
Monocytes have a limited life span, and their homeostasis is regulated by apoptosis in vivo. When cultured in the absence of appropriate exogenous stimuli, they undergo apoptosis, but under the influence of survival signals, these cells differentiate into macrophages or dendritic cells. Here we show that ligation of the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) on human monocytes from nonatopic individuals markedly reduces apoptosis induced by serum deprivation or by CD95/Fas ligation. Aggregation of FcεRI reduces its own expression but fails to modulate CD95/Fas expression. In contrast, FcεRI ligation enhances the expression of the antiapoptotic molecules Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, but not Mcl-1, in monocytes. Incubation of unstimulated cells with culture supernatants of FcεRI-activated monocytes prolongs their life span, whereas CD95/Fas expression remains unaffected. The incidence of apoptosis is restored considerably when the supernatant is depleted of TNF-α, whereas elimination of IL-1β, GM-CSF, or IL-12 has no effect. These results indicate that FcεRI mediates signals preventing monocyte apoptosis directly by increasing the levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and indirectly by means of TNF-α in an autocrine and paracrine fashion. This process may contribute to the establishment of chronic allergic disorders such as atopic dermatitis.
Norito Katoh, Stefan Kraft, Jörg H.M. Weßendorf, Thomas Bieber
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are metabolic deficiencies in glycoprotein biosynthesis that usually cause severe mental and psychomotor retardation. Different forms of CDGs can be recognized by altered isoelectric focusing (IEF) patterns of serum transferrin (Tf). Two patients with these symptoms and similar abnormal Tf IEF patterns were analyzed by metabolic labeling of fibroblasts with [2-3H]mannose. The patients produced a truncated dolichol-linked precursor oligosaccharide with 5 mannose residues, instead of the normal precursor with 9 mannose residues. Addition of 250 μΜ mannose to the culture medium corrected the size of the truncated oligosaccharide. Microsomes from fibroblasts of these patients were approximately 95% deficient in dolichol-phosphate-mannose (Dol-P-Man) synthase activity, with an apparent Km for GDP-Man ∼6-fold higher than normal. DPM1, the gene coding for the catalytic subunit of Dol-P-Man synthase, was altered in both patients. One patient had a point mutation, C274G, causing an R92G change in the coding sequence. The other patient also had the C274G mutation and a 13-bp deletion that presumably resulted in an unstable transcript. Defects in DPM1 define a new glycosylation disorder, CDG-Ie.
Soohyun Kim, Vibeke Westphal, Geetha Srikrishna, Darshini P. Mehta, Sandra Peterson, James Filiano, Pamela S. Karnes, Marc C. Patterson, Hudson H. Freeze
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by abnormalities of insulin action in muscle, adipose tissue, and liver and by altered β-cell function. To analyze the role of the insulin signaling pathway in these processes, we have generated mice with combined heterozygous null mutations in insulin receptor (ir), insulin receptor substrate (irs-1), and/or irs-2. Diabetes developed in 40% of ir/irs-1/irs-2+/–, 20% of ir/irs-1+/–, 17% of ir/irs-2+/–, and 5% of ir+/– mice. Although combined heterozygosity for ir/irs-1+/– and ir/irs-2+/– results in a similar number of diabetic mice, there are significant differences in the underlying metabolic abnormalities. ir/irs-1+/– mice develop severe insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and liver, with compensatory β-cell hyperplasia. In contrast, ir/irs-2+/– mice develop severe insulin resistance in liver, mild insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, and modest β-cell hyperplasia. Triple heterozygotes develop severe insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and liver and marked β-cell hyperplasia. These data indicate tissue-specific differences in the roles of IRSs to mediate insulin action, with irs-1 playing a prominent role in skeletal muscle and irs-2 in liver. They also provide a practical demonstration of the polygenic and genetically heterogeneous interactions underlying the inheritance of type 2 diabetes.
Yoshiaki Kido, Deborah J. Burks, Dominic Withers, Jens C. Bruning, C. Ronald Kahn, Morris F. White, Domenico Accili
Fogo selvagem (FS), the endemic form of pemphigus foliaceus, is a cutaneous autoimmune disease characterized by subcorneal blistering of the epidermis and the production of autoantibodies against the desmosomal antigen desmoglein-1 (Dsg1). Previously, we showed that mice injected with autoantibodies from FS patients develop a skin disease that reproduces the clinical, histological, and immunological features of FS, indicating that autoantibodies play an essential role in the development of this disease. The purpose of this study was to characterize the autoimmune T-cell response associated with FS. We provide here the first evidence, to our knowledge, that the great majority of FS patients have circulating T lymphocytes that specifically proliferate in response to the extracellular domain of Dsg1. Long-term T cells developed from these patients also responded to Dsg1, and this antigen-specific response was shown to be restricted to HLA-DR molecules. These Dsg1-reactive FS T cells exhibited a CD4-positive memory T-cell phenotype and produced a T helper 2–like cytokine profile. These findings represent the initial steps in defining the role of T cells in FS autoimmunity.
