Recognition of bacterial endotoxin (LPS) elicits multiple host responses, including activation of cells of the innate immune system. LPS exposure occurs repeatedly during septicemia, making strict regulation of gene expression necessary. Such regulation might prevent, for example, the continuous production of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which could lead to severe vascular collapse. Tolerance to LPS is characterized by a diminished production of TNF during prolonged exposure to LPS, and is therefore likely to represent an essential control mechanism during sepsis. In the present study, which uses mice with genetic deletions of the proteins of NF-kappaB complex, we provide data demonstrating that increased expression of the p50 subunit of NF-kappaB directly results in the downregulation of LPS-induced TNF production. This contention is supported by the following observations: (1) tolerance to LPS is not induced in macrophages from p50-/- mice; (2) long-term pretreatment with LPS does not block synthesis of TNF mRNA in p50-/- macrophages (in contrast to wild-type macrophages); (3) ectopic overexpression of p50 reduces transcriptional activation of the murine TNF promoter; and (4) analysis of the four kappaB sites from the murine TNF promoter demonstrates that binding of p50 homodimers to the positively acting kappaB3 element is associated with development of the LPS-tolerant phenotype. Thus, p50 expression plays a key role in the development of LPS tolerance.
J Bohuslav, V V Kravchenko, G C Parry, J H Erlich, S Gerondakis, N Mackman, R J Ulevitch
CD8(+) T cells infiltrate the lung in many clinical conditions, particularly in interstitial lung disease. The role(s) that CD8(+) T cells might be playing in the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung disease is unclear at present, as is the direct contribution of CD8(+) T cell effector activities to lung injury. This report describes a transgenic model used to evaluate the impact, on respiratory structure and function, of CD8(+) T lymphocyte recognition of a target antigen expressed endogenously in alveolar epithelial cells. We found that adoptive transfer of cloned CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) specific for an alveolar neo-antigen (influenza hemagglutinin) leads to progressive lethal injury in transgenic mice, which dramatically affects lung structure and function. Transgenic recipients of CD8(+) CTLs exhibited tachypnea and progressive weight loss, becoming moribund over a period of several days. Concomitantly, the animals developed a progressive interstitial pneumonitis characterized initially by lymphocytic infiltration of alveolar walls and spaces, followed by an exuberant mononuclear cell infiltration that correlated with restrictive pulmonary mechanics and a progressive diffusion impairment. These results indicate that antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell recognition of an alveolar epithelial "autoantigen" is, in and of itself, sufficient to trigger an inflammatory cascade that results in the histological and physiological manifestations of interstitial pneumonia.
R I Enelow, A Z Mohammed, M H Stoler, A N Liu, J S Young, Y H Lou, T J Braciale
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play diverse roles in cell recognition, growth, and adhesion. In vitro studies suggest that cell-surface HSPGs act as coreceptors for heparin-binding mitogenic growth factors. Here we show that the glycosylphosphatidylinositol- (GPI-) anchored HSPG glypican-1 is strongly expressed in human pancreatic cancer, both by the cancer cells and the adjacent fibroblasts, whereas expression of glypican-1 is low in the normal pancreas and in chronic pancreatitis. Treatment of two pancreatic cancer cell lines, which express glypican-1, with the enzyme phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase-C (PI-PLC) abrogated their mitogenic responses to two heparin-binding growth factors that are commonly overexpressed in pancreatic cancer: fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF). PI-PLC did not alter the response to the non-heparin-binding growth factors EGF and IGF-1. Stable expression of a form of glypican-1 engineered to possess a transmembrane domain instead of a GPI anchor conferred resistance to the inhibitory effects of PI-PLC on growth factor responsiveness. Furthermore, transfection of a glypican-1 antisense construct attenuated glypican-1 protein levels and the mitogenic response to FGF2 and HB-EGF. We propose that glypican-1 plays an essential role in the responses of pancreatic cancer cells to certain mitogenic stimuli, that it is relatively unique in relation to other HSPGs, and that its expression by pancreatic cancer cells may be of importance in the pathobiology of this disorder.
J Kleeff, T Ishiwata, A Kumbasar, H Friess, M W Büchler, A D Lander, M Korc
Flavopiridol (HMR 1275) has been identified recently as a novel antineoplastic agent in the primary screen conducted by the Developmental Therapeutics Program, National Cancer Institute. Flavopiridol inhibits most cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) and displays unique anticancer properties. Here, we investigated whether this compound was effective against head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Exposure of HNSCC cells to flavopiridol diminished cdc2 and cdk2 activity and potently inhibited cell proliferation (IC50 43-83 nM), which was concomitant with the appearance of cells with a sub-G1 DNA content. Moreover, DNA fragmentation and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling) reaction confirmed that flavopiridol induces apoptosis in all cell lines, even on certain HNSCC cells that are insensitive to apoptosis to DNA-damaging agents (gamma-irradiation and bleomycin). A tumorigenic HNSCC cell line was used to assess the effect of flavopiridol in vivo. Treatment (5 mg/kg per day, intraperitoneally) for 5 d led to the appearance of apoptotic cells in the tumor xenografts and caused a 60-70% reduction in tumor size, which was sustained over a period of 10 wk. Flavopiridol treatment also resulted in a remarkable reduction of cyclin D1 expression in HNSCC cells and tumor xenografts. Our data indicate that flavopiridol exerts antitumor activity in HNSCC, and thus it can be considered a suitable candidate drug for testing in the treatment of refractory carcinomas of the head and neck.
V Patel, A M Senderowicz, D Pinto Jr, T Igishi, M Raffeld, L Quintanilla-Martinez, J F Ensley, E A Sausville, J S Gutkind
Oxidized low density lipoproteins (OxLDL) promote chronic inflammatory responses in the vasculature that give rise to atherosclerotic plaques. Fas ligand (FasL) is naturally expressed on the vascular endothelium where it can induce apoptosis in Fas-expressing immune cells as they enter the vessel wall. Although vascular endothelial cells are normally resistant to Fas-mediated cell death, OxLDL were shown to induce apoptosis in cultured endothelial cells and endothelium of arterial explants by a process that could be inhibited with Fas L neutralizing antibodies. OxLDL-induced cell death was also reduced in the aortic endothelium cultured from gld (FasL-/-) and lpr (Fas-/-) mice as compared with wild-type mice. OxLDL acted by sensitizing endothelial cells to death signals from the Fas receptor. Thus, the ability of OxLDL to promote Fas-mediated endothelial cell suicide may be a feature that contributes to their atherogenicity.
M Sata, K Walsh
We describe a metabolic defect in bile acid synthesis involving a deficiency in 7alpha-hydroxylation due to a mutation in the gene for the microsomal oxysterol 7alpha-hydroxylase enzyme, active in the acidic pathway for bile acid synthesis. The defect, identified in a 10-wk-old boy presenting with severe cholestasis, cirrhosis, and liver synthetic failure, was established by fast atom bombardment ionization-mass spectrometry, which revealed elevated urinary bile acid excretion, a mass spectrum with intense ions at m/z 453 and m/z 510 corresponding to sulfate and glycosulfate conjugates of unsaturated monohydroxy-cholenoic acids, and an absence of primary bile acids. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis confirmed the major products of hepatic synthesis to be 3beta-hydroxy-5-cholenoic and 3beta-hydroxy-5-cholestenoic acids, which accounted for 96% of the total serum bile acids. Levels of 27-hydroxycholesterol were > 4,500 times normal. The biochemical findings were consistent with a deficiency in 7alpha-hydroxylation, leading to the accumulation of hepatotoxic unsaturated monohydroxy bile acids. Hepatic microsomal oxysterol 7alpha-hydroxylase activity was undetectable in the patient. Gene analysis revealed a cytosine to thymidine transition mutation in exon 5 that converts an arginine codon at position 388 to a stop codon. The truncated protein was inactive when expressed in 293 cells. These findings indicate the quantitative importance of the acidic pathway in early life in humans and define a further inborn error in bile acid synthesis as a metabolic cause of severe cholestatic liver disease.
K D Setchell, M Schwarz, N C O'Connell, E G Lund, D L Davis, R Lathe, H R Thompson, R Weslie Tyson, R J Sokol, D W Russell
The purpose of this study was to explore whether repeated exposure to aerosolized ovalbumin (OVA) in the context of local expression of GM-CSF can initiate a Th2-driven, eosinophilic inflammation in the airways. On day -1, Balb/c mice were infected intranasally with an adenovirus construct expressing GM-CSF (Ad/GM-CSF). From day 0 to day 9 mice were exposed daily to an OVA aerosol. Mice exposed to OVA alone did not show any evidence of airway inflammation. Mice receiving both Ad/GM-CSF and aerosolized OVA exhibited marked airway inflammation characterized by eosinophilia and goblet cell hyperplasia. Migration of eosinophils into the airway was preceded by a rise in IL-5 and IL-4. Both IL-5 and class II MHC were critically required to generate airway eosinophilia. After resolution, airway eosinophilia was reconstituted after a single OVA exposure. Flow cytometric analysis of dispersed lung cells revealed an increase in macrophages and dendritic cells expressing B7.1 and B7.2, and expansion of activated (CD69-expressing) CD4 and CD8 T cells in mice exposed to OVA and Ad/GM-CSF. Our data indicate that expression of GM-CSF in the airway compartment increases local antigen presentation capacity, and concomitantly facilitates the development of an antigen-specific, eosinophilic inflammatory response to an otherwise innocuous antigen.