Mong-Shang Lin, Chang-Ling Fu, Valeria Aoki, Gunter Hans-Filho, Evandro A. Rivitti, Jose R. Moraes, Maria E. Moraes, Ana Maria Lazaro, George J. Giudice, Peter Stastny, Luis A. Diaz
Deletion of AQP1 in mice results in diminished urinary concentrating ability, possibly related to reduced NaCl- and urea gradient–driven water transport across the outer medullary descending vasa recta (OMDVR). To quantify the role of AQP1 in OMDVR water transport, we measured osmotically driven water permeability in vitro in microperfused OMDVR from wild-type, AQP1 heterozygous, and AQP1 knockout mice. OMDVR diameters in AQP1–/– mice were 1.9-fold greater than in AQP1+/+ mice. Osmotic water permeability (Pf) in response to a 200 mM NaCl gradient (bath > lumen) was reduced about 2-fold in AQP1+/– mice and by more than 50-fold in AQP1–/– mice. Pf increased from 1015 to 2527 μm/s in AQP1+/+ mice and from 22 to 1104 μm/s in AQP1–/– mice when a raffinose rather than an NaCl gradient was used. This information, together with p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonate inhibition measurements, suggests that nearly all NaCl-driven water transport occurs by a transcellular route through AQP1, whereas raffinose-driven water transport also involves a parallel, AQP1-independent, mercurial-insensitive pathway. Interestingly, urea was also able to drive water movement across the AQP1-independent pathway. Diffusional permeabilities to small hydrophilic solutes were comparable in AQP1+/+ and AQP1–/– mice but higher than those previously measured in rats. In a mathematical model of the medullary microcirculation, deletion of AQP1 resulted in diminished concentrating ability due to enhancement of medullary blood flow, partially accounting for the observed urine-concentrating defect.
Thomas L. Pallone, Aurélie Edwards, Tonghui Ma, Erik P. Silldorff, A.S. Verkman
PLP139-51–induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (R-EAE) displays a relapsing-remitting paralytic course in female SJL mice. We investigated the role of apoptosis/activation-induced cell death (AICD) in the spontaneous recovery from acute disease. Clinical EAE was significantly enhanced in Fas (CD95/APO-1)–deficient SJL lpr/lpr mice, which displayed significantly increased mean peak clinical scores, reduced remission rates, and increased mortality when compared with their SJL +/lpr littermates. PLP139-151–specific proliferative responses were fairly equivalent in the 2 groups, but draining lymph node T cells from SJL lpr/lpr mice produced dramatically increased levels of IFN-γ. Central nervous system (CNS) Fas and FasL mRNA levels in wild-type SJL (H-2s) mice peaked just before spontaneous disease remission and gradually declined as disease remitted. We applied the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay to detect apoptosis in situ in spinal cords of mice at various clinical stages of EAE. Most TUNEL+ cells were found during active periods of inflammation: the acute, peak, and relapse time points. Significantly fewer apoptotic cells were observed at preclinical and remission time points. Collectively, these findings indicate that Fas-mediated apoptosis/AICD plays a major role in the spontaneous remission after the initial acute inflammatory episode and represents an important intrinsic mechanism in regulation of autoimmune responses.
Graig C. Suvannavejh, Mauro C. Dal Canto, Louis A. Matis, Stephen D. Miller
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG), formerly known as carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndromes, lead to diseases with variable clinical pictures. We report the delineation of a novel type of CDG identified in 2 children presenting with severe developmental delay, seizures, and dysmorphic features. We detected hypoglycosylation on serum transferrin and cerebrospinal fluid β-trace protein. Lipid-linked oligosaccharides in the endoplasmic reticulum of patient fibroblasts showed an accumulation of the dolichyl pyrophosphate Man5GlcNAc2 structure, compatible with the reduced dolichol-phosphate-mannose synthase (DolP-Man synthase) activity detected in these patients. Accordingly, 2 mutant alleles of the DolP-Man synthase DPM1 gene, 1 with a 274C>G transversion, the other with a 628delC deletion, were detected in both siblings. Complementation analysis using DPM1-null murine Thy1-deficient cells confirmed the detrimental effect of both mutations on the enzymatic activity. Furthermore, mannose supplementation failed to improve the glycosylation status of DPM1-deficient fibroblast cells, thus precluding a possible therapeutic application of mannose in the patients. Because DPM1 deficiency, like other subtypes of CDG-I, impairs the assembly of N-glycans, this novel glycosylation defect was named CDG-Ie.
Timo Imbach, Barbara Schenk, Els Schollen, Patricie Burda, Andreas Stutz, Stephanie Grünewald, Nicola M. Bailie, Mary D. King, Jaak Jaeken, Gert Matthijs, Eric G. Berger, Markus Aebi, Thierry Hennet