M R Stämpfli, R E Wiley, G S Neigh, B U Gajewska, X F Lei, D P Snider, Z Xing, M Jordana
There is a dogma in tumor immunology that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) are defective based on their lack of antitumoral efficacy in vivo and on impaired response to in vitro functional tests. However, TIL have been compared usually with peripheral blood T lymphocytes, raising doubts on the conclusions drawn. Therefore, we compared TIL from B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) with T cells from nonmalignant secondary lymphoid organs. NHL-TIL were unresponsive to activation by immobilized anti-CD3 mAb, although bypassing T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 signaling led to proliferation. The poor proliferative responses of NHL-TIL could not be explained by quantitative defects in TCRzeta expression. NHL-TIL underwent marked spontaneous apoptosis in vitro with loss of approximately 50% of cells after 24 h of culture. This was associated with downregulation of the antiapoptotic Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 proteins, whereas viable NHL-TIL maintained their expression. IL-2, anti-CD3/IL-2, and manipulation of the Fas/Fas-ligand death pathway had no effect on NHL-TIL survival. Apoptosis was not due to increased cell cycling, as NHL-TIL were quiescent, nonproliferating cells. T cells from inflammatory, nonmalignant tissues gave similar functional results to NHL-TIL, suggesting the existence of factors common to the microenvironment of these diverse pathologies. Thus, the quiescent, anergic phenotype of NHL-TIL cannot be attributed solely to tumor factors, but rather is a feature of T cells from chronic inflammatory lesions.
S Agrawal, J Marquet, M H Delfau-Larue, C Copie-Bergman, H Jouault, F Reyes, A Bensussan, J P Farcet
When placed in the cold (4 degreesC), BALB/cByJ mice of both genders rapidly lose body temperature as compared with the control strain, C57BL/6J. This sensitivity to cold resembles that previously described for mice with a defect in nonshivering thermogenesis due to the targeted inactivation of the brown adipocyte-specific mitochondrial uncoupling protein gene, Ucp1. Genetic mapping of the trait placed the gene on chromosome 5 near Acads, a gene encoding the short chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase, which is mutated in BALB/cByJ mice. The analysis of candidate genes in the region indicated a defect only in the expression of Acads. Confirmation of the importance of fatty acid oxidation to thermogenesis came from our finding that mice carrying the targeted inactivation of the long chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase gene (Acadl) are also sensitive to the cold. Both of these mutations attenuate the induction of genes normally responsive to adrenergic signaling in brown adipocytes. These results suggest that the action of fatty acids as regulators of gene expression has been perturbed in the mutant mice. From a clinical perspective, it is important to determine whether defects in thermogenesis may be a phenotype in human neonates with inherited deficiencies in fatty acid beta-oxidation.
C Guerra, R A Koza, K Walsh, D M Kurtz, P A Wood, L P Kozak
An important interplay exists between specific viral respiratory infections and altered airway responsiveness in the development and exacerbations of asthma. However, the mechanistic basis of this interplay remains to be identified. This study addressed the hypothesis that rhinovirus (RV), the most common viral respiratory pathogen associated with acute asthma attacks, directly affects airway smooth muscle (ASM) to produce proasthmatic changes in receptor-coupled ASM responsiveness. Isolated rabbit and human ASM tissue and cultured ASM cells were inoculated with human RV (serotype 16) or adenovirus, each for 6 or 24 h. In contrast to adenovirus, which had no effect, inoculation of ASM tissue with RV induced heightened ASM tissue constrictor responsiveness to acetylcholine and attenuated the dose-dependent relaxation of ASM to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation with isoproterenol. These RV-induced changes in ASM responsiveness were largely prevented by pretreating the tissues with pertussis toxin or with a monoclonal blocking antibody to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), the principal endogenous receptor for most RVs. In extended studies, we found that the RV-induced changes in ASM responsiveness were associated with diminished cAMP accumulation in response to dose-dependent administration of isoproterenol, and this effect was accompanied by autologously upregulated expression of the Gi protein subtype, Gialpha3, in the ASM. Finally, in separate experiments, we found that the RV-induced effects on ASM responsiveness were also accompanied by autologously induced upregulated mRNA and cell surface protein expression of ICAM-1. Taken together, these findings provide new evidence that RV directly induces proasthmatic phenotypic changes in ASM responsiveness, that this effect is triggered by binding of RV to its ICAM-1 receptor in ASM, and that this binding is associated with the induced endogenously upregulated expression of ICAM-1 and enhanced expression and activation of Gi protein in the RV-infected ASM.
H Hakonarson, N Maskeri, C Carter, R L Hodinka, D Campbell, M M Grunstein
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), in which immunocompetent donor cells attack the host, remains a major cause of morbidity after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). To understand the role of cytokines in the pathobiology of GVHD, we used cytokine knockout (KO) mice as a source of donor T cells. Two different MHC-disparate strain combinations were examined: BALB/c (H2(d)) donors into lethally irradiated C57BL/6 (H2(b)) recipients or C57BL/6 (H2(b)) donors into B10.BR (H2(k)) recipients. Donor cells were from mice in which either the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) or the IL-4 gene was selectively disrupted to understand the role of these cytokines in acute GVHD. In both strain combinations the same pattern was noted with regard to GVHD onset and morbidity. All mice exhibited the classic signs of acute GVHD: weight loss with skin, gut, and liver pathology resulting in morbidity and mortality. Surprisingly, donor cells obtained from mice lacking IFN-gamma gave rise to accelerated morbidity from GVHD when compared with cells from wild-type control donors. Similar results were obtained using normal donors when neutralizing antibodies to IFN-gamma were administered immediately after the BMT. These results suggest that IFN-gamma plays a role in protection from acute GVHD. In marked contrast, cells obtained from IL-4 KO mice resulted in protection from GVHD compared with control donors. Splenocytes from IFN KO mice stimulated with a mitogen proliferated to a significantly greater extent and produced more IL-2 compared with splenocytes obtained from IL-4 KO or control mice. Additionally, there was increased IL-2 production in the spleens of mice undergoing GVHD using IFN-gamma KO donors. These results therefore indicate, with regard to the TH1/ TH2 cytokine paradigm, the absence of a TH1-type cytokine can be deleterious in acute GVHD, whereas absence of a TH2 cytokine can be protective.
W J Murphy, L A Welniak, D D Taub, R H Wiltrout, P A Taylor, D A Vallera, M Kopf, H Young, D L Longo, B R Blazar
Cholestasis is associated with hypercholesterolemia and appearance of the abnormal lipoprotein X (LpX) in plasma. Using mice with a disrupted Mdr2 gene, we tested the hypothesis that LpX originates as a biliary lipid vesicle. Mdr2-deficient mice lack Mdr2 P-glycoprotein, the canalicular translocator for phosphatidylcholine, and secrete virtually no phospholipid and cholesterol in bile. Bile duct ligation of Mdr2(+)/+ mice induced a dramatic increase in the plasma cholesterol and phospholipid concentration. Agarose electrophoresis, density gradient ultracentrifugation, gel permeation, and electron microscopy revealed that the majority of phospholipid and cholesterol was present as LpX, a 40-100 nm vesicle with an aqueous lumen. In contrast, the plasma cholesterol and phospholipid concentration in Mdr2(-)/- mice decreased upon bile duct ligation, and plasma fractionation revealed a complete absence of LpX. In mice with various expression levels of Mdr2 or MDR3, the human homolog of Mdr2, we observed that the plasma level of cholesterol and phospholipid during cholestasis correlated very closely with the expression level of these canalicular P-glycoproteins. These data demonstrate that during cholestasis there is a quantitative shift of lipid secretion from bile to the plasma compartment in the form of LpX. The concentration of this lipoprotein is determined by the activity of the canalicular phospholipid translocator.
R P Elferink, R Ottenhoff, J van Marle, C M Frijters, A J Smith, A K Groen
Many people who remain persistently seronegative despite frequent HIV exposure have HIV-specific immune responses. The study of these may provide information about mechanisms of natural protective immunity to HIV-1. We describe the specificity of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to HIV in seronegative prostitutes in Nairobi who are apparently resistant to HIV infection. These women have had frequent exposure to a range of African HIV-1 variants, primarily clades A, C, and D, for up to 12 yr without becoming infected. Nearly half of them have CTL directed towards epitopes previously defined for B clade virus, which are largely conserved in the A and D clade sequences. Stronger responses are frequently elicited using the A or D clade version of an epitope to stimulate CTL, suggesting that they were originally primed by exposure to these virus strains. CTL responses have been defined to novel epitopes presented by HLA class I molecules associated with resistance to infection in the cohort, HLA-A*6802 and HLA-B18. Estimates using a modified interferon-gamma Elispot assay indicate a circulating frequency of CTL to individual epitopes of between 1:3,200 and 1:50,000. Thus, HIV-specific immune responses-particularly cross-clade CTL activity- may be responsible for protection against persistent HIV infection in these African women.
S L Rowland-Jones, T Dong, K R Fowke, J Kimani, P Krausa, H Newell, T Blanchard, K Ariyoshi, J Oyugi, E Ngugi, J Bwayo, K S MacDonald, A J McMichael, F A Plummer